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Closing the Reading Achievement Gap for Boys: Engaging Texts, Engaging Practices

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Title: Closing the Reading Achievement Gap for Boys: Engaging Texts, Engaging Practices


1
Closing the Reading Achievement Gap for Boys
Engaging Texts, Engaging Practices
  • William G. Brozo
  • George Mason University
  • wbrozo_at_gmu.edu
  • American Reading Forum Sanibel, FL December 12,
    2008

2
What Are Your Opinions About Boys and Reading?
  • Boys read less well than girls because in our
    society literacy and masculinity are
    incompatible.
  • Even if many boys are poor readers, males in our
    society are privileged and do not need special
    attention.
  • Our feminized school environment has contributed
    to boys lack of interest and achievement in
    reading.
  • The books and other reading material boys are
    asked to read in school contribute to their lack
    of interest in reading.
  • Video and computers are reducing time boys read
    novels and books.

3
Boys Reading, Writing, and Learning10
Empirically Observable Phenomena
  • Boys score significantly lower than girls on the
    National Assessment of Educational Progress in
    both reading and writing
  • 2. Boys around the world score less well than
    girls in reading and writing (PISA/PIRLS) and
    have lower motivation to read and write than
    their female counterparts
  • 3. Far more boys from the same socio-economic
    group as girls score Below Basic on NAEP
  • 4. By 4th grade the average American boy is
    two years behind the average girl in reading and
    writing
  • 5. Boys read less quantity and less for
    enjoyment than girls

4
  • FACTS ABOUT BOYS READING AND LEARNING
  • 6. Boys make up 70 of reading disabled and
    labeled students (e.g., 4 times more likely to
    have ADHD diagnosis than girls)
  • 7. Boys are 50 more likely than girls to be
    retained at least one grade
  • 8. Boys comprise the majority of the nearly
    one million annual
  • dropouts
  • 9. Boys receive most of the Ds and Fs in
    elementary school and make up the
  • majority of students in remedial reading
    classes
  • 10. Boys prefer and demonstrate higher
    achievement with non-continuous text

5
A review of the literature reveals that
  • Female students consistently read more than male
    students from primary education to higher
    education (Blackwood, Flowers, Rogers, Staik
    1991 Hall Coles, 1997 Gambell Hunter, 2000
    Greaney Hegarty, 1987 Millard, 1997 Moffitt
    Wartella, 1992 Simpson, 1996 Watkins Edwards,
    1992 Whitehead, Capey, Maddren, 1974)
  • Gender plays an important role in students
    reading choices.

6
Gendered preferences in reading material
  • There is a general consensus in the literature
    that female students devote more time to
    narrative fiction than male students (Blackwood
    et al., 1991 Coles Hall, 2002 Davies
    Brember, 1993 Gambell Hunter, 2000 Greaney,
    1980 Hughes-Hassell Rodge, 2007 Moffitt
    Wartella, 1992 Simpson, 1996 Whitehead et al.,
    1974).

7
Global patterns of gendered preferences and
practices in reading
  • Large-scale studies in the United Kingdom of
    childrens reading interests (Coles Hall, 2002
    Hall Coles, 1997 Whitehead et al., 1974)
    found
  • Boys read less than girls even when ability and
    attainment were held constant, girls of a given
    ability group tended to do more voluntary reading
    than boys in the same group.
  • Girls read remarkably few non-narrative texts,
    whereas boys read considerably more
    non-narratives than girls.
  • Girls read more books about relationships and
    romance, while boys read more science fiction and
    fantasy, sports-related books, and war and spy
    stories.
  • More females than males read for enjoyment
    outside of school, while males were more apt to
    read for information or to learn how to do
    something. Boys literacy choices tend to give
    greater emphasis to taking information from the
    text rather than analyzing motivation or
    characterization (Coles and Hall, 2001)
  • Implication
  • If school definitions of literacy were broadened
    to embrace the kinds of texts that boys prefer,
    boys would be more motivated to read and learn.

8
Global patterns of gendered preferences and
practices in reading
  • In a study of 16,000 individuals aged 15 and over
    from 15 European Union Member States in 2001,
    Skaliotis (2002) found
  • More females than males reported having read
    books over the previous 12 months in all
    countries.
  • This pattern was valid for all levels of
    educational attainment.

9
Global patterns of gendered preferences and
practices in reading
  • In Australia, Simpson (1996) investigated the
    reading practices of girls and boys aged 10-12
    and found
  • Girls read more and read narrative fiction
    almost exclusively they read very little of
    other genres, including non-fiction.
  • Boys as a group read less but read more
    non-fiction and had a broader interest in topics.

