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Mobile Database Systems

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Title: Mobile Database Systems


1
Mobile Database Systems
  • Vijay Kumar
  • Computer Sc. Telecommunications
  • University of Missouri-Kansas City
  • 5100 Rockhill Road
  • Kansas City, MO 64110, USA
  • kumar_at_cstp.umkc.edu

2
Mobile Database Systems
  • Outline
  • Fully Connected Information Space
  • Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • Transaction Management
  • Data Caching
  • Query Processing
  • Data Classification
  • Conclusion

3
Mobile Database Systems
  • Fully connected information space

4
Mobile Database Systems
  • Fully connected information space
  • Each node of the information space has some
    communication capability.
  • Some node can process information.
  • Some node can communicate through voice channel.
  • Some node can do both

5
Mobile Database Systems
  • Fully connected information space

Can be created and maintained by integrating
legacy database systems, and wired and wireless
systems (PCS, Cellular system, and GSM)
6
Mobile Database Systems
What is a Mobile Database System (MDS)?
  • A system with the following structural and
    functional properties
  • Distributed system with mobile connectivity
  • Full database system capability
  • Complete spatial mobility
  • Built on PCS/GSM platform
  • Wireless and wired communication capability

7
Mobile Database Systems
What is a mobile connectivity?
A mode in which a client or a server can
establish communication with each other whenever
needed. Intermittent connectivity is a special
case of mobile connectivity.
8
Mobile Database Systems
What is intermittent connectivity?
  • A node in which only the client can establish
    communication whenever needed with the server but
    the server cannot do so.

9
Personal Communication System (PCS)
Part 1
  • Architecture
  • Wireless communication
  • Bandwidth limitations
  • Frequency reuse

10
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • A system where wired and wireless networks are
    integrated for establishing communication.

11
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • PCS refers to variety of wireless access
    (communication) and personal mobility services
    provided through a small terminal at any place,
    and in any form. Business opportunities
    (E-commerce) for such services are tremendous,
    since every person, every organization, etc.,
    could be equipped. Several PCS systems have been
    developed to meet rapid growth prompted by market
    demand. Most of them are connected to Public
    Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) to integrate
    with the wired service.
  • Two of the most popular PCS systems are
  • Cellular telephony
  • Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony

12
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Cellular telephony overview
  • Four popular cellular telephony networks are
  • Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)
  • Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)
  • EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular System
  • EIA/TIA IS-95 Digital Cellular System

13
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Cellular telephony overview

Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) AMPS was
the first cellular system, which was developed
during the 1970s by Bell Lab. From 1974 to 1978,
a large scale AMPS trial was conducted in
Chicago. Commercial AMPS service has been
available since 1983. It is based on frequency
division multiple access (FDMA), AMP was designed
as a high capacity system based on a frequency
reuse scheme. A total of 50 MHz in the 824-849
MHz and 869-894 MHz bands is allocated for
AMPS.This spectrum is divided into 832
full-duplex channels using 1664 discrete
frequencies, that is, 832 downlinks and 832
uplinks. In AMPS, the typical frequency reuse
plan employs either a 12-group frequency cluster
using omnidirectional antennas or a 7-group
cluster using three sectors per base stations.
Thus, there are about 50 channels per cell.
14
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Cellular telephony overview

Global System for Mobile Communication
(GSM) GSM is a digital cellular system developed
by Groupe Special Mobile of Conference Europeenne
des Postes et Telecommunications (CEPT) and its
successor European Telecommunications Standard
Institute (ETSI). GSM combines time divisioin
multiple access (TDMA) and FDMA. With TDMA, the
radio hardware in the base station can be shared
among multiple users. In GSM the frequency
carrier is divided into eight time slots where
the speech coding rate is 13 Kbps. In a GSM base
station, every pair of radio transceiver-receiver
supports eight voice channels, whereas an AMPS
base station needs one such pair for every voice
channel. The GSM development process was similar
to that of AMPS, except that no large scale trial
was conducted.
15
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Cellular telephony overview

EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular System This
system is also referred to as digital AMPS
(DAMPS), American Digital Cellular (ADC), or
North American TDMA (NA-TDMA), IS-136, the
successor to IS-54, supports a TDMA air interface
similar to that of GSM. IS-54 was renamed IS-136
when it reached revision C. It supports three
voice channels, where the speech coding rate is
7.95 Kbps. IS-136 capacity is around three times
that of AMPS. An existing AMPS system can be
easily upgraded to IS-136 0n a circuit-by-circuit
basis.
16
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Cellular telephony overview

