Starter 108 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Starter 108 PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 21e224-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Starter 108

Description:

Write a journal entry describing your feelings about, ... Raiding led to the herding of friendly tribes onto reservations, while others were fired upon ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:42
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 109
Provided by: PSRC
Category:
Tags: herding | starter

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Starter 108


1
Starter 10/8
  • Imagine you are a colonist in early America.
    Write a journal entry describing your feelings
    about, interactions with and concerns about the
    local Native American population.

2
Starter 10/9
  • Draw these shapes on your paper and complete the
    information inside

Two things From class that I knew before We
covered it
Three things I remember From class Yesterday
One question I still have rolling In my head
3
Today
  • Review notes from yesterday
  • Complete story activity
  • Civilization
  • Sacagawea activity
  • Tomorrow you have a quiz on civilization

4
American Indian Government Policies
5
American Indian Government Policies
  • Over the years, the United States government has
    had different ways of dealing with American
    Indians.
  • The government has established official
    policies (laws, rules)

6
Civilization
  • (Colonial period to Washington Jefferson)
  • Make the Indian white, civilized, and Christian
  • Create missions, make treaties, and change the
    culture of the Native American

7
Removal
  • (1830s-1860s Andrew Jackson, Indian Removal Act
    of 1830)
  • Move Indians east of the Mississippi River to
    Indian Territory (current day Oklahoma)
  • Included the Trail of Tears, which was the
    Cherokee removal

8
Reservations
  • (1860s-1890s)
  • Put Indians on a plot of communal land (land held
    in common), owned by the government, to keep the
    Indians contained

9
Allotment
  • (1887-1928 Dawes Severalty Act)
  • While on reservations, conserve land for white
    settlement by measuring off individual plots of
    land for individual families
  • Indian men were forced to farm for their
    individual family
  • This stripped them of their tribal way of life
  • Within this period were the Indian Wars
    boarding schools

10
New Deal Indian
  • (1930s-1940s Indian Reorganization Act)
  • Restore tribal authority to tribes by reversing
    the allotment

11
Relocation
  • (1920s-1950s)
  • Offer job training programs and jobs in large
    cities to get Indian off of reservation and away
    from tribal communities
  • The modern day Pow Wows were created during this
    period

12
Termination
  • (1950s)
  • The government cut off all relations and
    obligations with Indian tribes
  • As a result of this, Native Americans fought to
    regain their rights during the Civil Rights
    movement

13
Self-Determination
  • (1960s-Present)
  • The government allows tribes the freedom and
    authority to run their nations the way they
    please
  • This policy recognizes the sovereignty of tribes

14
Finish Your story
  • Choose one story from your group you would like
    the class to hear
  • Wait for directions

15
Story time
  • I will place you in groups
  • In your group you will receive a prompt
  • Each person should write on that prompt until the
    bell sounds
  • Then switch papers and continue the other
    persons story
  • Include information and vocabulary that we have
    covered today

16
Civilization
17
  • Treaties- Made by fed. Govt
  • Traders- only licensed ones could operate
  • Land- sold only by Congress

18
Making Civilization Work
  • The early U.S. government wanted to get rid of
    the Indian way of life
  • Trained men to do the farming, rather than the
    women
  • Women were trained to do domestic chores such
    as spinning and weaving

19
Treaties
  • As Indians spent less time hunting, the land
    could be sold to the government by treaties
  • This land could then be sold by the government

20
American Indians in Early America
  • The U.S. Department of War was responsible for
    Indian affairs
  • In 1790, the Indian Trade and Intercourse Acts
    did the following
  • Gave the power to the federal government to
    conduct Indian affairs
  • Only licensed traders could operate in Indian
    country
  • Congress had to approve the sale of Indian lands
  • All treaties were made by the federal government

21
Treaties Create Conflicts
  • Individual states resented the amount of power
    the federal government assumed
  • Many states made treaties with tribes that were
    never approved by the federal government
  • Many treaties were ignored by the state and
    federal government

22
Converting Natives to Christianity
  • Missionaries tried to convert Native Americans to
    Christianity
  • Missions and missionary schools were started in
    Indian communities

23
Indian Response to Christianity
  • Many Indians saw Christians as hypocrites (they
    lied, drank, cheated, and stole)
  • Many Indians felt that God made Indians and
    whites different and therefore the practice of
    different religions was acceptable
  • Some tribes created their own forms of religion,
    incorporating ritual and restoring balance and
    harmony
  • These religions offered hope in a time of
    spiritual crisis and a means to cope with a new
    and changing world