10
Global patterns of gendered preferences and
practices in reading
  • Studies of reading preferences and habits In
    Taiwan and Hong Kong show a pattern similar to
    Western nations
  • Females are reading more than males in elementary
    and secondary school (Lin, 2000 Mok Cheung,
    2004)

11
Patterns of gendered preferences and practices
in reading in the U.S.
  • In the United States, Hughes-Hassell and Rodge
    (2007) studied the leisure reading habits of
    1,340 students in grades 5 through 8 at an urban
    middle school in a large northeastern city and
    reported
  • 54 of male students ranked comics as the
    favorite leisure reading choice

12
Reading less and reading less well in the U.S.
  • Nearly half of all Americans ages 18 to 24 read
    no books for pleasure.
  • Less than one-third of 13-year-olds are daily
    readers.
  • The percentage of 17-year-olds who read nothing
    at all for pleasure has doubled over a 20-year
    period. Yet the amount they read for school or
    homework has stayed the same.
  • 15- to 24-year-olds spend only 710 minutes per
    day on voluntary reading
  • National Endowment for the Arts. (2007). To read
    or not to read. NEA Washington, DC.

13
Reading less and reading less well in the U.S.
  • As American youth read less, their reading skills
    worsen, especially among young males
  • 17-year-old average reading scores began a slow
    downward trend in 1992 as evidenced on NAEP.
  • For more than 30 years, this age group has failed
    to sustain improvements in reading scores.
  • Males underperform relative to their female peers
    on NAEP reading
  • National Endowment for the Arts. (2007). To read
    or not to read. NEA Washington, DC.

14
From Bright Beginnings for Boys
  • Failing to meet the literacy needs of all young
    boys isnt so much a crisis as it is an
    imperative educational challenge. And it is also
    a challenge to address a glaring social justice
    issue, because those who struggle most to learn
    how to read, who dominate remedial reading
    classes and programs, and who will suffer
    disproportionately as adults if they fail to
    become competent readers are boys of color.

15
From Bright Beginnings for Boys
  • Furthermore, concerns about boys reading
    attitudes and achievement should be framed around
    more responsive literacy instruction and
    interactions for all children. Boys need to be
    engaged and capable readers not solely to be as
    good as or better than girls, but to increase
    their educational, occupational, and civic
    opportunities and, above all, to become
    thoughtful and resourceful men.

16
  • WHY ENGAGEMENT IN READING AND LEARNING
  • IS SO IMPORTANT TO BOYS
  • The More Students Are Engaged in Reading and
    Learning, The
  • Higher Their Academic Achievement
  • Engaged Readers Can Make Up for Low Family Income
  • and Parental Educational Backgrounds
  • Motivation is Inextricably Tied to the Text
    Topic, the
  • Level of Difficulty of the Text, and
    the Instructional
  • Practices Used with the Text
  • Boys Who Are Non-Disruptive But Disengaged Are
    Often
  • Ignored While They Continue to Lose Skill and
  • Interest in Reading

17
Reading Performance and Socio-Economic Background
by Level of Reading Engagement for Students on
PISA
600
580
560
540
520
500
480
460
440
420
400
Low
Medium
High
18
Boys Motivation Increases and They Learn More
Effectively When
  • Their teachers form good relationships with them
  • Their teachers enjoy teaching
  • They are provided choices and input into the
    lesson
  • Their schoolwork is interesting, relevant, and
    they are provided variety in content
  • Their opinions and perspectives are respected
  • Martin, A.J. (2003). Boys and motivation. The
    Australian Educational Researcher, 30, 43-65.

19
  • SUPPORTING BOYS
  • ON THEIR LITERATE JOURNEYS
  • Three Important Guidelines
  • 1. Match Reading Material to Outside-of-School
    Interests
  • 2. Bridge Competencies with Familiar Texts to
    Academic Literacy
  • 3. Form Cross-Age Tutoring Partnerships and Use
    Community
  • Mentors as Reading Buddies

20
1. Match Reading Material to Outside-of-School
Interests
  • My Bag Finding Entry Point Texts
  • Boys Book Clubs
  • Booktalks

21
In response to the gender gap in reading
  • Researchers and educators highlight the
    importance of taking boys reading interests into
    account and offering them more choices in reading
    materials in order to foster conditions for
    learning (Brozo, 2002 Cavazos-Kottke, 2005
    Coles Hall, 2001 Millard, 1997 Smith
    Wilhelm, 2002 St. Jarre, 2008 Taylor, 2005
    Worthy, 1998 Worthy, Moorman, Turner, 1999).