EIA/TIA IS-95 Digital Cellular System This
digital cellular system was developed by
Qualcomm, and has been operating in USA since
1996. IS-95 is based on Code Division Multiple
Access (CDMA) technology. It allows many users
to share a common frequency/time channel for
transmission. The channel bandwidth used by
IS-95 is 1.25 MHz, which has been extended to 5
MHz in the third generation wideband CDMA
proposal. The speech coding rate for IS-95 is 13
Kbps or 8 Kbps. IS-95s capacity is estimated to
be 10 times that of AMPS.
17
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Cordless telephony technologies

Cordless Telephone, Second Generation
(CT2) Developed in Europe, and has been
available since 1989. CT2 is allocated 40 FDMA
channels with a 32-Kbps speech coding rate. For
a user, both baseptop handset signals and
handset-to-base signals are transmitted in the
same frequency. The maximum transmit power of a
CT2 handset is 10 mW. In the call setup
procedure, CT2 moves a call path from one radio
channel to another after three seconds of
handshake failure. CT2 also supports data
transmission rates of up to 2.4 Kbps through the
speech code and up to 4.8 Kbps with an increased
rate. CT2 does not support handoff and in a
public CT2 system, call delivery is not
supported.
18
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Cordless telephony technologies

Digital European Cordless Telephone (DECT) The
Digital European Cordless Telephone has been
replaced by Digital Enhanced Cordless Telephone
to denote global acceptance of DECT. DECT
supports high user density with a picocell
design. There are 12 voice channels per
frequency carrier. Sleep mode is employed to
converse handset power. DECT also supports
seamless handoff. DECT is typically implemented
as a wireless-PBX (Private Brach Exchange)
connected to PSTN. DECT can interwork with GSM
to allow user mobility.
19
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Low-tier PCS telephony overview

Personal Handy Phone System (PHS) PHS is a
standard developed by the Research and
Development Center for Radio Systems (RCR), a
private standardization organization in Japan.
PHS is a low-tier digital PCS system that offers
telecommunication services for homes, offices,
and outdoor environment, using radio access to
the public telephone network or other digital
networks. PHS uses TDMA. Sleep mode enables PHS
to support five hours of talk time, or 150 hours
of standby time. PHS operates in the 1895-1918.1
MHz band. The bandwidth is partitioned into 77
channels, each with 300 KHz bandwidth. The band
1906.1-1918.1 MHz (40 channels) is designed for
public systems, and the band 1895-1906.1 MHz (37
channels) is used for home/office applications.
20
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Low-tier PCS telephony overview

Personal Access Communications Systems
(PACS) PACS is a low-power PCS system developed
at Telcordia (formerly Bellcore). TDMA is used
in PACS with eight voice channels per frequency
carrier. In FDD mode, the PACS uplink and
downlink utilizes different RF carriers, similar
to cellular systems.
21
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony overview


System High-tier Cellular Low-tier PCS Cordless
Cell size Large (0.4-22 mile) Medium (30-300) Small (30-60)
User speed High (? 160 mph) Medium (? 60 mph) Low (? 30 mph)
Coverage area Large/Continuous macrocell Medium. Micro and picocell Small/Zonal, picocell
Handset complexity High Low Low
H-set power use High (100-800 mW) Low (5-10 mW) Low (5-10 mW)
Speech coding rate Low (8-13 Kbps) High (32 Kpbs) High (32 Kpbs)
Delay or latency High (? 600 ms) Low (?10 ms) Low (? 20 ms)
22
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Wireless Components

Base Station (BS) A network element that
interconnects the mobile station (or Mobile unit
(MU)) to the network via the air interface. Each
cell in the network has a BS associated with it.
The primary function of a BS is to maintain the
air interface, or medium, for communication to
any mobile unit within its cell. Other functions
of BS are call processing, signaling,
maintenance, and diagnostics. The BS
communicates to its mobile unit via the air
interface, and to MTSO by dedicated communication
link such as T1 trunks. Communication links on
the BS to the MTSO interface are also classified
into voice links and signaling link.
23
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Wireless Components

Mobile Units (MU) Also called Mobile Systems
(MS) or Mobile Hosts (MH). It consists of three
components (a) transceiver, (b) antenna, and (c)
user interface. The user interface exists only
at MU, which consists of a display, a keypad for
entering information, and an audio interface for
speaking and hearing voice conversation. This
can be a laptop, a palmtop, or a cell phone, or
any other mobile device. A MU also stores (a)
Mobile Identification Number (MIN), (b)
Electronic Serial Number (EIN), and (C) Station
Class Mark (SCM). These are transmitted upon
power on, cell initiated sampling, and cell
origination.
24
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Wireless Components

