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Sea Otters: Adorable but Threatened

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lungs 2x : other mammals. whiskers locate prey, feel vibrations. Sea Otter Anatomy ... Links & articles on all marine mammals; colorful, easy, searchable ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sea Otters: Adorable but Threatened


1
Sea Otters Adorable but Threatened
  • Sentinel Species at Risk
  • Due to Pollution and Over-fishing

By Jim Fiddes Danbury HS PNWBOCES, Yorktown, NY
2
Threats to Sea Otter Population
  • Disease EPM toxoplasmosis
  • Contaminants in water in prey
  • Starvation hi food need
  • Entanglement Entrapment lines/nets
  • Predation
  • Oil Spills ExValdez 5K
  • Difficult Environment

3
Sea Otter Biology
  • Enhydra lutris Mustelidae
  • 150K Alaska 1.3K Calif.
  • gt60 lbs gt20 years gt4 long
  • high metabolism 20 body weight in food daily
    3x human
  • dense fur 100K/sq in grooming critical
  • semi-retractable claws rear outside toe is
    longest
  • lungs 2x other mammals
  • whiskers locate prey, feel vibrations

4
Sea Otter Anatomy
  • Muscles for grasping swimming side to side on
    back, vertical
  • flexible spine, longer outer toe hips hold legs
    for swimming, more than walking

5
Sea Otter Biology 2
  • Body temp 100 F. hold paws feet up to conserve
    heat
  • extremely flexible spine can reach all body to
    groom--
  • no blubber, oils bubbles in fur insulate
  • pouches near back feet to store food
  • tool user breaks shells with rock, on sternum
  • can dive to 300 4 minutes

6
Sea Otter Biology 3
  • Related to weasels skunks
  • Social learning mother teaches pup foraging
    skills recognizes unique pups call
  • playful intelligent as dogs
  • raft group of sea otters
  • strong jaws sharp teeth canines to break,
    incisors to scoop meat from shells
  • frequent short naps, feed day night

7
Sea Otter Ecology 1
8
Sea Otter Ecology 2
9
Sea Otter Ecology 3
10
Sea Otter Ecology 4
  • rugged coastline
  • steep shore contour
  • bay collects run-off

11
Polluted Food--eat hearty die...
  • Shellfish concentrate pollutants, which
    accumulate in otters, otter milk
  • Sea urchins eat kelp holdfasts, but also are a
    cash crop abalone are expensive--fishermen
    complain otters eat both
  • urchins destroy kelp forest--clear-cut habitat
    loss

12
Otters Diseases...
  • Pollutants weaken immune systems
  • Butylin is a biocide in anti-fouling boat paint
  • Concentrations of DDT PCB correlate with
    diseases in otters

13
http//www.nwhc.usgs.gov/images/seaott99.gif
14
Predators Part of the Problem
  • Fur hunters nearly wiped out sea otters 1911 law
    stopped sea otter fur trade
  • Over-fishing reduces prey fish species in Alaska
    Orcas eat otters
  • California shark population increases, otters now
    on menu

15
Other Otter Problems Perils
  • Female injured during mating
  • Its tough work, being an otter
  • California 17 to 38 foraging - 50 to 68
    resting
  • Amchitka Island, AK 51 to 58 time foraging -
    32 to 34 resting
  • High infant mortality
  • Other, 3

16
We Can Fix This Ways to Help
  • Monterey Bay Aq.s orphan otter recovery rehab
    program
  • Fewer feral cats!!
  • Public support contributions

17
Sea Otters Threatened--Annotated Works Cited
http//www.the-scientist.com/yr2001/feb/research_0
10219.htm
  • Details toxoplasmosis protozoal meningococcus
    infections from feral cats opossums--good
    details pix

http//www.enn.com/news/enn-stories/1999/06/062499
/seaotter_3930.asp
  • One good illus.--short article links pop. decline
    to fishing nets

http//www.defenders.org/wildlife/new/marine/otter
s/images/dowil_sea-otter_even-more-final.html
  • Cute animation on otter problems w/links to
    Defenders of Wildlife

http//www.discovery.com/stories/nature/otters/ott
ers.html
  • Good site w/live cams recovery program
    profiles, sounds videos

Zoobooks Sea Otters Wildlife Education, Ltd.
0-937934-70-4 c.1995
  • Excellent illus. photos detailed text,
    interesting, inexpensive

http//www.mbayaq.org/
  • Excellent site w/live otter cam detailed info,
    interesting, authoritative

www.fso.org
  • Friends of the Sea Otter--pix, history, videos, c

18
Sea Otters Threatened--Annotated Works Cited 2
www.otterproject.org
  • Colorful interesting site, with good links to
    scientific studies, charts

http//www.enn.com/news/enn-stories/1999/06/062499
/seaotter_3930.asp
  • One good illus.--short article links pop. decline
    to fishing nets

http//www.nwhc.usgs.gov/research
  • Pdf article some pix , plus good links,
    scientists to call

http//www.marinemammalcenter.org/
  • Links articles on all marine mammals colorful,
    easy, searchable

response.restoration.noaa.gov/ bat/images
  • Extensive database analysis of Exxon Valdez oil
    spill lots of links, images, charts graphs
    NOAA site is great resource itself!

19
We need your help!!Thank you take care!
Now--the Quiz!!!
20
Sea Otter Screen Quiz 1
1. Name describe at least three things making
sea otters sick. 2. List describe two ways sea
otters keep warm. 3. Describe at least two other
adaptations of the sea otter that enable it to
live successfully in the ocean. 4. What is the
sea otters role in the ecology of the kelp
forest? 5. Three reasons people should concern
themselves with the sea otter. (one hint define
sentinel species)
No Peeking, Now!!
1. Cat feces litter, possum feces, oil,
insecticides, pollutants in food water 2. Air
bubbles in fur, fur density, high metabolism
lots of food 3. Grasping front claws, 2x lungs,
spine rear feet adapted for swimming, frequent
naps, wraps in kelpetc 4. Predator, control
urchins to preserve kelp 5. Sentinel
species-canaries preserve important ecosystem
bring in lots of cash...
21
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