22
DISCOVERING STUDENTS OUTSIDE OF SCHOOL
INTERESTS WITH THE MY BAG STRATEGY
  • A Strategy That Allows The Teacher to Get to Know
    Students in an Interesting and Fun Way
  • Students Gather Emblems, Symbols, and Other Items
    That Represent Who They Are Their Interests,
    Hobbies, Loves, Relationships, etc.
  • Emblems Often Include Photographs, Memorabilia,
    Souvenirs, Toys, etc.
  • Items Are Placed in a Bag or Backpack and Shared
    With Classmates and the Teacher
  • Students Should Provide a Written List of Items
    and a Brief Statement About Each Items
    Significance

23
The Goal of the My Bag Strategy is to Tie
Reading and Learning Experiences to Students
Interests Students Should be Shown That They Can
Read About What They Like to Do Helps Teachers
Motivate Students to Read by Connecting Text to
their Outside of School Interests
24
A PICTURE MY BAG FOR BILL BROZO
25
BOOK TALKS EXPOSING STUDENTS TO NEW BOOKS
AND OTHER TEXTS A SHORT, EXCITING GLIMPSE OF
A BOOK A PERSONAL INTRODUCTION TO A BOOK
26
GOALS OF THE BOOK TALK
  • GIVEN FREQUENTLY THROUGHOUT THE YEAR
  • EXPOSE STUDENTS TO A RANGE OF TOPICS, GENRES, AND
    ABILITY LEVEL TEXTS
  • CREATE TIME AND SPACE FOR STUDENTS TO SELF-SELECT
    BOOK-TALKED BOOKS
  • INTEGRATE BOOKS INTO CONTENT TOPICS AND UNITS

27
  • SETTING UP A BOYS BOOK CLUB
  • IDENTIFY MALE STUDENTS WHO WOULD MOST BENEFIT
  • STRUGGLING READERS, DISENGAGED READERS
  • CREATE A TIME AND SPACE FOR BOOK CLUB
    ACTIVITIES
  • BEST IF HANDLED WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF
    NORMAL SCHOL DAY, DURING READING CLASS
    TIME LUNCH AND AFTER SCHOOL CLUBS
  • DETERMINE THE RIGHT STUFF AT THE RIGHT LEVEL
    SINCE THE
  • GOAL OF THE BOOK CLUB IS TO PROMOTE ENGAGED
  • READING, EVERY EFFORT NEEDS TO BE MADE TO PUT
    INTO
  • BOYS HANDS READING MATERIAL THEY FIND
    INTERESTING
  • AND ACCESSIBLE IN TERMS OF DIFFICULTY

28
  • BOYS BOOK CLUB
  • HONOR CLUB MEMBERS CHOICE OF TEXT
  • ALLOW BOOK CLUB MEMBERS MUTLIPLE MODES
  • OF EXPRESSION
  • MAKE HAVING FUN WITH TEXTS A HIGH PRIORITY
  • ENSURE ADULT MEN--PREFERABLY THOSE WHO
  • ARE ACTIVE READERS--PARTICIPATE IN THE BOOK
  • CLUB

29
  • PREFERRED READING MATERIAL
  • FOR A BOYS BOOK CLUB
  • SHORT IN LENGTH -- sports biographies,
    newspaper
  • magazine articles
  • ACTION PACKED Death Walk
  • MALE PROTAGONIST -- Chaser
  • HUMOROUS Jon Scieszkas books (Time Warp
    Trio)
  • ARCHETYPAL -- Daniel Boom AKA Loud Boy
  • INFORMATIONAL CD notes Secret Messages
  • Concealment Codes and Other
    Types of Ingenious Communication

30
Actual Boys Book Clubs
  • Books and Balls
  • M.O.B. Men of Books
  • Club B.I.L.I. - Boys in Literacy Initiative

31
2. Bridge Competencies with Familiar Texts to
Academic Literacy
  • By eliminating barriers between students
    competencies with outside-of-school texts and
    classroom practices it is possible to increase
    engagement in learning and expand literacy
    abilities (Sturtevant, Boyd, Brozo, Hinchman,
    Alvermann, Moore, 2006).
  • Playing computer and video games
  • Reading comic books and graphic novels
  • Reading magazines related to their hobbies
    (skateboarding, collecting, sports)
  • Listening to/playing music and reading/writing
    song lyrics

32
Popular Music as Context for Learning and Using
New Vocabulary
  • With the American rapper Snoop Doggs lyrics for
    I Love to Give You Light a 7th grade remedial
    reading class of mostly boys found numerous
    examples of words with /ck/ and /ch/ blends.
    These words were written into a t-chart in their
    vocabulary notebooks.

