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## Motion

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### ... a skateboard (or wagon or bicycle), you fly forward off the board when hitting ... a Mack truck and a roller skate moving down the street at the same ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Motion

1
Motion
2
Aristotle
• 4 elements that are the building blocks of the
world around us _______________,
_______________, _______________, _______________
• Rock belongs to the earth element, would fall
back to the earth
• Smoke belongs to the fire element, rises above
air

3
Aristotle
• _______________ Motion straight up and straight
down motion
• Circular motion is the natural motion of the
heavens all the planets revolve around the
earth
• _______________ Motion result of forces that
pushed or pulled from some external cause
• Cart being pulled by a horse

4
Copernicus
• Studied the planets
• Earth and the other planets move around the sun.
• Worked on this idea in secret to escape
persecution.
• The day he died, he received his work in print
(1543)

5
Galileo
• Expanded on Copernicus ideas
• Brought in the concept of ______________
• Time for the motion to happen

6
• A study of motion will involve the introduction
of a variety of quantities which are used to
describe the physical world.
• Examples of such quantities include distance,
displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration,
force, mass, momentum, energy, work, power, etc.

7
• All these quantities can by divided into two
categories
• _______________
• A vector quantity is a quantity which is fully
described by both magnitude and direction.
• _______________
• A scalar quantity is a quantity which is fully
described by its magnitude.

8
Vector Quantities
• _______________
• _______________
• _______________
• _______________

9
Linear Motion
• Motion in a straight line
• _______________ measure of how fast something
is moving
• mph
• _______________ speed in a given direction
• m/s northward
• _______________ the rate at which velocity is
changing
• m/s2
• Can be positive or negative

10
Projectile Motion
• The most common example of an object which is
moving in two-dimensions is a _______________.
• A projectile is an object upon which the only
force acting is _______________.

11
• A projectile is any object which once projected
_______________ in motion by its own inertia and
is influenced only by the downward force of
gravity.
• an object dropped from rest is a projectile
(provided that the influence of air resistance is
negligible)
• an object which is thrown vertically upwards is
also a projectile (provided that the influence of
air resistance is negligible)
• an object is which thrown upwards at an angle is
also a projectile (provided that the influence of
air resistance is negligible).

12
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13
Horizontally Launched Projectiles
• Imagine a cannonball being launched from a cannon
atop of a very high cliff. Imagine as well that
the cannonball does not encounter a significant
amount of air resistance. What will be the path
of the cannonball and how can the motion of the
cannonball be described?

14
• The animation below depicts such a situation. The
path of the cannonball is shown additionally,
the horizontal and vertical velocity components
are represented by arrows in the animation.

15
• As the cannonball falls, it undergoes a downward
acceleration. A downwardly-moving cannonball
which is gaining speed is said to have a downward
acceleration.
• This downward acceleration is attributed to the
downward force of gravity which acts upon the
ball.

16
Acceleration Due to Gravity
• Galileo objects fall at the same rate
• Did recognize that a compact object does fall
faster than a less compact object (flat paper vs.
crumpled paper)
• Acceleration due to gravity (g) 9.8 m/s2
• Objects fall with the same _______________ but it
will be dependent on _______________
• 1971, David Scott, US Astronaut, dropped a hammer
and a feather on the moon and they hit the
surface of the moon at the same time

17
Newtons First Law of Motion
• an object in motion continues in motion with the
same speed and in the same direction unless acted
upon by an unbalanced force.
• It is the natural tendency of objects to keep on
doing what they're doing.

18
• All objects _______________ in their state of
motion.
• In the absence of an unbalanced force, an object
in motion will maintain this state of motion.
This is often called the _______________.
• Inertia is the _______________ an object has to a
change in its state of motion. Inertia is
dependent only on _______________.

19
• At the time, Newton's concept of inertia was in
direct opposition to the more popular conceptions
• The dominant thought prior to Newton's day was
that it was the natural tendency of objects to
come to rest.
• Moving objects, or so it was believed, would
eventually stop moving since a force was
necessary to keep an object moving.
• If left to itself, a moving object would
eventually come to rest and an object at rest
would stay at rest thus, the idea which
dominated the thinking for nearly 2000 years
prior to Newton was that it was the natural
tendency of all objects to assume a rest
position.

