CHAPTER 12 BRIEF HISTORY OF AFRICA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – CHAPTER 12 BRIEF HISTORY OF AFRICA PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 21e5b3-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

CHAPTER 12 BRIEF HISTORY OF AFRICA

Description:

When Bantu-speaking farmers migrated, Bantu languages spread ... You can still hear the languages spoken today ... These tribes are mainly camel-herding nomads. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:145
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 81
Provided by: lynnneu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: CHAPTER 12 BRIEF HISTORY OF AFRICA


1
CHAPTER 12BRIEF HISTORY OF AFRICA
  • Bantu Migration-spread of Bantu language west to
    central and southern Africa
  • Trade Salt for Gold
  • Spread of Islam and Arabic
  • Slavery
  • Colonialization
  • Issues Today

Yes, Neumo did this one surprised?
2
Bantu Migration
3
Bantus
  • When Bantu-speaking farmers migrated, Bantu
    languages spread throughout much of central and
    southern Africa
  • You can still hear the languages spoken today
  • Swahili is a form of Bantu and Arabicmostly
    spoken in Eastern Africa

4
(No Transcript)
5
Bantus
  • The ancient Bantu peoples lived in Sub-Saharan
    Africa.
  • Sub-Saharan means South of the Sahara Desert
  • When they began to migrate and trade with central
    and south Africa, their knowledge of iron making,
    religious practices, and language spread

6
Bantu Languages
Southern Zulu, Swazi, Xhosa, Tswana, Basuto, Venda, Ndebele or Matabele, Pondo, Pedi
Central Shono, Bemba, Lozi
Eastern The Baganda, the Basoga, the Banyoro, the Batoro, and the Banyankole in Uganda. The Kikuyu, Luhya, Akamba, Meru, Embu, Taita, Giryama, Digo, Pokomo in Kenya Nyamwezi, Chagga, Yao,  Segeju, Zaramo in Tanzania,
Ancestors of the Bantus make up 2/3 of todays
African population. They inhabit the Southern
and Eastern part of the continent.
The Bantus are known for being more of a language
group rather than a distinct ethnic group. The
most widely spoken Bantu language is Swahili.
This is spoken by 50 million Africans in Eastern
Africa.
7
Salt for Gold
TRADE
8
Salt for Gold
NORTH
WEST
  • The build up of the trans-Saharan trade routes
    developed because of the availability of the
    camel and the need to trade salt for gold.

9
West Africa had the GoldNorth Africa had the Salt
  • Around the time that East and North African
    city-states were developing, great trading areas
    arose on the west side of the continent.
  • Trade routes were developed across the Sahara
    desert trading salt for gold.
  • With the trade, came the diffusion of religion
    and language

10
(No Transcript)
11
Salt for Gold
  • Tombuctu, Mali, becomes a major trading city. It
    is on the edge of the Sahara and the Sahel.
    Crossroads of the caravans
  • Northern traders spread the religion of Islam and
    the Arabic language along their routes

12
West Coast had more than gold, also
ivory, spices, and slaves
Caravan crossing Ahaggar Mts-central Sahara
Caravan Crossing More Sahara Desert
13
Salt for Gold
  • City-statesa city that has its own traditions,
    government and laws. It is both a city and
    country. The city controls much of the
    surrounding land.
  • Trans-Sahara routeTrans means across,
    Saharaplace, route
  • Diffusionspreading, mixing of cultures

14
COLONIALIZATION OF AFRICA
15
African Trade 15c-17c
16
Pre-19c European Trade with Africa
17
Colonialism
  • Top 3 reasons for Europe coming and taking over
    Africa
  • 1. Industrial Revolution--resources
  • 2. Nationalismwho has power
  • 3. Spread Christianity
  • Western Hemisphere controlled by the USA