  • _____ch ck
  • choir background
  • such jackers
  • alchemist glock
  • preach block
  • chuuch locked
  • teachin black
  • watchin
  • each
  • preachin
  • reach
  • purchase
  • Beach
  • child

33
Popular Music as Context for Learning and Using
New Vocabulary
  • The students worked with a partner to think of
    new words with the /ch/ and /ck/ sounds and add
    them to the t-chart.
  • Student pairs then wrote their own rap lyrics
    that contained all or some of the new words they
    generated for the two word families.
  • As one student read the rap the other kept rhythm
    on his desk top

I put my socks in my backpack when I go to
school. I put my backpack in my locker or I look
like a fool. I get my socks from my backpack
when I go to gym. Where I catch the ball then
stick it in the rim.
34
Popular Computer/Video Games as Context for
Learning
  • With students interest and experience in playing
    a Star Wars video game, a 6th grade teacher
    taught science vocabulary related to space.
    Words from the game were written into the chart
    and their vocabulary notebooks. This was
    especially engaging for her boys.
  • Star Wars Words Your Definition
    Dictionary
  • galaxy -the stars and planets -a cluster of
    stars, nebulae, planets
  • meteor -a rock from space -small matter in the
    solar system
  • planets -like the earth -a body that revolves
    around the sun
  • space station -a station that floats in space
  • booster rockets -help the ship go faster

35
Popular Computer/Video Games as Context for
Learning
  • The students worked with a partner to write their
    own Star Wars story using the words in context.
    One pair of students wrote
  • Luke Skywalker sat in a space station. It was in
    our galaxy. He was going to set off the booster
    rockets so he could travel to a planet. The
    planet was going to be hit by a meteor and Luke
    had to save it.

36
Learning about allusions in English
  • Using students media to recognize and analyze
    allusions
  • Shrek 2
  • Find allusions in the texts of their choice and
    post them on a class blog

37
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vAMAA0dfZRsU

38
Examples of allusions from boys media posted on
blog
  • The avant garde music group Mr. Bungle modified
    the Warner Brothers logo into their own
    creation. By simply flipping and turning their
    records label (Warner Brothers), they made an
    already existing logo into something brand
    spanking new. This is an allusion to the bands
    label, so it is kind of like a self-promoting
    allusion.

39
Examples of allusions from boys media
  • This is a 3 Doors Down song called Kryptonite,
    and the allusion is that the whole song
    references Superman. The purpose of this allusion
    is to show how everyone needs someone who makes
    their life worth living, even the supernatural.
  • If I go crazy then will you still Call me
    Superman If I'm alive and well, will you be
    There holding my hand I'll keep you by my side
    with My superhuman might Kryptonite

40
Examples of allusions from boys media
  • In the song Us by Regina Spektor, she refers to
    the Den of thieves. Were living in a Den of
    Thieves, rummaging for answers in the pages. The
    Den of Thieves is a book written about Wall
    Street moguls who were almost able to get away
    with stealing millions of dollars. What she means
    is that we are all living in a society with lies
    and secrets. We get the answers by lying to
    ourselves and others.

41
Examples of allusions from boys media
  • I found one from Family Guy
  •   
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vAMAA0dfZRsUfeature
    related
  • This is an allusion to The Ring, like how when
    you watch the cursed video in the movie The Ring,
    youll die. In Family Guy, the cursed video is
    The Simpsons, which is their rival. And if you
    watch is, theyre basically The Simpsons is bad
    for you.

42
Examples of allusions from boys media
  • In a Jimmy Neutron-Boy Genius episode, Jimmy goes
    to find out why the Bermuda triangle has so many
    problems. On his way into the ocean to search for
    and underwater entrance, the viewers see a small
    pineapple. As all Nickelodeon viewers know,
    Spongebob Squarepants lives in that pineapple.
    This was the producers way of saying Hi to the
    cast of Spongebob.