25
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Wireless channels are limited

Item Europe (MHz) US (MHz) Japan (MHz)
Mobile Phones NMT 453-457, 463-467 GSM 890-915, 935-960, 1710-1785, 1805-1880 AMPS, TDMA, CDMA 824-849, 869-894 GSM, TDMA, CDMA 1850-1910, 1930-1990 PDC 810-826 940-956, 1429-1465, 1477-1513.
Cordless Phones CT1 885-887, 930-932 CT2 864-868 DECT 1880-1900 PACS 1850-1910,1930-1990 PACS-UB 1910-1930 PHS 1895-1918 JCT 254-380
NMT Nordic Mobile Telephone PDC Pacific Digital
Cellular PACS Personal Access Communications
System PHS Personal Handyphone
System PACS-UB PACS Unlicensed
Band JCT Japanese Cordless Telephone (Taken from
Mobile Communications by Jochen Schiller)
26
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Limited channels must be utilized efficiently.
    It is done so by (a) Frequency reuse and (b)
    Mobile cell

Frequency reuse The goal of every mobile service
provider is to manage as many simultaneous calls
as possible. In USA each cellular provider is
allocated 25 MHz of spectrum, 12.5 MHz for
transmitting (downstream) and 12.5 MHz for
receiving (upstream). Cellular system is duplex
because transmitting and receiving are allocated
their own frequencies. A person on a mobile call
only needs the allocated frequency of the cell,
thus there is no reason somebody else on the
other end of the town cannot be using the same
frequency in a different cell. The concept of
multiple users using the same frequency at the
same time for communication is called frequency
reuse.

27
Personal Communication System (PCS)
Frequency reuse (continued) For frequency reuse
to work correctly it is imperative that each base
station has just sufficient power to reach its
cell boundary. If it puts out too much power,
then it will not only reach the intended cell
site, it will reach unintended cell sites, which
others may be using at the same frequency for a
totally different conversation. This limitation
on transmitted power, however, is also an
advantage because the cellular phones battery
will last longer.

28
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Mobile cell

Within the cellular allocation the USA is divided
into Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and
Rural Statistical Areas (RSAs). There are six
PCS service providers authorized to provide
mobile service in each of these areas. Within
their geographical region, each service provider
divides their area into smaller segments called
cells. Each of this cell has a Base Station.
Ideally, the system has a large number of very
small hexagons (cell). The greater the number of
hexagons, the more simultaneous calls the system
can handle. However, larger number of hexagons
increases the cost of implementation. Thus, cell
coverage is a dynamic activity, which is
constantly changing in response to increases in
demand.
29
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Mobile cells

30
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Mobile cells
  • The entire coverage area is a group of a number
    of cells. The size of cell depends upon the
    power of the base stations.

31
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Frequency reuse

32
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Problems with cellular structure
  • How to maintain continuous communication between
    two parties in the presence of mobility?
  • Solution Handoff
  • How to maintain continuous communication between
    two parties in the presence of mobility?
  • Solution Roaming
  • How to locate of a mobile unit in the entire
    coverage area?
  • Solution Location management

33
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Handoff

A process, which allows users to remain in touch,
even while breaking the connection with one BS
and establishing connection with another BS.
34
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Handoff
  • To keep the conversation going, the Handoff
    procedure should be completed while the MS (the
    bus) is in the overlap region.

35
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Handoff issues
  • Handoff detection
  • Channel assignment
  • Radio link transfer

36
Personal Communication System (PCS)
Handoff detection strategies
  • Mobile-Controlled handoff (MCHO)
  • Network-Controlled handoff (NCHO)
  • Mobile-Assisted handoff (MAHO)

37
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO)

In this strategy, the MS continuously monitors
the radio signal strength and quality of the
surrounding BSs. When predefined criteria are
met, then the MS checks for the best candidate BS
for an available traffic channel and requests the
handoff to occur. MACHO is used in DECT and PACS.
38
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO)

In this strategy, the surrounding BSs, the MSC or
both monitor the radio signal. When the signals
strength and quality deteriorate below a
predefined threshold, the network arranges for a
handoff to another channel. NCHO is used in CT-2
Plus and AMPS.
39
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO)

It is a variant of NCHO strategy. In this
strategy, the network directs the MS to measure
the signal from the surrounding BSs and to report
those measurements back to the network. The
network then uses these measurements to determine
where a handoff is required and to which channel.
MACHO is used in GSM and IS-95 CDMA.
40
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Handoff types with reference to the network
  • Intra-system handoff or Inter-BS handoff
  • The new and the old BSs are connected to the
    same MSC.

