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CONTACT INFORMATION

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Southwest end (Egypt): Nile River Valley ... To preserve alive the people of Egypt. ... Egypt: stability and serenity ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CONTACT INFORMATION


1
CONTACT INFORMATION
  • 2902 North Leonard Road 64506
  • Office Phone 232-6706
  • Social Science Office 271-4340
  • Continuing Education 271-4100
  • Office Fax 232-6480
  • E-Mail IRAN26_at_been-there.com

2
academic.mwsc.edu/albright
  • Photo exhibit on Tel Bethsaida
  • Links to excellent archaeology web
  • sites
  • Biographical data
  • Syllabus and handouts
  • Archaeology trip information
  • Tel Bethsaida web site

3
Max Mallowan and Agatha Christie
  • Who are you, sir? to him I said,
  • For what is it you look?
  • His answer trickled through my head
  • Like bloodstains in a book..

4
His accents mild were full of wit..
  • Five thousand years ago
  • Is really, when I think of it,
  • The choicest age I know.
  • And once you learn to scorn A.D.
  • And you have got the knack,
  • Then you could come and dig with
  • me,
  • And never wander back.

5
Continued the author
  • But I was thinking how to thrust
  • Some arsenic into tea,
  • And could not all at once adjust
  • My mind so far B.C.
  • I looked at him and softly sighed,
  • His face was pleasant too..
  • Come tell me how you live? I cried,
  • And what it is you do?

6
EARLY ATTEMPTS AT ARCHAEOLOGY
  • Antiquarians
  • Collectors
  • Classifiers
  • Looters and Robbers

7
Pseudo-archaeology
  • Chariots of the Gods (van Daniken)
  • King Tuts tomb
  • The Pyramids

8
ARCHAEOLOGY
  • The scientific study of the material
  • remains of mans past..
  • Scientific study (Techniques, Methods,
  • Theoretical Frameworks)
  • Material remains
  • Mans past

9
THREE STEPS TO THIS DISCIPLINE
  • 1. Excavation
  • 2. Recording
  • 3. Decipherment, explanation and interpretation

10
Why Ancient Man Settled In The Same Location
  • Water
  • Land
  • Defense

11
THE FORMS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA
  • Artifacts
  • Features
  • Structures
  • Ecofacts

12
Classifier Christian Thomsen
  • Early 1800s
  • Danish museum curator
  • Stone Age
  • Bronze Age
  • Iron Age

13
STONE AGES
  • Paleolithic (Old Stone Age) 700,000-15,000 B.C.
  • Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age) 15,000-8300 B.C.
  • Neolithic (New Stone Age) 8300-4200 B.C.
  • Chalcolithic (Copper/Stone Age) 4200-3100 B.C.

14
Prehistorical and Historical
  • Writing invented by the Sumerians in Mesopotamia
  • 3,000 B.C.
  • B.C. and A.D.
  • B.C.E. and A.C.E.
  • B.P. and A.P.

15
THE GREAT RIFT
  • Louis and Mary Leakey Richard Leakey
  • Olduvai Gorge
  • Lake Victoria Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya

16
James Breasted
  • The Fertile Crescent
  • Southwest end (Egypt) Nile River Valley
  • Southeast end (Mesopotamia) Tigris and Euphrates
    River Valleys
  • Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey
  • Jordan River Valley of Israel

17
TEL MEGIDDO
  • 120-180 feet high 16 acres
  • 22 strata
  • Early Bronze (before 3300 B.C.) to Persian
    (600-350 B.C.)

18
THE TOMB OF KING TUT
  • Howard Carter
  • 1907-1922
  • Valley of the Kings
  • Lord Carnarvon

19
DATING THE PAST
  • 1. Historical records (present day to 3,000 B.C.)
  • 2. Dendrochronology (back to 8000 BC)
  • 3. Radiocarbon dating (A.D. 1500 to 40,000 years
    ago)
  • 4. Potassium argon dating (250,000 B.C. to
    origins of early life)

20
Two Sources of Information
  • Written (Historical or Text-aided
  • Archaeology ) stone, clay tablets, wood,
    metal, papyrus, parchment
  • Unwritten (Prehistoric Archaeology)
  • buildings, sculptures, ceramics, tools,
  • weaponry, jewelry, coins, food, bones