20
• Newton's first law of motion declares that a
_______________ is not needed to keep an object
in motion.
• Slide a book across a table and watch it slide to
a stop.
• The book in motion on the table top does not come
to rest because of the absence of a force rather
it is the presence of a force the force of
_______________ which brings the book to a
halt.

21
• The law of inertia is most commonly experienced
when riding in cars and trucks.
• In fact, the tendency of moving objects to
continue in motion is a common cause of a variety
of transportation accidents - of both small and
large magnitudes.

22
• Consider for instance the unfortunate collision
of a car with a wall.
• Upon contact with the wall, an unbalanced force
acts upon the car to abruptly decelerate it to
rest.
• Any passengers in the car will also be
decelerated to rest if they are strapped to the
car by seat belts. Being strapped tightly to the
car, the passengers share the same state of
motion as the car.

23
• As the car accelerates, the passengers accelerate
with it as the car decelerates, the passengers
decelerate with it and as the car maintains a
constant speed, the passengers maintain a
constant speed as well.

24
• But what would happen if the passengers were not
wearing the seat belt? What motion would the
passengers undergo if they failed to use their
seat belts and the car were brought to a sudden
and abrupt halt by a collision with a wall?

25
• Were this scenario to occur, the passengers would
no longer share the same state of motion as the
car. The presence of the strap assures that the
forces necessary for accelerated and decelerated
motion exist. Yet, once the strap is no longer
present to do its job, the passengers are more
likely to maintain its state of motion.

26
• If the car were to abruptly stop and the seat
belts were not being worn, then the passengers in
motion would continue in motion. Assuming a
negligible amount of friction between the
passengers and the seats, the passengers would
likely be propelled from the car and be hurled
into the air. Once they leave the car, the
passengers becomes projectiles and continue in
projectile-like motion.

27
• But why then are motorcycles not equipped with
safety harnesses? Is this a gross oversight made
by motorcycle manufacturers?

28
There are many more applications of Newton's
first law of motion.
riding on a descending elevator which suddenly
stops.
• the head of a hammer can be tightened onto the
wooden handle by banging the bottom of the handle
against a hard surface.
• a brick is painlessly broken over the hand of a
physics teacher by slamming the brick with a
hammer. (CAUTION Do not attempt this at home!)
• to dislodge ketchup from the bottom of a ketchup
bottle, the bottle is often turned upside down,
thrust downward at a high speed and then abruptly
halted.
• headrests are placed in cars to prevent whiplash
injuries during rear-end collisions.
• while riding a skateboard (or wagon or bicycle),
you fly forward off the board when hitting a
curb, a rock or another object which abruptly
halts the motion of the skateboard.

29
• 1. Imagine a place in the cosmos far from all
gravitational and frictional influences. Suppose
an astronaut in that place throws a rock. The
rock will
• 2. Mac and Tosh are arguing in the cafeteria. Mac
says that if he throws his jello with a greater
speed it will have a greater inertia. Tosh argues
that inertia does not depend upon speed, but
rather upon mass. With whom do you agree? Why?

30
• 3. If you were in a weightless environment in
space, would it require a force to set an object
in motion?
• 4. Mr. Wegley spends most Sunday afternoons at
rest on the sofa, watching pro football games and
consuming large quantities of food. What effect
(if any) does this practice have upon his
inertia? Explain.

31
• Ben Tooclose is being chased through the woods by
a bull moose which he was attempting to
photograph. The enormous mass of the bull moose
is extremely intimidating. Yet, if Ben makes a
zigzag pattern through the woods, he will be able
to use the large mass of the moose to his own
advantage. Explain this in terms of inertia and
Newton's first law of motion.

32
Newtons Second Law of Motion
• Objects at _______________ (the condition in
which all forces balance) will not accelerate.
• According to Newton, an object will only
accelerate if there is a net or unbalanced force
acting upon it.
• Newton's second law of motion pertains to the
behavior of objects for which all existing forces
are not balanced.

33
• The second law states that the acceleration of an
object is dependent upon two variables the net
force acting upon the object and the mass of the
object.
• As the net force increases, so will the object's
acceleration. However, as the mass of the object
increases, its acceleration will decrease.

34
• Fnet ma
• 1 Newton amount of force needed to move a 1 kg
object 1 m/s2

35
Misconception of Motion
• The idea that sustaining motion requires a
continued force.

36
Newtons Third Law of Motion
• "For every action, there is an equal and opposite
reaction."

37
• The statement means that in every interaction,
there is a pair of forces acting on the two
interacting objects.
• The size of the force on the first object equals
the size of the force on the second object.
• The direction of the force on the first object is
opposite to the direction of the force on the
second object. _______________ always come in
pairs equal and opposite action-reaction force
pairs.