41
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Intra-system handoff or Inter-BS handoff
  • Steps
  • The MU (MS) momentarily suspends conversation and
    initiates the handoff procedure by signaling on
    an idle (currently free) channel in the new BS.
    Then it resumes the conversation on the old BS.

42
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Intra-system handoff or Inter-BS handoff
  1. Upon receipt of the signal, the MSC transfers the
    encryption information to the selected idle
    channel of the new BS and sets up the new
    conversation path to the MS through that channel.
    The switch bridges the new path with the old
    path and informs the MS to transfer from the old
    channel to the new channel.

43
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Intra-system handoff or Inter-BS handoff
  1. After the MS has been transferred to the new BS,
    it signals the network and resumes conversation
    using the new channel.

44
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Intra-system handoff or Inter-BS handoff
  1. Upon the receipt of the handoff completion
    signal, the network removes the bridge from the
    path and releases resources associated with the
    old channel.

45
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Handoff types with reference to the network
  • Intersystem handoff or Inter-MSC handoff
  • The new and the old BSs are connected to
    different MSCs.

46
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Handoff types with reference to link transfer
  • Hard handoff
  • The MS connects with only one BS at a time, and
    there is usually some interruption in the
    conversation during the link transition.
  • Soft handoff
  • The two BSs are briefly simultaneously connected
    to the MU while crossing the cell boundary. As
    soon as the mobile's link with the new BS is
    acceptable, the initial BS disengages from the MU.

47
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Handoff types with reference to link transfer
  • Hard handoff
  • MU temporarily suspends the voice conversation by
    sending a link suspend message to the old BS.
  • MU sends a handoff request message through an
    idle time slot of the new BS to the network.
  • The new BS sends a handoff ack message and marks
    the slot busy.
  • The MU returns the old assigned channel by
    sending a link resume message to the old BS.

48
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Handoff types with reference to link transfer
  • Hard handoff
  • MU continues voice communication while the
    network prepares for the handoff.
  • Upon receipt of a handoff request message, the
    new BS sends a handoff ack message and
    reconfigures itself to effect the handoff.
  • The MSC inserts a bridge into the conversation
    path and bridges the new BS.
  • Finally, the network informs the MU to execute
    the handoff via both the new and old BSs by
    sending the handoff execute message.

49
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Handoff types with reference to link transfer
  • Hard handoff
  • MU releases the old channel by sending an access
    release message to the old BS.
  • Once the MU has made the transfer to the new BS,
    it sends the network a handoff complete message
    through the new channel, and resumes the voice
    communication. The network removes the bridge
    from the path and frees up the resources
    associated with the old channel.

50
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Handoff types with reference to link transfer
  • Soft handoff
  • MU sends a pilot strength measurement message to
    the old BS, indicating the new BS to be added.
  • The old BS sends a handoff request message to the
    MSC. If the MSC accepts the handoff request, it
    sends a handoff request message to the new BS.
  • The BS sends a null traffic message to the MU to
    prepare the establishment of the communication
    link.

51
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Handoff types with reference to link transfer
  • Soft handoff
  • The new BS sends a join request message to the
    MSC. The MSC bridges the connection for the two
    BSs, so that the handoff can be processed without
    breaking the connection.
  • The new BS sends a handoff ack message to the old
    BS via the MSC. The old BS instructs the MU to
    add a link to the new BS by exchanging the
    handoff command and handoff complete messages.

52
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Handoff types with reference to link transfer
  • Soft handoff
  • The old BS and the MSC conclude this procedure by
    exchanging the required handoff information. The
    quality of the new link is guaranteed by the
    exchange of the pilot measurement request and the
    pilot strength measurement message pair between
    the MU and the new BS.

53
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Roaming

Roaming is a facility, which allows a subscriber
to enjoy uninterrupted communication from
anywhere in the entire coverage space. A mobile
network coverage space may be managed by a number
of different service providers. They must
cooperate with each other to provide roaming
facility. Roaming can be provided only if some
administrative and technical constraints are met.
54
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Roaming

Administrative constraints
  • Billing.
  • Subscription agreement.
  • Call transfer charges.
  • User profile and database sharing.
  • Any other policy constraints.