21
THE VALUE OF ARCHAEOLOGY
  • 1. It provides the color for the black-and-
  • white sketch of history
  • 2. Historical records are by no means complete
  • 3. Helps in the translation and
  • explanation of languages
  • 4. Validates some literature that was thought to
    be inaccurate

22
THE FERTILE CRESCENT
  • James Breasted
  • The Great Rift
  • Olduvai Gorge

23
ARCHAEOLOGY
  • Archaios and logos
  • Zoology
  • Psychology
  • Anthropology
  • Sociology

24
The Scientific Study of Humanity
  • Cultural Anthropology
  • Physical Anthropology
  • Archaeology
  • Linguistics

25
HEINRICH SCHLIEMANN
  • Homers Iliad and Odyssey
  • Troy and Mycenae, 1869
  • The Greek Treasure
  • Sir Arthur Evans and the Minoans,
  • 1899

26
CERAMIC INDEX
  • Sir Flinders Petrie, late 1800s
  • Egyptian Predynastic tombs
  • Diospolis Parva
  • Based on ceramic attributes
  • Egyptian chronology the basis for most
    chronological schemes

27
ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA STAGES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR
  • 1. Acquisition
  • 2. Manufacture
  • 3. Use
  • 4. Deposition

28
GOALS OF ARCHAEOLOGY
  • 1. Studying sites and their contents
  • 2. Reconstructing past lifeways and history
  • 3. Studying cultural process
  • 4. Understanding the archaeological record which
    is a part of our contemporary world

29
TEL AND HORVAT
  • Tel a man-made hill ruin
  • Tel Arabic
  • Horvat Hebrew

30
Debitage at Chaco Canyon
  • Flint Flakes
  • Evidence of trading
  • Lookout point

31
DATING THE PAST
  • Historical records (present day to 3000 B.C.)
  • Dendrochronology (present day to 8000 B.C.)
  • Radiocarbon Dating (A.D. 1500 to 40,000 years
    ago)
  • Potassium Argon Dating (250,000 years ago to the
    origins of life)

32
CIVILIZATION
  • A level of cultural attainment marked by
  • Presence of writing
  • Monumental architecture
  • Stratified social system

33
ORIGINS OF CIVILIZATION
  • Ecology
  • Population growth
  • Technology
  • Irrigation
  • Growth of trade
  • Warfare
  • Religion

34
NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION
  • 1st ground stone technology
  • 1st domestication of plants and animals
  • 1st agricultural projects
  • 1st population explosion
  • 1st architecture
  • 1st weaving from domestication
  • 1st pottery

35
JERICHO
  • Tel 6 acres in area and 70 ft. high
  • Oldest continually inhabited city
  • Ideal environment
  • Evidence of domesticated grains
  • Trade network
  • Defensive fortifications

36
MESOPOTAMIA
  • Tigris and Euphrates rivers
  • Greek meaning land between the rivers
  • 600 miles long 250 miles wide
  • Long, intensely hot summers
  • Harsh, cold winters
  • Rainfall minimal and varied

37
MESOPOTAMIAN CONTRIBUTIONS
  • Wheel
  • Chariot
  • Writing
  • Metallurgy
  • Mathematical functions of mulitiplication and
    division
  • Lunar Calender

38
MESOPOTAMIAN PERIODS
  • Ubaid 5800-3000 B.C.
  • Sumerian 3000-2300 B.C.
  • Old Babylonian/Akkadian 2334-1600 BC
  • Kassite/Hittite 1600-1300 B.C.
  • Assyrian 1300-612 B.C.
  • Babylonian/Medes 612-330 B.C.