38
• While driving, Anna Litical observed a bug
striking the windshield of her car. Obviously, a
case of Newton's third law of motion. The bug hit
the windshield and the windshield hit the bug.
Which of the two forces is greater the force on
the bug or the force on the windshield?

39
• 2. Rockets are unable to accelerate in space
because ...
• a. there is no air in space for the rockets to
push off of.
• b. there is no gravity is in space.
• c. there is no air resistance in space.
• d. ... nonsense! Rockets do accelerate in
space.

40
Momentum
• _______________ in motion
• Mass x Velocity
• The greater the _______________ acting on an
object, the greater the change in the velocity,
and the greater the change in momentum.
• The more _______________ which an object has, the
harder that it is to stop.

41
• From the definition of momentum, it becomes
obvious that an object has a large momentum if
either its mass or its velocity is large.
• Consider a Mack truck and a roller skate moving
down the street at the same speed. The
considerably greater mass of the Mack truck gives
it a considerably greater momentum.
• Yet if the Mack truck were at rest, then the
momentum of the least massive roller skate would
be the greatest for the momentum of any object
which is at rest is 0.
• Objects at rest do not have momentum - they do
not have any "mass in motion."

42
Collisions
• The physics of _______________ are governed by
the laws of momentum and Newtons Laws.
• In a collision, an object experiences a force for
a specific amount of time which results in a
change in momentum (the object's mass either
speeds up or slows down).

43
• In a collision, objects experience an
_______________ the impulse causes (and is equal
to) the change in momentum.
• _______________ force x time (greater the
impulse, the greater the change in momentum)

44
• Observe that the _______________ the time over
which the collision occurs, the _______________
the force acting upon the object.
• To minimize the effect of the force on an object
involved in a collision, the time must be
_______________
• To maximize the effect of the force on an object
involved in a collision, the time must be
_______________.

45
Airbags in a Vehicle
• Air bags are used in automobiles because they are
able to minimize the effect of the force on an
object involved in a collision.
• Air bags accomplish this by extending the time
required to stop the momentum of the driver and
passenger.
• The same principle explains why dashboards are

46
• When encountering a car collision, the driver and
passenger tend to keep moving in accord with
Newton's first law.
• Their motion carries them towards a windshield
which results in a large force exerted over a
short time in order to stop their momentum.
• If instead of hitting the windshield, the driver
and passenger hit an air bag, then the time
duration of the impact is increased.
• When hitting an object with some give such as an
air bag, the time duration might be increased by
a factor of 100.
• Increasing the time by a factor of 100 will
result in a decrease in force by a factor of 100.

47
• This same principle of padding a potential impact
area can be observed in gymnasiums (underneath
the basketball hoops), in pole-vaulting pits, in
baseball gloves and goalie mitts, on the fist of
a boxer, inside the helmet of a football player,
and on gymnastic mats.

48
Effects of Rebounding
• Occasionally when objects collide, they bounce
off each other (as opposed to sticking to each
other and traveling with the same speed after the
collision).
• Bouncing off each other is known as
_______________.
• Rebounding involves a change in direction of an
object the before- and after-collision direction
is different.

49
• The importance of rebounding is critical to the
outcome of automobile accidents.
• In an automobile accident, two cars can either
collide and bounce off each other or collide and
crumple together and travel together with the
same speed after the collision.

50
• But which would be more damaging to the occupants
of the automobiles - the rebounding of the cars
or the crumpling up of the cars?

51
• Contrary to popular opinion, the crumpling up of
cars is the safest type of automobile collision.
• If cars rebound upon collision, the momentum
change will be larger and so will the impulse.
• A greater impulse will typically be associated
with a bigger force.
• Occupants of automobiles would certainly prefer
small forces upon their bodies during collisions.

52
• In fact, automobile designers and safety
engineers have found ways to reduce the harm done
to occupants of automobiles by designing cars
which crumple upon impact.
• Automobiles are made with _______________.
• Crumple zones are sections in cars which are
designed to crumple up when the car encounters a
collision.
• Crumple zones minimize the effect of the force in
an automobile collision in two ways.