55
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Roaming

Technical constraints
  • Bandwidth mismatch. For example, European 900MHz
    band may not be available in other parts of the
    world. This may preclude some mobile equipment
    for roaming.
  • Service providers must be able to communicate
    with each other. Needs some standard.
  • Mobile station constraints.

56
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Roaming

Technical constraints
  • Integration of a new service provider into the
    network. A roaming subscriber must be able to
    detect this new provider.
  • Service providers must be able to communicate
    with each other. Needs some standard.
  • Quick MU response to a service providers
    availability.
  • Limited battery life.

57
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Roaming
  • Two basic operations in roaming management are
  • Registration (Location update) The process of
    informing the presence or arrival of a MU to a
    cell.
  • Location tracking the process of locating the
    desired MU.

58
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Roaming
  • Registration (Location update) There are six
    different types of registration.
  • Power-down registration. Done by the MU when it
    intends to switch itself off.
  • Power-up registration. Opposite to power-down
    registration. When an MU is switched on, it
    registers.
  • Deregistration. A MU decides to acquire control
    channel service on a different type of network
    (public, private, or residential).

59
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Roaming
  • Registration (Location update) There are six
    different types of registration.
  • New system/Location area registration when the
    location area of the MU changes, it sends a
    registration message.
  • Periodic registration A MU may be instructed to
    periodically register with the network.
  • Forced registration A network may, under certain
    circumstances, force all MUs to register.

60
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Registration

Two-Tier Scheme
HLR Home Location Register A HLR stores user
profile and the geographical location. VLR
Visitor Location Register A VLR stores user
profile and the current location who is a visitor
to a different cell that its home cell.
61
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Registration

Two-Tier Scheme steps. MU1 moves to cell 2.
62
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Registration
  • Steps
  • MU1 moves to cell 2. The MSC of cell 2 launches
    a registration query to its VLR 2.
  • VLR2 sends a registration message containing MUs
    identity (MIN), which can be translated to HLR
    address.
  • After registration, HLR sends an acknowledgment
    back to VLR2.
  • HLR sends a deregistration message to VLR1 (of
    cell 1) to delete the record of MU1 (obsolete).
    VLR1 acknowledges the cancellation.

63
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Location tracking
  • Steps
  • VLR of cell 2 is searched for MU1s profile.
  • If it is not found, then HLR is searched.
  • Once the location of MU1 is found, then the
    information is sent to the base station of cell
    1.
  • Cell 1 establishes the communication.

64
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Location tracking

Two-Tier Scheme steps location search
65
Personal Communication System (PCS)
  • Location tracking

Two-Tier Scheme steps location update
66
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • Part 2
  • Architecture
  • Data categorization
  • Data management
  • Transaction management
  • Recovery

67
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • A Reference Architecture (Client-Server model)

68
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Applications
  • Insurance companies
  • Emergencies services (Police, medical, etc.)
  • Traffic control
  • Taxi dispatch
  • E-commerce
  • Etc.

69
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Limitations
  • Limited wireless bandwidth
  • Wireless communication speed
  • Limited energy source (battery power)
  • Less secured
  • Vulnerable to physical activities
  • Hard to make theft proof.

70
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS capabilities
  • Can physically move around without affecting data
    availability
  • Can reach to the place data is stored
  • Can process special types of data efficiently
  • Not subjected to connection restrictions
  • Very high reachability
  • Highly portable

71
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • Objective

To build a truly ubiquitous information
processing system by overcoming the inherent
limitations of wireless architecture.
72
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Issues
  • Data Management
  • Data Caching
  • Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk)
  • Data Classification
  • Transaction Management
  • Query processing
  • Transaction processing
  • Concurrency control
  • Database recovery

73
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Data Management Issues

How to improve data availability to user queries
using limited bandwidth?
  • Possible schemes
  • Semantic data caching The cache contents is
    decided by the results of earlier transactions or
    by semantic data set.
  • Data Broadcast on wireless channels

74
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Data Management Issues

How to improve data availability to user queries
using limited bandwidth?
  • Semantic caching
  • Client maintains a semantic description of the
    data in its cache instead of maintaining a list
    of pages or tuples.
  • The server processes simple predicates on the
    database and the results are cached at the client.