24
(No Transcript)
25
Read about Sacajawea complete a stickwoman
STARTER 3/8/07
26
Sacagawea
27
(No Transcript)
28
(No Transcript)
29
Quiz Review
  • Sacajawea- why important?
  • Which department in charge of Indian affairs?
  • What level of govt in charge of Indian affairs?
  • Christians were viewed as hypocrites- why?
  • How did Indians cope with this world?...
    Religion?
  • What was the purpose of civilization? How was
    it implemented?
  • Ways the fed govt (laws) controlled Indian
    affairs?
  • Fed govt made treaties
  • Congress had to approve the sale of land
  • Only licensed traders could operate in Indian
    country

30
Civilization Quiz
  • Why did Indians think Christians were hypocrites?
  • How did Indians cope w/ the stress of their new
    world?... Created new religions
  • Significance of Sacajawea
  • Purpose of the Civilization policy
  • How was civilization implemented
  • Who is in charge of Indian affairs? Dept? LAWS…
    that CONTROLLED Indian affairs?
  • Fed govt makes treaties only
  • Congress sells Indian lands
  • Only licensed traders can operate in Indian
    country

31
Civilization Quiz Extra Credit
  • Who was the President that enforced the Indian
    Removal Act of 1830?
  • Name Chief Josephs tribe.
  • What was the name of the treaty signed by Major
    Ridge that led to the removal of the Cherokee to
    Indian Territory?
  • How many Cherokee died in the Trail of Tears?
  • Must be spelled correctly to receive credit!

32
Removal
33
Andrew Jackson Indian Removal
  • Andrew Jackson became president in 1828
    promised free land for white settlers.
  • In 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act,
    which moved Indians east of the Mississippi River
    to Indian Territory
  • The Choctaw, Creeks, and the Chickasaws were the
    first to be removed.
  • The Seminoles fought removal for seven years,
    before finally giving up their homeland

34
(No Transcript)
35
The Cherokee Removal
  • Although the Cherokees had made many measures to
    civilize, to meet white approval, they were
    removed as well
  • Their 800-mile journey to Oklahoma is known as
    the Trail of Tears
  • Several hundred Cherokee escaped into the
    mountains (where their descendants live today)
  • 13,000 Cherokees were moved 4,000 died on the
    journey

36
(No Transcript)
37
Reservations
38
Purpose of Reservations
  • By the mid-1800s, it became clear that U.S.
    expansion was heading west of the Mississippi
    River
  • Americans believed in Manifest Destiny- that it
    was their destiny, ordained by God, to acquire
    all lands to the Pacific Ocean
  • Unspecified tracts of land in Indian Territory
    had to be more sharply defined and measured into
    reservations, to make room for white settlement

39
Short Answer. Write a 1-2 sentence answer for
each of the questions below.
  • Why were Indian children sent to boarding
    schools?
  • What were the effects of boarding schools on
    Indian children?
  • Why did great leaders like Chief Joseph,
    Geronimo, Sitting Bull, Chocise, Crazy Horse, Red
    Cloud, and Big Foot emerge during the 1880s
    1890s?
  • Name the American Indian religious movement that
    emerged in the late 19th century that was one of
    the key causes of the massacre at Wounded Knee.

40
Extra Credit. Must be spelled right to receive
full credit!
  • Name the most famous Indian boarding school,
    located in Pennsylvania.
  • How many acres of land did each Indian
    head-of-household receive under allotment?
  • What was the name of the allotment law?
  • Name the battle in which George Armstrong Custer
    was killed by Sioux and Cheyenne warriors?

41
Effects of Reservations
  • Indian people were infuriated by the policy of
    reservations and resisted giving up their
    homelands
  • Leaders and chiefs emerged to resist the
    reservation policy
  • A series of wars, the Indian Wars, began which
    lasted during the last half of the 19th century

42
The Fort Laramie Treaty
  • In 1851, the Treaty of Fort Laramie was signed
    between various tribes of the Great Plains and
    the U.S. government
  • The treaty was intended to insure peace on the
    Great Plains, as white settlement increased in
    the region
  • Tribes had been attacking whites and warring with
    each other over territory

43
Terms of the Fort Laramie Treaty
  • Tribes of the Plains received
  • Separate tracts of land assigned to each tribe
  • Tribes agreed to remain on their own land, to
    cease their attacks on each other and on white
    migrants
  • Each tribe will retain possession of its assigned
    lands forever
  • Each tribe will be protected by U.S. troops from
    white intruders
  • Each tribe will each receive 50,000 in supplies
    and provisions annually for the next fifty years.
  • The United States government received
  • The right to establish roads and military
    outposts within Indian territories.

44
The Failure of the Fort Laramie Treaty
  • Unfortunately, the chiefs who signed the Fort
    Laramie Treaty did not have the authority over
    their tribes that the United States negotiators
    assumed
  • The U.S. negotiators themselves could not deliver
    the protections and fair treatment they promised.
  • The sacred Black Hills of the Lakota were
    violated by the government and white settlers,
    leading to a war over the region

45
(No Transcript)
46
(No Transcript)
47
(No Transcript)
48
(No Transcript)
49
Purpose of Boarding Schools
  • In the late 1800s, the United States supported an
    educational experiment that the government hoped
    would assimilate American Indians to the American
    culture.
  • Special boarding schools were created in
    locations all over the United States with the
    purpose of "civilizing" American Indian youth .
  • Thousands of Native American children were sent
    far from their homes to live in these schools and
    learn the ways of white culture.