39
URUK The Worlds 1st City
  • Two innovations writing and metallurgy
  • 4500 B.C.
  • 617 acres with villages extending as extensive as
    6 miles
  • Dominated by a ziggurat (temple mound)

40
Sumer The World of the First Cities
  • 3500-3200 B.C. lst civilized territory on the
    globe
  • 3200-2000 B.C. Sumerian Era
  • lst 900 years had no unified government
  • City states Uruk, Ur, Lagash
  • 2320 B.C. all Sumer conquered by a mighty warrior
    from Akkad (Sargon the Great)

41
SARGON
  • Ruler of Akkadian Civilization
  • Conquered Sumerian Civilization
  • Covered Sumer (south) and Akkad (north)
  • Ur of the Chaldees excavated by Sir Leonard
    Wooley (Royal cemetery series of kings/queens
    and retinue one had 59 servants buried)

42
Sumerian Civilization
  • 3100-2334 B.C.
  • No metal, timber, semiprecious stones
  • Imported copper, gold and other ores
  • Widespread use of bronze
  • Metal plows increased agricultural yields
  • Region-wide trade network
  • 1st use of clay tablets for extensive record
    keeping Gilgamesh Epic

43
CUNEIFORM
  • Mesopotamia
  • Wedge-shaped
  • Ideogram
  • Stone inscriptions and clay tablets
  • Mari 20,000 tablets

44
Cuneiform Deciphered
  • Henry Rawlinson (1810-1895)
  • Worked two years copying inscription using
    ladders, ropes and slings
  • Behistun Stone
  • Persian King Darius battling Gaumata with the
    help of god Ahuramazda
  • Old Persian (414), Elamite (263), Akkadian (112)

45
Hammurabi
  • Ur gave way to Babylon and its Semitic rulers
  • Old Babylonian Empire
  • 2334-1650 B.C.
  • Code of Hammurabi 1792-1750 B.C.
  • 282 laws

46
HITTITE INTERLUDE
  • From Anatolia (eastern Turkey)
  • 1600 B.C.
  • Capital Hattusas
  • Control of 3 continents and seas
  • Created light-chariot warfare horses
  • Excavated in 1907
  • Archive of 20,000 tablets in Indo-European
    language

47
Uluburun Ship
  • Coast of southern Turkey 1310 B.C.
  • 350 copper ingots each weighing 60 lbs.
  • Ton of resin in two-handles jars from Syria
  • Ingots of blue glass hardwood amber turtle
    shells elephant tusks hippo teeth ostrich
    eggs jars of olives large jars filled with
    Cannaanite and Mycenean pottery

48
Assyrian and Babylonian
  • 900-539 B.C.
  • Assyrian capital Nineveh
  • King Assurnasirpals party
  • Tiglath Pileser III destroyed Bethsaida in 732
    B.C.
  • Last great Assyrian king Assurbanipal died in 630
    B.C.
  • Babylonians take over in 612 B.C.

49
Sennacherib
  • Assyrian
  • 705-681 B.C.
  • Capital Nineveh
  • Invasion of Israel in 702-701 B.C.
  • Ten Lost Tribes

50
Nebuchadnezzar
  • 604-562 B.C.
  • City of Babylon
  • Walls of glazed brick
  • Hanging gardens one of the ancient seven wonders
    of the world
  • Invaded Israel in 587-586 B.C.
  • State taken over by Cyrus the Persian in 534 B.C.

51
ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH
  • Several skills used long before excavation begins
    in the field
  • Theoretical skills
  • Methodological skills
  • Technical skills
  • Administrative/managerial skills
  • Writing and analytical skills

52
FORMULATION
  • Problem/hypothesis definition
  • Background research
  • Feasibility studies

53
IMPLEMENTATION
  • Permits
  • Funding
  • Logistics

54
DATA ACQUISITION
  • Reconnaissance
  • Survey
  • Excavation

55
DATA PROCESSING
  • Cleaning and conservation
  • Cataloging
  • Initial classifications

56
ANALYSIS
  • Analytical classifications
  • Temporal frameworks
  • Spatial frameworks

57
INTERPRETATION
  • Application of theories
  • Cultural historical and/or
  • Cultural processual theory

58
PUBLICATION AND RESTORATION
  • Final reports
  • Research results used as a foundation for new
    research

59
Hymn to Aton----Pharaoh Akhenation
  • Thou makes the Nile in the Nether world Thou
    bringest it as thou desirest,
  • To preserve alive the people of Egypt. For
    Thou hast made them for thyself, Thou lord of
    them all.