18
2
EuropeanNationalism
Source for Raw Materials
3
MissionaryActivity
Industrial Revolution
1
European Motives For Colonization
Markets forFinishedGoods
Military NavalBases
Places toDumpUnwanted/Excess Popul.
EuropeanRacism
HumanitarianReasons
Soc. Eco.Opportunities
19
European Explorations in mid-19cThe Scramble
for Africa
20
1. Where Is Dr. Livingstone?
DoctorLivingstone,I Presume?
Sir Henry Morton Stanley
Dr. David Livingstone
21
2. What is the Source of the Nile?
Sir Richard Burton
John Speke
22
Africa 1890
23
Africa in 1914
24
European Claims 1914
The artificial boundaries created by the
Europeans had the effect of bringing together
many different ethnic people within a nation,
that did not reflect nor have the ability to
accommodate or provide for, the cultural and
ethnic diversity.
25
Berlin Conference of 1884-1885
26
Scramble for Africa
  • Also known as the Race for Africa
  • All of this territory claiming by European
    nations caused a competitive rush for territory
    in Africa
  • As a result, Germany initiated a conference in
    1884 for European nations to regulate the rush
    for territory

27
When the European Colonialists came, they had the
Bible, we had the land. They said, Lets close
our eyes and Pray. When we opened our eyes, we
had the Bible, and they had the land. Randall
Robinson
28
The Atlantic Slave Trade
29
The Atlantic Slave Trade
  • Before the 1500s, slavery was common in some
    parts of Africa.
  • Then the European powers began to establish
    colonies in the Western HemisphereNorth,
    Central, South America
  • The Europeans practiced a different type of
    slaveryyou couldnt buy your way out or win your
    way out
  • European settlers in the Americas needed workers
    for their mines and plantations. The settlers
    know Africans were skilled farmers, miners, and
    metal workers.
  • By the 1600s, The slave trade evolved out or
    traders exchanging goods

30
Triangle Trade
31
Slave ships were packed head to toe Many did not
make the trip.
Africans transporting Africans
32
The Atlantic Slave Trade
  • Some African nations refused to take part
  • Some sold people they captured during battles or
    kidnapping
  • Some Africans grew wealthy from the slave trade

33
The Atlantic Slave Trade
  • Overall, the slave trade was a disaster for
    Africa
  • West Africa especiallylost much of its
    population
  • Robbed of skilled workers, and with many families
    torn apart, many African societies broke down
  • When the slave trade ended, natural resources
    were raided

34
Slavery Still Exists Today
  • Slavery in Africa continues today. Slavery
    existed in Africa before the arrival of Europeans
    - as did a slave trade that exported millions of
    sub-Saharan Africans to North Africa, the Middle
    East, and the Persian Gulf.

35
Sudanboys waiting to be bought back
36
INDEPENDENCE FOR AFRICAN COUNTRIES
37
(No Transcript)
38
2 Countries Remained
  • Ethiopia and Liberia remained independent during
    colonization
  • Liberiaset up by former American Slaves

39
Ethiopia
  • Ethiopia was able to resist attempts of
    colonization by the British and particularly by
    the Italians. Italy was able to colonize a part
    of ancient Ethiopia, the area along the Red Sea.
    This was the colony and now the independent
    country of Eritrea.
  • Ethiopians won a decisive victory over Italy at
    the Battle of Adowa. 4,000 Italian soldiers were
    killed.

40
South Africa
  • The Zulus showed strong resistance to the British
    under the leadership of King Cetshwayo at
    Isandhlawana. They defeated a force of 8,000
    European soldiers, killing 1,600. This was the
    single greatest defeat suffered by the British in
    their colonial endeavors in Africa and Asia.

41
(No Transcript)
42
Independence
  • WWII would inspire many people throughout Africa
    to seek freedom for their own countries.
  • African colonies played a major role during the
    war. African soldiers fought and died to help
    free Europe from Nazi conquest.
  • We have been told what we fought for. That is
    FREEDOM.