75
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Data Management Issues

Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk)
A set of most frequently accessed data is made
available by continuously broadcasting it on some
fixed radio frequency. Mobile Units can tune to
this frequency and download the desired data from
the broadcast to their local cache. A broadcast
(file on the air) is similar to a disk file but
located on the air.
76
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Data Management Issues

Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk)
The contents of the broadcast reflects the data
demands of mobile units. This can be achieved
through data access history, which can be fed to
the data broadcasting system. For efficient
access the broadcast file use index or some other
method.
77
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Data Management Issues

How MDS looks at the database data?
  • Data classification
  • Location Dependent Data (LDD)
  • Location Independent Data (LID)

78
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Data Management Issues

Location Dependent Data (LDD)
The class of data whose value is functionally
dependent on location. Thus, the value of the
location determines the correct value of the
data. Location Data value Examples
City tax, City area, etc.
79
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Data Management Issues

Location Independent Data (LID)
The class of data whose value is functionally
independent of location. Thus, the value of the
location does not determine the value of the
data. Example Person name, account number,
etc. The person name remains the same
irrespective of place the person is residing at
the time of enquiry.
80
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Data Management Issues

Location Dependent Data (LDD)
Example Hotel Taj has many branches in India.
However, the room rent of this hotel will depend
upon the place it is located. Any change in the
room rate of one branch would not affect any
other branch. Schema It remains the same only
multiple correct values exists in the database.
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Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Data Management Issues

Location Dependent Data (LDD)
LDD must be processed under the location
constraints. Thus, the tax data of Pune can be
processed correctly only under Punes finance
rule. Needs location binding or location
mapping function.
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Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Data Management Issues

Location Dependent Data (LDD)
Location binding or location mapping can be
achieved through database schema or through a
location mapping table.
83
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Data Management Issues

Location Dependent Data (LDD) Distribution
MDS could be a federated or a multidatabase
system. The database distribution (replication,
partition, etc.) must take into consideration
LDD. One approach is to represent a city in
terms of a number of mobile cells, which is
referred to as Data region. Thus, Pune can be
represented in terms of N cells and the LDD of
Pune can be replicated at these individual cells.
84
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Data Management Issues

Concept Hierarchy in LDD
In a data region the entire LDD of that location
can be represented in a hierarchical fashion.
85
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Query processing

Query types
  • Location dependent query
  • Location aware query
  • Location independent query

86
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Query processing

Location dependent query
A query whose result depends on the geographical
location of the origin of the query.
Example What is the distance of Pune railway
station from here? The result of this query is
correct only for here.
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Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Query processing

Location dependent query
Situation Person traveling in the car desires
to know his progress and continuously asks the
same question. However, every time the answer is
different but correct. Requirements Continuous
monitoring of the longitude and latitude of the
origin of the query. GPS can do this.
88
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Transaction Management

Transaction properties ACID (Atomicity,
Consistency, Isolation, and Durability). Too
rigid for MDS. Flexibility can be introduced
using workflow concept. Thus, a part of the
transaction can be executed and committed
independent to its other parts.
89
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Transaction Management

Transaction fragments for distribution.
90
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Transaction Management

Transaction fragments for distributed execution
Execution scenario User issues transactions
from his/her MU and the final results comes back
to the same MU. The user transaction may not be
completely executed at the MU so it is fragmented
and distributed among database servers for
execution. This creates a Distributed mobile
execution.
91
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Transaction Management

A mobile transaction (MT) can be defined as Ti
is a triple ltF, L, FLMgt where F e1, e2, ,
en is a set of execution fragments, L l1,
l2, , ln is a set of locations, and FLM
flm1, flm2, , flmn is a set of fragment
location mapping where ?j, flmi (ei) li
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Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Transaction Management
  • An execution fragment eij is a partial order eij
    ?j, ?j where
  • ?i OSj ? Ni where OSj ?kOjk, Ojk? read,
    write,
  • and Nj AbortL, CommitL.
  • For any Ojk and Ojl where Ojk R(x) and Ojl
    W(x) for data object x, then either Ojk ?j Ojl or
    Ojl ?j Ojk.

93
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Transaction Management

Mobile Transaction Models
Kangaroo Transaction It is requested at a MU but
processed at DBMS on the fixed network. The
management of the transaction moves with MU.
Each transaction is divided into subtransactions.
Two types of processing modes are allowed, one
ensuring overall atomicity by requiring
compensating transactions at the subtransaction
level.
94
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Transaction Management

Mobile Transaction Models
Reporting and Co-Transactions The parent
transaction (workflow) is represented in terms of
reporting and co-transactions which can execute
anywhere. A reporting transaction can share its
partial results with the parent transaction
anytime and can commit independently. A
co-transaction is a special class of reporting
transaction, which can be forced to wait by other
transaction.
95
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Transaction Management