60
ANCIENT EGYPT
  • The Greek writers said the land of Egypt was the
    gift of the Nile River
  • Starts in equatorial Africa as the White Nile and
    flows 2100 miles north to join the Blue Nile for
    the last 1900 miles
  • Egyptians called their country the Two Lands
    Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt
  • Travel either khed (downstream) or khent
    (upstream)

61
Different from Mesopotamia
  • Egypt stability and serenity
  • Mesopotamia harsh environment, sporadic
    flooding, open plain allowed foreign incursions
  • Egypt rich, fertile black soil annual flooding
    surrounded by deserts and Red Sea abundant
    mineral resources rich in granite, limestone,
    basalt

62
Importance of Egyptian Chronology
  • All of the chronological dates in the
    Mediterranean area for ancient civilizations are
    based on Egyptian chronology

63
Predynastic Egyptian Cultures 5000-3100 B.C.
  • Amratian
  • Badarian
  • Gerzean

64
Egyptian History
  • Pharaoh is a biblical term never used by the
    Egyptians themselves
  • Greek pharaohs divided into 30 dynasties (3000
    BC to Alexander)
  • Ptolemaic Egypt (332-30 BC)
  • Roman occupation (30 BC became an imperial
    province of Rome)

65
ANCIENT EGYPTIAN PERIODS
  • Unification of Egypt 3100 B.C
  • Archaic Period 3100-2770 B.C.
  • Old Kingdom 2770-2200 B.C.
  • First Intermediate Period 2200-2050 B.C.
  • Middle Kingdom 2050-1786 B.C.
  • Second Intermediate 1786-1560 B.C.

66
ANCIENT EGYPTIAN PERIODS
  • New Kingdom 1560-1087 B.C.
  • Late Period 1087-332 B.C.
  • Ptolemaic Period 332-30 B.C.
  • Roman Occupation 30 B.C.

67
Unification of Egypt
  • 1st Pharaoh-----Narmer-----3100 B.C.
  • Unified Upper and Lower Egypt
  • Heirankapolis
  • 1st heiroglyphics
  • Narmers Pallette

68
Old Kingdom IIIrd Dynasty
  • 2770 B.C.
  • Zoser (Djoser)
  • Great state power systemabsolutism
  • Founder of the Old Kingdom
  • Builder of 1st Pyramid
  • Step Pyramid
  • Saqqarah

69
Fourth Dynasty
  • Parallels Early Bronze Age III (2650-
  • 2350 B.C.)
  • Cheops (Khufu)
  • Chephren (Khafre)
  • Menkaure (Mycerinus)
  • Giza Pyramids and Sphinx
  • 2613-2494 B.C.

70
Pyramid Complex
  • Temenos Wall
  • Mortuary Temple
  • Causeway
  • Funerary Temple
  • Pyramid
  • Family pyramids

71
(No Transcript)
72
HEIROGLYPHICS
  • Egyptian
  • Priestly carving
  • Pictogram
  • Stone inscriptions and papyrus writings
  • Jean Francois Champollion (1778- 1867)
  • Rosetta Stone
  • Heiroglyphic, Demotic, Greek

73
The 1st Intermediate Period and Middle Kingdom
(2134-1640 BC)
  • Despotic, ruthless rulers
  • Conspicuous, costly monuments
  • Pepi I..last pharaoh of Old Kingdom94 years
  • Decline caused by drouth
  • Repeated famines for over 300 yrs.
  • Political chaos disunity rulers of small
    kingdoms

74
Middle Kingdom (2134-1640 BC)
  • Restored by Pharaoh Mentuhotep II operating out
    of Thebes
  • Middle Kingdom pharaohs (no outstanding names)
  • Less despotic
  • Concern for the common welfare
  • Classic period of Egyptian civilization
  • Extensive trade relations extended

75
Middle Kingdom
  • Trade relations with entire eastern Mediterranean
  • Mined copper and gold in Sinai
  • Imported cedar from Lebanon
  • Inscriptions in Byblos and Ugarit
  • Objects from Aegean Islands and Minoan towns on
    Crete
  • Increased agricultural production

76
Second Intermediate Period1640-1530 B.C.
  • Hidau khasut (Hyksos).Princes of desert
    uplands
  • Joseph story
  • Capital Avaris in the Delta
  • Changed Egyptian civilization
  • Brought stronger bows, new forms of swords and
    daggers, and horse-drawn chariots (strength of
    New Kingdom)