43
Issues Today
44
(No Transcript)
45
Notice the Years ofIndependence
  • African Countries are young!
  • Not Use to governing themselves.
  • Left in economic shambles
  • Different ways to become IndependentConflict/Peac
    e
  • Some European powers fought to keep, some did not

46
Many new governments unstable
  • New leaders spent years working for independence.
  • The old colonial powers did little to prepare new
    leadership
  • As a result, many new governments in Africa were
    unstable
  • Many governments looked to the US and USSR for
    stability
  • Many governments have been a constant turnover of
    dictators

47


What is a Conflict Diamond? Conflict diamonds are
diamonds that originate from areas controlled by
forces or factions opposed to legitimate and
internationally recognized governments, and are
used to fund military action in opposition to
those governments, or in contravention of the
decisions of the Security Council.
Legitimate diamonds lead to peace and economic
development Conflict diamonds finance illegal
armies and sufferings
Controls on conflict diamonds cut off sources of funding for rebels, help shorten wars and prevent their recurrence. Peace in diamond producing regions will bring about the potential for economic development and tax revenue for building infrastructure as legitimate mining ventures increase.
48
(No Transcript)
49
Diseases
  • HIV/AIDS is a leading cause of death in many
    areas of Africa
  • Misinformation or no information doesnt help
  • Lack of money for drugs or lack of drugs

50
(No Transcript)
51
Somali Pirates
52
(No Transcript)
53
Somalia
  • No governmentanarchy
  • War lords control areasneed money to stay in
    power
  • Few paying legitimate jobs for people

Piracy off the Somali coast has been a threat to
international shipping since the beginning of the
Somali Civil War in the early 1990s.1 Since
2005, many international organizations, including
the International Maritime Organization and the
World Food Program, have expressed concern over
the rise in acts of piracy.2 Piracy has
contributed to an increase in shipping costs and
impeded the delivery of food aid shipments.
Ninety percent of the World Food Program's
shipments arrive by sea, and ships have required
a military escort.3 According to the Kenyan
foreign
54
Combined Task Force 150 (CTF-150) is a
multinational coalition naval task force with
logistics facilities at Djibouti established to
monitor, inspect, board, and stop suspect
shipping to pursue the War on Terrorism and in
the Horn of Africa region (HOA) (includes
operations in the North Arabia Sea to support
Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and operations in
the Indian Ocean) to support Operation Enduring
Freedom - Horn of Africa (OEF-HOA). These
activities are referred to as Maritime Security
Operations
55
Darfur--Sudan
  • The Darfur Conflict began in Darfur, Sudan, in
    February 2003 when the Sudan Liberation Army
    (SLA) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) in
    Darfur took up arms, accusing the government of
    oppressing black Africans in favor of Arabs.
    There are various estimates on the number of
    human casualties. One side was composed mainly of
    the Sudanese military and the Janjaweed, a
    Sudanese militia group recruited mostly from the
    Afro-Arab Abbala tribes of the northern Rizeigat
    region in Sudan! These tribes are mainly
    camel-herding nomads. The other side was made up
    of rebel groups, notably the Sudan Liberation
    Movement/Army and the Justice and Equality
    Movement, recruited primarily from the non-Arab
    muslim Fur, Zaghawa, and Masalit ethnic groups.
    The Sudanese government, while publicly denying
    that it supports the Janjaweed, is accused of
    providing financial assistance to the militia,
    and of participating in joint attacks targeting
    civilians.
  • The Sudanese government has been accused of
    tampering with evidence, such as attempting to
    cover up mass graves. They also arrested and
    harassed journalists, thus limiting the extent of
    press coverage of the situation in Darfur.
  • While the United States government has described
    the conflict as genocide, the UN has not
    recognized the conflict as such.

