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Animals As Early Detectors Of Bioevents: Veterinary Tools And A Framework For Integrated AnimalHuman

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Increase awareness of biological threats among large and ... Zoos & Refuges. Pet Stores. Selected Agents. CDC Category A. Anthrax. Botulism. Plague. Tularemia ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animals As Early Detectors Of Bioevents: Veterinary Tools And A Framework For Integrated AnimalHuman


1
Animals As Early Detectors Of Bioevents
Veterinary Tools And A Framework For Integrated
Animal-Human Zoonotic Disease Surveillance
  • Diane M. Gubernot, M.P.H.
  • Gubernot_at_alumni.gwu.edu

2
Purpose
  • Design a reporting system for integrated
    zoonotic surveillance
  • Enhance detection of human zoonoses
  • Sentinel events/ early detection
  • Facilitate a rapid response to an outbreak or
    bioterrorist incident
  • Help monitor the scope of an epidemic
  • Increase awareness of biological threats among
    large and small animal veterinarians

3
Zoonotic Reporting
  • Pets, livestock and wildlife as potential
    clinical sentinels
  • Zoonotic bioevents
  • Animal illnesses reported to health department
  • Veterinary tools
  • Integrates veterinary and human health
    surveillance

4
Background Infectious Diseases
  • Zoonoses
  • Bioevent
  • 1415 species of organisms of these 868 (61) are
    zoonotic
  • 175 emerging species 132 (75) are zoonotic
  • (Taylor, 2001)

5
Emerging Infectious Diseases Introduced to the
U.S. via
  • Travel
  • Immigration
  • International trade
  • Environmental changes
  • Rapid adaptation of microorganisms

6
Introduction of Disease Threats
  • Naturally
  • Inadvertently (i.e. smuggled animals)
  • Intentionally, via weaponized biological agents
  • West Nile Virus in the U.S
  • Introduced 1999 (inadvertently via trade/travel)
  • 23,886 human cases 934 deaths reported (CDC,
    2006)


7
The Canary in the Coal Mine
  • Sentinel any non-human organism that can react
    toan environmental contaminant before the
    contaminant impacts people (Stahl, 1997)
  • West Nile Virus surveillance


8
The Value of Animal Sentinels
  • Share environments with humans
  • Respond to many toxic (or infectious) agents in
    analogous ways to humans
  • Clinical signs may manifest sooner
  • Animals can propagate an epidemic

West Nile Virus Incidence
1999
2001
2003
2005
CDC West Nile Virus Maps
9
Strengthening our Public Health Infrastructures
  • Public Health Agencies
  • Human health-oriented
  • Bioterrorism
  • Animal Health Reporting
  • Economic
  • Agroterrorism

10
Current Surveillance Activities
  • Each state/locality has different surveillance
    plans for zoonoses
  • Unified approach is obstructed by
  • Organizational differences
  • Jurisdictional conflicts
  • Geographical boundaries

Lessons learned from the West Nile Virus 1999
investigation (GAO Report)
11
Reporting Plan Agent Selection Criteria
  • Zoonoses or toxins
  • Clinically apparent in the animal population
  • Public health significance
  • CDCs Potential Bioterror Agents
  • Categories A, B C

12
Region-Specific Elements
  • Human and animal population estimates
  • Proximity to other potential threat sites
  • Potential vulnerabilities (e.g., airports)
  • Analyze government infrastructure
  • Epidemiological data

13
Framework Elements
  • Reporting instructions
  • Who? ? Veterinarians, etc.
  • What? ? Selected Agents/ Events
  • When? ? Timeframe
  • Where? ? Responsible Agency/Official
  • Tools/Resources
  • Education
  • Lab information
  • Experts

14
  Zoonoses Reporting Potential Sources
State Veterinarian USDA
State Wildlife Dept.
Small Animal Vets
State Department of Health CDC
County Health Department
Large Animal Vets
US Customs
Zoos Refuges
Animal Control Services
Pet Stores
Animal Wildlife Rescue Groups
15
Selected Agents
  • CDC Category A
  • Anthrax
  • Botulism
  • Plague
  • Tularemia
  • CDC Category B
  • Brucellosis
  • Glanders
  • Melioidosis
  • C. psittaci
  • Q fever
  • Toxins
  • S. Enterotoxin
  • Ricin
  • C.perfrigens
  • CDC Category C
  • Nipah Virus
  • Hendra Virus
  • Rift Valley Fever
  • Other
  • HP Avian Influenza
  • Unusual Events

16
Other Considerations
  • Awareness
  • Responsibilities
  • Partnerships
  • Review statutory authority
  • Logistics
  • Training
  • IT capabilities
  • Barriers to reporting
  • Analysis of data
  • Defining thresholds
  • Report dissemination
  • Risk communication
  • Consequence management
  • Emergency Response Plan

17
Veterinarian Survey
18
Tools Selected Agents and Clinical Severity in
Sentinels
H High M Moderate L Low U Unknown
19
Discussion
  • Flexible and adaptable (all-hazards)
  • Passive reporting ? active
  • Sensitivity and timeliness most important
    attributes
  • Coordination and communication
  • Promotion to Partners ?Task Force

20
Summary
  • Bridging human and veterinary medicine
  • Animal zoonoses reported to health department
  • More data
  • ? Early detection of a bioevent
  • ? Rapid response
  • Enhanced disease tracking during an emergency
    response
  • Decreased morbidity and mortality in human and
    animal populations

21
Acknowledgements
  • Benita Boyer, RN, MS, CIC, District
    Epidemiologist, Loudoun County Health Department
  • Marina Moses, M.S.,Dr. P.H., Special Project
    Advisor
  • Rebecca Parkin, Ph.D., M.P.H., Associate Dean for
    Research and Public Health Practice

22
Thank You! Gubernot_at_alumni.gwu.edu
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