77
New Kingdom (1530-1070 BC)18th-19th-20th
Dynasties
  • Pharaoh Ahmose I the Liberator
  • Turned Egypt into an efficiently run military
    state
  • This era the greatest in Egyptian history
  • Pharaohs become imperial rulers, skilled
    generals, and strong military leaders

78
New Kingdom
  • Main wars with Mitanni and Hittites
  • Financed with Nubian gold lands upstream of the
    First Cataract
  • Centers primarily on the Late Bronze Period
  • This was the 1st true International Period

79
Thebes the Estate of Amun
  • Amun-Ra the king of the gods
  • Karnak and Luxor Temples
  • Built mainly during 18th dynasty
  • Ramasseum of Ramses II
  • Estate of Amun extended across west of the
    Nile Valley of the Kings (62 royal burials)

80
The Temples
  • Deir el-Bahri (local cult of Hathor mortuary
    temples 11th dynasty Mentuhotep 18th dynasty
    Hatshepsut Tutmosis III temple complex for God
    Amun
  • Medinet Habu (Hatshepsut and Tutmosis III Ramses
    III mortuary)

81
Akhenaten and Amarna
  • Rejects Amun for Aten
  • Ruled 1353-1336 BC (17 years)
  • Builds new city at El-amarna
  • Succeeded by Smenkhare, son of Amenhotep III (3
    years)
  • Succeeded by Tutankhamun (1333-1323 BC)

82
Tel El Amarna
  • Single stratum
  • Pharaoh Amenophis IV (Akhenaten)
  • 1375-1325 B.C.
  • Amarna Tablets
  • Political and cultural interactions between Egypt
    and the ancient Near East

83
19th Dynasty (1307-1196 BC)
  • Dominated by the Rameside pharaohs
  • Most powerful pharaoh Ramses II (1290-1224 BC)
  • His tomb in Valley of Kings recent find of his
    sons tombs under his
  • Ramses III Dies in 1070 BC last powerful
    pharaoh
  • Assyria 725 BC

84
Archaeology and Language
  • Ramses III and Medinet Habu
  • PRST
  • Cypriot-Minoans
  • PLST

85
PALESTINE
  • Ramses III and Medinet Habu
  • PRST Sea Peoples
  • Cypriot-Minoan
  • PLST

86
EARLY BRONZE AGE (3100-2000 BC)
  • EB I, II, III, IV
  • EBI (3100-2900) Sumeria, Egypt
  • Increasingly shorter periods
  • Faster transition
  • Larger populations
  • Increased technology and inventions
  • Two main bronze tools axeheads and tanged daggers

87
EARLY BRONZE AGE
  • Broad Houses
  • Totally new pottery styles
  • Wide use of sickle blades
  • Canaanite culture in Israel protohistorical
  • Most large Israeli cities established
  • Family burials caves

88
Urban Period Large Cities for Four Reasons
  • Hills convenient for fortification
  • Located on major water sources
  • In the center of agricultural areas
  • Beside major road junctions
  • Public buildings palaces, temples, central
    granaries
  • Fortified urban centers for protection and
    agricultural districts

89
An Interlude The EBIV/MBI)
  • 300 years Palestine sparsely populated by
    pastoralists and village dwellers
  • Parallels Egypts 1st Intermediate era
  • Revived urbanization at beginning of MBII
    parallels Egypts Middle Kingdom
  • Only a few tels show occupation Hazor, Megiddo,
    Bethshan, Jericho

90
MIDDLE BRONZE AGE (2000-1500 BC)
  • W.F. Albright said MBI was period of the Hebrew
    patriarchs
  • MBII and III (1800-1550 BC)
  • Large fortified cities many found on virgin soil
    or places not occupied for centuries
  • Use of glacis, guard towers, massive wall
    fortification

91
Middle Bronze Age
  • Total revolution in all aspects of material
    culture
  • Settlement pattern
  • Urbanism
  • Architecture
  • Pottery
  • Metallurgy
  • Burial customs

92
Middle Bronze Age
  • Numerous new types of metal weapons and tools
  • Sinuhe
  • Execration texts
  • Hyksos scarabs found in Israel
  • Invention of potters wheel with resulting finer
    ceramics