43
Examples of allusions from boys media
  • My allusion is from the anime Lucky Star (which
    no one has probably heard of, but is the only one
    I can think of at the moment). In one of the
    episodes, the main character, Konata, cosplays
    (dresses up) as a character from another anime,
    Haruhi from The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya at
    a cosplay café. The function of this allusion, in
    a way, is self-promotion because the writers of
    Lucky Star also wrote The Melancholy of Haruhi
    Suzumiya.

44
Popular Music as Context for Engagement in
Writing Business Contracts
  • As Marta, a business teacher, observed her male
    students enter the classroom one day, she became
    inspired by an obvious way the topic of writing
    business contracts could be linked to their
    realworld interests and desires.
  • Many had Tejano music pulsing from their
    headsets, which led Marta to consider how her
    students love of this Mexican-American musical
    hybrid could form the basis of a fun and
    meaningful lesson

45
Popular Music as Context for Engagement in
Writing Business Contracts
  • In pairs one student represented a recording
    artist and another a record company.
  • They created a fictitious name for both the
    company and the artist (e.g., Tejano singer,
    Lil Mario, recording company, Sanchez
    Records).
  • Pairs accessed helpful Internet sites from a list
    provided to obtain background on the language and
    format of contracts in the music recording
    business.

46
Popular Music as Context for Engagement in
Writing Business Contracts
  • While one pair of students hammered out a
    contract, other pairs of students looked on then
    the roles were switched.
  • At regular intervals, student observers were
    given the opportunity to share reactions to and
    ask questions of the pair of negotiators they
    were observing.

47
3. Form Cross-Age Tutoring Partnerships and Use
Community Mentors as Reading Buddies
  • THE MOST POTENT BENEFIT OF SUCH A PROGRAM
    (CROSS-AGE TUTORING PARTNERSHIP PROGRAM) IS
  • THAT IT IMBUES STRUGGLING READERS WITH A SENSE
  • OF RESPONSIBILITY AND PURPOSE FOR IMPROVING
  • THEIR OWN ABILITIES
  • --BROZO HARGIS, JAAL, September 2003

48
  • COMPONENTS OF A CROSS-AGE BUDDY READING PROGRAM
    FOR BOYS
  • ONE OLDER STRUGGLING MALE READER PAIRED
  • WITH ONE YOUNGER NOVICE OR STRUGGLING READER
  • OLDER STUDENT PREPARES READING MATERIAL AND
  • STRATEGIES
  • READS TO AND WITH YOUNGER MALE STUDENT,
  • HELPING WITH WORD ATTACK AND COMPRE-
  • HENSION
  • MAKES A BOOK TOGETHER BASED ON YOUNGER
  • STUDENTS INTERESTS AND EXPERIENCES
  • ONE TO THREE SESSIONS PER WEEK

49
Reading Buddies
  • 17-year-old Tremayne 2nd grader LaBron in a
    cross-age tutoring program
  • Read about and researched Chicago Bears football
  • Led to performance enhancement drugs, steriods
  • Explored the exaggeratedly muscled heroes and
    villains in computer games, such as True Crime
    Streets of LA (Activision), WWF Wrestlemania
    (THQ), Take No Prisoners (Red Orb), The Hulk
    (Vivendi-Universal), Army Men Sarge's Heroes
    (3DO), and X-Men Mutant Academy (Activision). .

50
Reading Buddies
  • Pictures were then downloaded into Adobe
    Photoshop so they could be altered
  • Tremayne and LaBron learned how to rework the
    main characters' physiques, reshaping them in
    ways that were more proportional to normal muscle
    development
  • They displayed their work in a PowerPoint
    presentation with "before" slides, accompanied by
    captions warning of the dangers of steroids and
    other illegal substances for building muscle, and
    "after" slides with statements about good health,
    diet, and fitness

51
Community Mentors as Reading Buddies for Boys
  • Gender- and cultural-matched role models have the
    most positive effect on educational outcomes
    (Zirkel, 2002) and are sorely needed in the lives
    of many boys (Brozo, 2002)
  • Men who are active readers can work one-on-one or
    participate in boys book clubs

52
Community Mentors as Reading Buddies for Boys
  • One mentoring pair included Rickey, a recently
    retired Naval pilot and instructor, and Marcus, a
    13-year-old seventh-grader with a reading
    achievement level of 4th grade and a special
    education label he had also spent the previous
    year in a juvenile detention facility
  • Built fluency with the book The House that Crack
    Built
  • Read the novel Monster and role played scenes
  • Wrote letters to Congressmen urging them not to
    support legislation to make the death penalty an
    option for minors found guilty of capital murder

53
Research Directions
  • How can alternative/youth media/literacies
    motivate boys to read academic texts? (e.g.,
    bridge texts)
  • What levels of engagement, critical thinking and
    consciousness are possible when boys are given
    choice in their response options/formats to
    school texts?
  • How might practices such as archetypal text,
    culture jamming and critical media literacy be
    used to engage boys in deconstructing hegemonic
    masculinity?
  • How do we honor boys discourses of desire while
    encouraging and nurturing more sophisticated text
    choices and more thoughtful reading?