53
• By crumpling, the car is less likely to rebound
upon impact, thus minimizing the _______________
change and the _______________.
• Finally, the crumpling of the car lengthens the
_______________ over which the car's momentum is
changed by increasing the time of the collision,
the force of the collision is greatly reduced.

54
• 1. Explain why it is difficult for a firefighter
to hold a hose which ejects large amounts of
high-speed water.

55
• Would you care to fire a rifle that has a bullet
ten times as massive as the rifle?

56
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57
No Seatbelt
• Cars are designed with crumple zones so they may
slow down over a longer period of time, which
keeps the force smaller.  The crumple zone only
slows the car more gradually.  The only way it
slows the occupants more gradually is if they are
attached to the car.  Stopping in a small amount
of time means the force must be very large.  This
video clip shows some very dramatic scenes of car
crash tests with test dummies who are not wearing
seat belts.  Specifically look for cars crumpling
and people stopping in very small amounts of
time.

58
With Seatbelt
• Seatbelts use two main ideas to protect
passengers during a car accident.   First, they
slow the passenger down more slowly than the
passenger running into steering wheel or
dashboard.  This keeps the force required to stop
them smaller. It also prevents the person from
contacting any of the glass windows in the car or
continuing on to be stopped abruptly by the road,
tree, or another automobile.  The video clip
shows the role of the seatbelt during an accident

59
• This clip clearly gives the driver a good reason
to make sure occupants in the rear of the car are
wearing their seat belts.  Not wearing a seatbelt
not only puts your life in danger but also anyone
else who happens to be riding with you.  The
force from the seatbelt safely decelerates the
driver, but the child in the back seat follows
Newton's Law of Inertia and continues moving in
the absence of a net force.  The 60mph "kid" not
only breaks its own neck but also the neck of the
driver.

60
• In this clip, we see that seat belts and child
seats not only protect you in a frontal impact,
they could also prevent a tragedy in rear end
collision.  In this clip, the station wagon
literally gets accelerated out from under the
"kids" sitting in the back.  They were at rest
originally, and in the absence of a net force
(from the seat belt) they remained at rest while
the car they were in was accelerated by the net
force from the car that hit them.  Newton's first
law can be a killer!

61
Energy
62
• What is energy?
• The capacity to do _______________ or supply
_______________.
• Energy is weightless, odorless, and tasteless.
• Energy is detected only because of its effects.
• Heat is _______________ that transfers between
objects across a temperature change.
• Heat cannot be detected by the sense or by
instruments only changes caused by heat can be
detected.

63
Potential Energy
• An object can store energy as the result of its
position.
• This stored energy of position is referred to as
potential energy.
• _______________ energy is the energy which an
object has stored due to its position relative to
some zero position.

64
Kinetic Energy
• _______________ energy is the energy of motion.
• An object which has motion - whether it be
vertical or horizontal motion - has kinetic
energy.
• Standard metric unit of measurement for kinetic
energy is the Joule.
• 1 Joule is equivalent to 1 kg ? (m/s2).

65
• The amount of kinetic energy which an object has
depends upon two variables
• the _______________ (m) of the object
• the _______________ (v) of the object.

66
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67
Sound Waves
68
Transverse Wave
• A _______________ wave is a wave in which
particles of the medium move in a direction
perpendicular to the direction which the wave
moves.

69
Longitudinal Wave
• A _______________ wave is a wave in which
particles of the medium move in a direction
parallel to the direction which the wave moves.

70
Comparison of the Two
71
Surface Wave
• A _______________ wave is a wave in which
particles of the medium undergo a circular
motion. Surface waves are neither longitudinal
nor transverse.
• Waves which travel along the surface of the
oceans.

72
• Another way to categorize waves is on the basis
of the ability (or nonability) to transmit
_______________ through a _______________(i.e.,
empty space).
• Categorizing waves on this basis leads to two
notable categories
• electromagnetic waves
• mechanical waves.

73
Electromagnetic Waves
• An _______________ wave is a wave which is
capable of transmitting its energy through a
vacuum (i.e., empty space).
• Electromagnetic waves are produced by the
vibration of electrons within atoms on the Sun's
surface.
• These waves subsequently travel through the
vacuum of outer space, subsequently reaching
Earth.

74
• All _______________ waves are examples of
electromagnetic waves.