Mobile Transaction Models
Clustering A mobile transaction is decomposed
into a set of weak and strict transactions. The
decomposition is done based on the consistency
requirement. The read and write operations are
also classified as weak and strict.
96
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Transaction Management

Mobile Transaction Models

Semantics Based The model assumes a mobile
transaction to be a long lived task and splits
large and complex objects into smaller manageable
fragments. These fragments are put together
again by the merge operation at the server. If
the fragments can be recombined in any order then
the objects are termed reorderable objects.
97
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Transaction Management

Mobile Transaction execution.
98
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Transaction Management

Serialization of concurrent execution.
  • Two-phase locking based (commonly used)
  • Timestamping
  • Optimistic
  • Reasons these methods may not work satisfactorily
  • Wired and wireless message overhead.
  • Hard to efficiently support disconnected
    operations.
  • Hard to manage locking and unlocking operations.

99
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Transaction Management

Serialization of concurrent execution.
New schemes based on timeout, multiversion,
etc., may work. A scheme, which uses minimum
number of messages, especially wireless messages
is required.
100
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Transaction Management

Database update to maintain global consistency.
Database update problem arises when mobile units
are also allowed to modify the database. To
maintain global consistency an efficient database
update scheme is necessary.
101
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Transaction Management

Transaction commit.
In MDS a transaction may be fragmented and may
run at more than one nodes (MU and DBSs). An
efficient commit protocol is necessary. 2-phase
commit (2PC) or 3-phase commit (3PC) is no good
because of their generous messaging requirement.
A scheme which uses very few messages, especially
wireless, is desirable.
102
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Transaction Management

Transaction commit.
One possible scheme is timeout based protocol.
Concept MU and DBSs guarantee to complete the
execution of their fragments of a mobile
transaction within their predefined timeouts.
Thus, during processing no communication is
required. At the end of timeout, each node
commit their fragment independently.
103
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Transaction Management

Transaction commit.
Protocol TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout
Requirements Coordinator Coordinates transaction
commit Home MU Mobile Transaction (MT)
originates here Commit set Nodes that process MT
(MU DBSs) Timeout Time period for executing a
fragment
104
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Transaction Management

Protocol TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout
  • MT arrives at Home MU.
  • MU extract its fragment, estimates timeout, and
    send rest of MT to the coordinator.
  • Coordinator further fragments the MT and
    distributes them to members of commit set.
  • MU processes and commits its fragment and sends
    the updates to the coordinator for DBS.
  • DBSs process their fragments and inform the
    coordinator.
  • Coordinators commits or aborts MT.

105
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Transaction Management

Transaction and database recovery.
  • Complex for the following reasons
  • Some of the processing nodes are mobile
  • Less resilient to physical use/abuse
  • Limited wireless channels
  • Limited power supply
  • Disconnected processing capability

106
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Transaction Management

Transaction and database recovery.
  • Desirable recovery features
  • Independent recovery capability
  • Efficient logging and checkpointing facility
  • Log duplication facility

107
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Transaction Management

Transaction and database recovery.
  • Independent recovery capability reduces
    communication overhead. Thus, MUs can recover
    without any help from DBS
  • Efficient logging and checkpointing facility
    conserve battery power
  • Log duplication facility improves reliability of
    recovery scheme

108
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Transaction Management

Transaction and database recovery.
  • Possible approaches
  • Partial recovery capability
  • Use of mobile agent technology

109
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • MDS Transaction Management

Transaction and database recovery.
  • Possible MU logging approaches
  • Logging at the processing node (e.g., MU)
  • Logging at a centralized location (e.g., at a
    designated DBS)
  • Logging at the place of registration (e.g., BS)
  • Saving log on Zip drive or floppies.

110
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • Mobile Agent Technology

A mobile agent is an independent software module
capable of
  • Migrating to any node on the network
  • Capable of spawning and eliminating itself
  • Capable of recording its own history

111
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • Mobile Agent Technology

A mobile agent can be used for the following
activities, which are essential for recovery.
  • Centralized and distributed logging
  • Log carrier. A Mobile unit may need to carry its
    log with it for independent recovery
  • Log processing for database recovery
  • Transaction commit or abort

112
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • Mobile Agent Technology

Possible approaches
  • Agent broadcast on a dedicated wireless channel
  • Pool of agents at every processing node
  • Agent migration to a required node.