54
Bridge Books and Texts
  • Goal is to motivate reluctant and disinterested
    youth to read required academic texts
  • Canonical and required texts, even if readable,
    may turn youth off to reading without prior
    exposure to bridge texts
  • Transition youth into challenging academic texts
    with texts that are engaging and put knowledge
    bases in place for academic literate tasks

55
Examples of Bridge Books/Texts
  • Young Adult Novel
  • Across the Barricades as a bridge to Romeo and
    Juliet
  • Graphic novels
  • Maus as a bridge to reading and studying the
    Holocaust
  • Palestine as a bridge to reading and learning
    about the Arab/Israeli conflict
  • Websites
  • Skateboard Science as a bridge to reading and
    studying laws of physics http//www.exploratorium.
    edu/skateboarding/

56
Transforming the Iliad into a popular cultural
text
  • Rewriting key sections of the Iliad into comic
    strips with dialogue captured in bubbles and
    scenes expressed in art (Jacobs, 2007 Lenters,
    2007)
  • Allowing students to use hybrid languages--their
    languages remixed in the language of the text
    (Knoble Lankshear, 2008)
  • This was the first time in a long time that I
    wanted to come to school. I wanted to finish my
    project. . . And at first, I didnt think the
    Iliad was gonna be good, but it was a better
    story than I thought.

57
Deconstructing Hegemonic Masculinity
  • Real Men Unit in the barrio in South Texas
  • Archetypal texts that offer boys the surprising
    and multifarious faces of masculinity
  • Bean Harpers Reading Men Differently

58
  • REMEMBER
  • WHEN IT COMES TO BOYS AND READING
  • THEY NEED THE RIGHT STUFF, AT THE RIGHT LEVELS,
    IN THE RIGHT WAYS
  • PARENTS, TEACHERS, AND LIBRARIANS SHOULD RESPECT
    BOYS INTERESTS AND HONOR THEIR DISCOURSES OF
    DESIRE
  • ALL ADULTS CAN MODEL FOR BOYS THE PLEASURES AND
    BENEFITS OF ACTIVE LITERACY
  • FINDING ENTRY POINTS TO A PERSONAL LITERATE
    JOURNEY IS THE HIGHEST GOAL WHEN WORKING WITH
    BOYS
  • VIEWING BOYS AS A RESOURCE WILL IMPROVE THE
    CHANCES OF ELEVATING THEIR READING
    ENGAGEMENT/ACHIEVEMENT

59
BOYS ARE OUR HOPE FOR THE FUTURE, YOU ARE
THEIR HOPE TODAY.

THANK YOU
60
References
  • Blackwood, C., Flowers, S. S., Rogers, J. S.,
    Staik, I. M. (1991). Pleasure reading by college
    students Fact or fiction? Paper presented at the
    Mid-South Educational Research Association
    Conference, Lexington, KY.
  • Brozo, W. G. (2002). To be a boy, to be a reader.
    Newark, DE International Reading Association.
  • Cavazos-Kottke, S. (2005). Turned out but turned
    on Boys (dis)engaged reading in and out of
    school. Journal of Adolescent Adult Literacy,
    49(3), 180-184.
  • Coles, M., Hall, C. (2001). Boys, books and
    breaking boundaries Developing literacy in and
    out of school. In W. Martino B. Meyenn (Eds.),
    What about the boys? Issues of masculinity in
    schools. Buckingham, UK Open University Press.
  • Coles, M. Hall, C. (2002). Gendered reading
    learning from childrens reading choices. Journal
    of Research in Reading, 25(1), 96-108.
  • Gambell, T., Hunter, D. (2000). Surveying
    gender differences in Canadian school literacy.
    Journal of Curriculum Studies, 32(5), 689-719.
  • Greaney, V. (1980). Factors related to the amount
    and type of leisure reading. Reading Research
    Quarterly, 15(3), 337-357.

61
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