75
Mechanical Waves
• A _______________ wave is a wave which is not
capable of transmitting its energy through a
vacuum.
• Mechanical waves require a _______________ in
order to transport their energy from one location
to another.
• A sound wave is an example of a mechanical wave.
Sound waves are incapable of traveling through a
vacuum.

76
telephone chord waves are other examples of
mechanical waves each requires some medium in
order to exist.
• a water wave requires water a stadium wave
• and a telephone chord wave requires a telephone
chord.

77
• _______________ is a wave which is created by
vibrating objects and passed through a medium
from one location to another.
• The medium is simply the material through which
the disturbance is moving it can be thought of
as a series of interacting particles.

78
• A sound wave is similar in nature to a slinky
wave.
• There is a medium which carries the disturbance
from one location to another.
• Typically, this medium is air though it could be
any material such as water or steel.

79
• Regardless of what vibrating object is creating
the sound wave, the particles of the medium
through which the sound moves is vibrating in a
back and forth motion at a given _______________.
• The frequency of a wave refers to how often the
particles of the medium _______________ when a
wave passes through the medium.
• The frequency of a wave is measured as the number
of complete back-and-forth vibrations of a
particle of the medium per unit of time.

80
• A commonly used unit for frequency is the
_______________ (abbrviated Hz), where
• 1 Hertz 1 vibration/second
• As a sound wave moves through a medium, each
particle of the medium vibrates at the same
frequency.

81
• The human ear is capable of detecting sound waves
with a wide range of frequencies, ranging between
approximately 20 Hz to 20 000 Hz.
• Any sound with a frequency below the audible
range of hearing (less than 20 Hz) is known as an
_______________ and any sound with a frequency
above the audible range of hearing (more than 20
000 Hz) is known as an _______________.

82
• Dogs can detect frequencies as low as
approximately 50 Hz and as high as 45 000 Hz.
• Cats can detect frequencies as low as
approximately 45 Hz and as high as 85 000 Hz.
• Bats, who are essentially blind and must rely on
sound _______________ for navigation and hunting,
can detect frequecies as high as 120 000 Hz.

83
• Dolphins can detect frequencies as high as 200
000 Hz.
• While dogs, cats, bats, and dolphins have an
unusual ability to detect ultrasound, an elephant
possesses the unusual ability to detect
infrasound, having an audible range from
approximately 5 Hz to approxmately 10 000 Hz.

84
• The sensations of these frequencies are commonly
referred to as the ______________________________.
• A high pitch sound corresponds to a high
frequency and a low pitch sound corresponds to a
low frequency.

85
• The faintest sound which the human ear can detect
is known as the _______________ _______________.
• The most intense sound which the ear can safely
detect without suffering any physical damage is
more than one billion times more intense than the
threshold of hearing.

86
• Since the range of intensities which the human
ear can detect is so large, the scale which is
frequently used by physicists to measure
intensity is a scale based on multiples of 10.
• The scale for measuring intensity is the
_______________.

87
Source Intensity Level
Threshold of Hearing (TOH) 0 dB
Rustling Leaves 10 dB
Whisper 20 dB
Normal Conversation 60 dB
Busy Street Traffic 70 dB
Vacuum Cleaner 80 dB
Large Orchestra 98 dB
Walkman at Maximum Level 100 dB
Front Rows of Rock Concert 110 dB
Threshold of Pain 130 dB
Military Jet Takeoff 140 dB
Instant Perforation of Eardrum 160 dB
•

88
• At normal atmospheric pressure and a temperature
of 20ºC, a sound wave will travel at
approximately 343 m/s this is approximately
equal to 750 miles/hour.
• While this speed may seem fast by human
standards, the speed of a sound wave is slow in
comparison to the speed of a light wave.
• Light travels through air at a speed of
approximately 300 000 000 m/s this is nearly 900
000 times the speed of sound.

89
Breaking the sound barrier
• Accelerating past the speed of sound (750
miles/hour)
• _______________ - range of velocities just below
and above the speed of sound.
• When jets are in this transonic speed, they can
create the vapor cone effect.

90
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91
Light Waves
92
"Is light a wave or a stream of particles?"
• The fact is that light exhibits behaviors which
are characteristic of both waves and particles.

93
• All waves are known to undergo _______________ or
the bouncing off of an obstacle.
• Most people are very accustomed to the fact that
light waves also undergo _______________.
• The reflection of light waves off of a mirrored
surface results in the formation of an image.

94
• A light wave is an _______________ wave which
travels through the vacuum of outer space.
• Light waves are produced by vibrating electric
charges.