93
STRUCTURE STYLES
  • Early Bronze Broad House
  • Iron Age II Four-Room House (1200-586 B.C.)
  • Solomonic (965-928 B.C.) Six-chambered Gate
  • Herod the Great (37-4 B.C.) Margin Stones

94
PSEUDO-ARCHAEOLOGY
  • Chariot Of The Gods
  • Indiana Jones
  • Pyramid Power

95
ARCHAEOLOGY AS A SCIENCE
  • Theoretical framework
  • Techniques
  • Methods

96
Antiquarians Three Museums
  • British Museum
  • Louvre Museum
  • Berlin Museum

97
THE VALUE OF ARCHAEOLOGY
  • 1. It provides the general background of past
    cultures
  • 2. Historical records are by no means complete
  • 3. Helps in the translation and explanation of
    languages
  • 4. Validates some literature

98
Artifacts Lewis Binfords Functional Approach
  • Technofacts
  • Sociofacts
  • Ideofacts

99
Methods of Expressing Dates
  • B.C. and A.D.
  • B.C.E and A.C. E.
  • B.P and A.P.

100
JOSEPHUS
  • Jewish General
  • Turncoat
  • Antiquities and Wars of the Jews
  • Masada

101
SITE FORMATION PROCESSES
  • Behavioral processes
  • Cultural
  • What in our modern societies would leave no
    remains?

102
SITE FORMATION PROCESSES
  • Transformational processes
  • Organic decay
  • Lava flow from volcanic eruptions
  • Plowing
  • Destruction
  • Erosion
  • Construction
  • Later occupants Philistine garbage pits
  • Animal activity

103
THE SETTING OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA
  • Matrix
  • Provenience
  • Association

104
ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONTEXT
  • Derived from the careful recording of the
  • matrix, provenience, and association
  • More than just a spot, a position in time and
    space..involves assessing how
  • the find got to its position and what
  • happened since its deposition

105
THE DETERMINANTS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA
  • Primary Context
  • Secondary Context

106
CLASSIFYING ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES
  • By archaeological content
  • By artifact content
  • By geographical location
  • By artifact content related to site function

107
Marcus Aurelius
  • TIME IS LIKE A RIVER MADE UP OF THE EVENTS WHICH
    HAPPEN, AND A VIOLENT STREAM FOR AS SOON AS A
    THING HAS BEEN SEEN, IT IS CARRIED AWAY, AND
    ANOTHER COMES IN ITS PLACE, AND THIS WILL BE
    CARRIED AWAY, TOO.

108
FIRST QUESTION ALWAYS
  • HOW OLD IS IT?

109
CHRONOLOGY
  • The temporal ordering of data

110
CHRONOLOGY
  • The measurement of time and the ordering of
    prehistoric cultures in chronological sequence
    has been of the archaeologists major
    preoccupations since the very beginning of
    scientific research

111
AGE DETERMINATIONS
  • Relative
  • Absolute

112
RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY
  • The law of stratigraphy
  • The law of superposition
  • The law of association
  • The law of typology

113
CLASSIFICATION
  • A means for ordering data

114
OBJECTIVES OF CLASSIFICATION
  • Organizing data into manageable units
  • Describing types
  • Identifying relationships between types
  • Studying assemblage variation in the
    archaeological record

115
ARCHAEOLOGICAL TYPES
  • Descriptive types
  • Chronological types
  • Functional types
  • Stylistic types

116
ATTRIBUTE ANALYSIS
  • Formal attributes
  • Stylistic attributes
  • Technological attributes

117
Age Determination by Archaeological
Classifications
  • Changes in
  • Manufacturing methods
  • Function
  • Style
  • Decoration

118
Sir Flinders Petrie
  • Diospolis Parva
  • Stylistic seriation
  • Predynastic Egyptian tombs
  • Storage Jars

119
ATTRIBUTES IN TYPOLOGY
  • Formal attributes
  • Stylistic attributes
  • Technological attributes

120
ABSOLUTE/CHRONOMETRIC DATING
  • More effort has been devoted to inventing methods
    of chronometric dating in archaeology than to
    almost any other aspect
    of the subject.

121
CALENDARS
  • Greece
  • Rome
  • Egypt
  • Carthage
  • Mesopotamia
  • Maya
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