113
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • Mobile E-commerce

What is E-commerce?
Mapping of business activity on the network.
The network may be mobile of ad-hoc in which case
the scope of business activities significantly
increases.
114
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • Mobile E-commerce

Why mobile E-commerce?
To make business activity free from spatial
constraints. This allows tremendous flexibility
to customers as well as to vendors. Important
gain Making information available at the right
time, at the right location, and in a right
format.
115
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • Mobile E-commerce

Requirements for a mobile E-system
  • Security
  • Reliability
  • Efficient
  • Customer trust
  • Quality of service

116
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • Mobile E-commerce

These requirements are difficulty and complex to
achieve
Security Conventional key approaches needs
revision. Reliability Hard to provide mainly
because of the unreliability and limitations of
resources.
117
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • Mobile E-commerce

These requirements are difficulty and complex to
achieve
Efficient This capability can be easily improved
mainly because of the elimination of spatial
constraints. Customer trust A time consuming
activity. Customer do not easily trust
electronic communication and always wants to see
a reliable backup service.
118
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • Mobile E-commerce

These requirements are difficulty and complex to
achieve
  • Quality of service
  • Mobility and web provides ample scope for
    improving the quality of service. An integration
    of mobility, web, data warehousing and workflow
    offers tremendous growth potential and a very
    controlled way of managing business activities.

119
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • Conclusions and summary

Wireless network is becoming a commonly used
communication platform. It provides a cheaper
way to get connected and in some cases this is
the only way to reach people. However, it has a
number of easy and difficult problems and they
must be solved before MDS can be built. This
tutorial discussed some of these problems and
identified a number of possible approaches.
120
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • Conclusions and summary

The emerging trend is to make all service
providing disciplines, such as web, E-commerce,
workflow systems, etc., fully mobile so that any
service can be provided from any place. Customer
can surf the information space from any location
at any time and do their shopping, make flight
reservation, open bank account, attend lectures,
and so on. This is what the wireless technology
driving us to.
121
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • References
  1. Acharya, S., Alonso, R., Franklin, M., and
    Zdonik, S. Broadcast Disks Data management for
    Asymmetric Communication Environments. Proc. ACM
    SIGMOD Conf., San Jose, May, 1995.   
  2. Alonso, R., and Korth, H. Database Systems
    Issues in Nomadic Computing. Proc. ACM SIGMOD
    International Conf. on management of Data, May
    1993.

122
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • References
  1. Barbara, D., and Imielinski, T. Sleepers and
    Workaholics Caching Strategies in Mobile
    Environments. Proc. ACM SIGMOD Conf.,
    Minneapolis, May, 1994.
  2. Chrysanthis, P. K., Transaction Processing in
    Mobile Computing Environment, in IEEE Workshop on
    Advances in Parallel and Distributed Systems,
    October 1993.

123
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • References
  1. Dhawan, C. Mobile Computing. McGraw-Hill, 1997.
  2. Dunham, M. H., Helal, A., and Balakrishnan, S., A
    Mobile Transaction Model That Captures Both the
    Data and Movement Behavior, ACM/Baltzer Journal
    on Special Topics in Mobile Networks and
    Applications, 1997.
  3. Forman, H. George and Zahorjan, J. The
    Challenges of Mobile Computing, IEEE Computers,
    Vol. 27, No. 4, April 1994.

124
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • References
  1. Pitoura, E. and Bhargava, B., Maintaining
    Consistency of Data in Mobile Distributed
    Environments. Proceedings of 15th International
    Conference on Distributed Computing Systems.,
    1995.
  2. Pitoura, E. and Bhargava, B., Building
    Information Systems for Mobile Environments,
    Proc. 3rd. Int. conf. on Information and
    Knowledge Management, Washington, DC, No. 1994.

125
Mobile Database Systems (MDS)
  • References
  1. Vijay Kumar, Timeout-based Mobile Transaction
    Commit Protocol, 2000 ADBIS-DASFAA Symposium on
    Advances in Databases and Information Systems,
    Prague, Sep. 5-8, 2000.
  2. Shaul Dar, Michael Franklin, Bjorn T. Johnsson,
    Divesh Srivastava, and Michael Tan, Semantic
    Data Caching and Replacement, Proc. Of the 22nd
    VLDB Conference, Mumbai, India, 1996.

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  • References
  1. E. Pitoura and G. Samaras, Data Management for
    Mobile Computing, Kluwer Academic Publishers,
    1998.
  2. E. Turban, at. el., Electronic Commerce A
    Managerial Perspective, Prentice Hall, 2000.
  3. L. Loeb, Secure Electronic Transactions, Artech
    House, 1998.
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