56
Refugee Camp in Chad Refugees fleeing conflicts
from all over Africa cause problems all their own
57
(No Transcript)
58
In Eritrea, a Russian-made rocket launcher fires
into Ethiopia from the southern border town of
Serha in June 1998. Optimism was high after
Eritrea secured its independence from Ethiopia in
1993 without a shot fired. Then, five years
later, war broke out. The border conflict with
Ethiopia cost the lives of thousands and
destroyed the Eritrean economy.
59
(No Transcript)
60
Daniel, an 11-year-old street child, stands in
the remains of a market in Burundi. In the same
week that this photo was taken, a bomb killed
five people and injured several more in a
terrorist attack on another small market in town.
Since 1993, civil war and ethnic violence between
Hutus and Tutsis have led to the deaths of nearly
250,000 Burundians. The most recent attempt at
peace - August 2000 -- failed when two main Hutu
groups refused to join the pact between the
government and various warring factions.
61
(No Transcript)
62
Years of civil war and conflict have left parts
of Africa virtual dumping grounds for deadly
antipersonnel mines. Angola, Mozambique, and
Somalia are some of the most heavily mined places
on earth. While the UN and various
non-governmental organizations have had some
success in removing mines, the human price
remains heavy. In Mozambique, nearly 10,000
people -- mostly civilians -- are estimated to
have been killed or maimed by land mines since
the 1992 peace accord that ended 20 years of
civil war. Here, a UN worker tries to locate a
landmine not far from Kenya's border with
war-torn Sudan.
63
(No Transcript)
64
CHILD SOLDIERSTaken from homes by force "They
have the dull, emotionless look of people who
have seen some hideous things," commented BBC
correspondent Mathew Price when he interviewed
child soldiers in Sierra Leone recently. Many
children are abducted by rebel groups and given
drugs that enhance their fighting. Others are
"recruited" to fight for the government. There
are no clear estimates of how many children fight
in Africa's wars. In Sudan, more than 10,000
children are believed to be fighting for both the
Islamic government in the north and Christian and
animist rebels in the south.
65
(No Transcript)
66
American dollars are welcome in this Mogadishu
shop, but weapons, cigarettes and khat,a local
narcotic, are forbidden. Fighting back against
armed gunmen, shopkeepers and business people in
the center of Somalia's capital paint murals on
their buildings to establish the rules for
acceptable conduct. Since 1991, Somalia has been
essentially ruled by rival warlords supported by
heavily armed militias. There is no officially
recognized government. Fighting and the inability
to deal with famine and disease have led to the
death of up to 1 million Somalians.
67
(No Transcript)
68
Nowhere in Africa has ethnic genocide taken a
more brutal toll than Rwanda. When Hutu
extremists went on a killing spree in 1994 that
exterminated more than 500,000 Tutsis, Emanual
Murangira, pictured here, was shot in the head in
Murumbi and left for dead. To save his life, he
walked 50 miles to escape into neighboring
Burundi. His forehead still bears traces of the
bullet wound. Today, Emanual is a guard at a
memorial to the Murumbi genocide that displays
the remains of the victims.
69
(No Transcript)
70
In southern Sudan, child slaves wait for
Christian Solidarity International to buy their
freedom from Muslim slave masters. The price?
Twenty-five dollars per slave. These boys, ethnic
Dinkas, live in the mostly Christian and animist
south, a rebel territory that Sudan's Islamic
government wants to occupy. The war has dragged
on since 1976, causing the deaths of millions and
the displacement of even more.
71
(No Transcript)
72
In Freetown, three of Africa's former military
rulers stare down on passers-by Ghana's Jerry
Rawlings, Sierra Leone's Captain Valentine
Strasser and Nigeria's Ibrahim Babangida. In the
turbulent post-independence period of the 1970s
and 1980s, military leaders seemed an inevitable
fixture of African politics. Today, none of these
three strongmen remain in power, and democratic
governments have replaced dictatorships across
the continent, fueling hopes for an era of
African peace and prosperity.
73
(No Transcript)
74
Oblivious of an Indian and Nigerian-manned UN
checkpoint, a woman walks along a street in
Freetown, the capital of West Africa's Sierra
Leone, where a war over diamond mines has raged
since 1991. In many African countries, UN
peacekeepers have become an ever-present force.
75
(No Transcript)
76
(No Transcript)
77
(No Transcript)
78
Voting Lines. South Africa Some stood for hours
to vote for the first time!
79
(No Transcript)
80
  • Nearly a billion people entered the 21st century
    unable to read a book or sign their names.
  • If the world spent less than one percent of what
    it spends every year on weapons, in education,
    every child could go to school
About PowerShow.com