95
• Electromagnetic waves exist with an enormous
range of frequencies. This continuous range of
frequencies is known as the ______________________
________.
• The entire range of the spectrum is often broken
into specific regions.

96
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97
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98
• Since this narrow band of wavelengths is the
means by which humans see, we refer to it as the
_______________ spectrum.
• Normally when we use the term "light," we are
referring to a type of electromagnetic wave which
stimulates the retina of our eyes.

99
• Each individual wavelength within the spectrum of
visible light wavelengths is representative of a
particular color.
• When light of that particular wavelength strikes
the retina of our eye, we perceive that specific
color sensation.

100
• Isaac Newton showed that light shining through a
prism will be separated into its different
wavelengths and will thus show the various colors
that visible light is comprised of.
• The separation of visible light into its
different colors is known as _______________.

101
• Dispersion of visible light produces the colors
• red (R)
• orange (O)
• yellow (Y)
• green (G)
• blue (B)
• indigo (I)
• violet (V).
• It is because of this that visible light is
sometimes referred to as ROY G BIV

102
• The red wavelengths of light are the
_______________ wavelengths and the violet
wavelengths of light are the _______________
wavelengths.
• When all the wavelengths of the visible light
spectrum strike your eye at the same time,
_______________ is perceived.
• Visible light is sometimes referred to as
_______________.

103
• Technically speaking, white is not a color at
all, but rather the combination of all the colors
of the visible light spectrum.
• If all the wavelengths of the visible light
spectrum give the appearance of white, then none
of the wavelengths would lead to the appearance
of black.

104
• Once more, black is not actually a color.
• Technically speaking, black is merely the absence
of the wavelengths of the visible light spectrum.
• So when you are in a room with no lights and
everything around you appears black, it means
that there are no wavelengths of visible light
striking your eye as you look at the
surroundings.

105
• The color of an object is not actually within the
object itself rather, the color is in the light
which shines upon it that ultimately becomes
reflected or transmitted to our eyes.
• We know that the visible light spectrum consists
of a range of frequencies, each of which
corresponds to a specific color.

106
• When visible light strikes an object and a
specific frequency becomes absorbed, that
frequency of light will never make it to our
eyes.
• Any visible light which strikes the object and
becomes reflected or transmitted to our eyes will
contribute to the color appearance of that
object.
• So the color is not in the object itself, but in
the light which strikes the object.

107
• The only role that the object plays is that it
might contain atoms capable of absorbing one or
more frequencies of the visible light which shine
upon it.
• If an object absorbs all of the frequencies of
visible light except for the frequency associated
with green light, then the object will appear
green.
• And if an object absorbs all of the frequencies
of visible light except for the frequency
associated with blue light, then the object will
appear blue.

108
• When you look at an object and perceive a
distinct color, you are not necessarily seeing a
single frequency of light.
• Consider for instance that you are looking at a
shirt and it appears purple to your eye.
• In such an instance, there my be several
frequencies of light striking your eye with
varying degrees of intensity yet your eye-brain
system interprets the frequencies which strike
your eye and the shirt is decoded as being
"purple."

109
• We have already learned that white is not a color
at all, but rather the presence of all the
frequencies of visible light the entire
spectrum of visible light.
• Combining the range of frequencies in the visible
light spectrum is not the only means of producing
white light.

110
• White light can also be produced by combining
only _______________ distinct frequencies of
light, provided that they are widely separated on
the visible light spectrum.
• Any three colors (or frequencies) of light which
produce white light when combined with the
correct intensity are called _______________.

111
• The most common set of primary colors is
• _______________ (R)
• _______________ (G)
• _______________ (B)
• When red, green and blue light are mixed or added
together with the proper intensity, white (W)
light is obtained.

112
• Yellow (Y), magenta (M) and cyan (C) are
sometimes referred to as _______________ colors
of light since they are produced by the addition
of equal intensities of two primary colors of
light.

113
• Any two colors of light which produce white are
said to be _______________ colors of each other.
• The complementary color of red light is cyan
light. Since cyan light is the combination of
blue and green light and blue and green light
when added to red light will produce white light.
• Thus, red light and cyan light (blue green)
represent a pair of complementary colors they
add together to produce white light.

114
Complementary Colors of Light
• Red and Cyan
• Green and Magenta
• Blue and Yellow

115
Color Subtraction