50
  • Tom Torlino (Navajo) as he appeared upon arrival
    to the Carlisle Indian School, October 21, 1882.
  • Tom Torlino (Navajo) three years later

51
It's cheaper to educate Indians than to kill
them." --Indian Commissioner Thomas Morgan
speaking at the establishment of the Phoenix
Indian School in 1891
52
Apache children on arrival at the Carlisle Indian
School (Pennsylvania) wearing traditional
clothing.
53
Apache children at the Carlisle School four
months later.
54
Effects of Boarding Schools
  • Many struggled with loneliness and fear away from
    their tribal homes and familiar customs. 
  • Some lost their lives to diseases that spread
    quickly through the schools.
  • Others thrived despite the hardships, formed
    lifelong friendships, and preserved their Indian
    identities.

55
Starter Monday, March 26 Land of Red Apples by
Zitkala-Sa (Gertrude Bonnin)
  • What did Zitkala-Sa expect Red Apple Country to
    be like?
  • Describe her trip on the iron horse.
  • Name some of the things that were unusual to
    Zitkala-Sa at the boarding school.

56
Starter Tuesday, March 27 The Cutting of My
Long Hair by Zitkala-Sa (Gertrude Bonnin)
  • Why was mealtime confusing for Zitkala-Sa?
  • Why did Zitkala-Sa not want her hair cut?
  • How did Zitkala-Sa react to having her hair cut?

57
The Indian Wars
  • Most of the battles within the Indian War
    resulted in U.S. government victories
  • The Battle of Little Bighorn was an Indian
    victory, including the killing of Custer
  • The Massacre (Battle) at Wounded Kneed ended the
    Indian Wars

George Armstrong Custer
58
Images from Wounded Knee, 1890 Collecting the Dead
59
Images from Wounded Knee, 1890 Mass grave
60
Images from Wounded Knee, 1890 Chief Bigfoot
frozen in the snow
61

Conflicts of the Indian Wars Use pages 410-412 of
the RED U.S. History book on the counter to
complete this chart. Turn in your work when
finished.
62
Conflicts of the Indian Wars Use pages 410-412 of
the RED U.S. History book on the counter to
complete this chart. Turn in your work when
finished.
63
Conflicts of the Indian Wars Use pages 410-412 of
the RED U.S. History book on the counter to
complete this chart. Turn in your work when
finished.
64
Conflicts of the Indian Wars Use pages 410-412 of
the RED U.S. History book on the counter to
complete this chart. Turn in your work when
finished.
65
Allotment
66
Purpose of Allotment (1887-1928)
  • End tribalism by redistributing communally owned
    reservation land to individual Indian families
  • The plan was passed as the Dawes Severalty Act of
    1887
  • Land remaining after each 160-acre allotment was
    given to the Indian male head-of-household, was
    sold to white settlers
  • The policy was designed to absorb Natives into
    the U.S. mainstream society (assimilate)

67
(No Transcript)
68
Effects of Allotment
  • The effects were disastrous
  • Families were forced to live separate from their
    relatives, destroying the kinship network of
    tribes
  • Hunting was abolished because land was depleted
  • The roles of men women were changed (women
    became depended on the men for land and lost
    their political power)
  • The Native American population reached an
    all-time low

69
Starter Wednesday, March 28 The Affair at
Wounded Knee
  • Why did Big Foot and the Sioux move to Pine
    Ridge?
  • What happened to Black Coyotes rifle?
  • Do you think what happened at Wounded Knee was a
    battle, an affair, or a massacre? Explain.

70
Read about Jim Thorpe complete a stickman
Use white paper color it!
71
Jim Thorpe
72
Quiz on Reservations- Allotment
  • Charts for starters (reservations, allotment-
    time period, purpose, effects)
  • Why did great chiefs/leaders emerge?
  • Boarding schools (purpose, effects)

73
STARTER Monday, April 2 Modern-Day Boarding
Schools
  • Watch the video on Sherman Boarding School in Los
    Angeles, CA and answer the question below
  • How have boarding schools changed?

74
New Deal Indian
75
Indian Reorganization Act
  • Time Period 1934- early 1940s
  • In 1934, the Indian Reorganization Act
    (Wheeler-Howard Act) was passed as part of
    Franklin Roosevelts New Deal programs
  • Roosevelt appoint Indian advocate, John Collier,
    as the Commissioner of Indian Affairs to execute
    the Indian Reorganization Act

John Collier
76
Purpose of the IRA
  • The Indian Reorganization Act (IRA) ended
    reversed the Dawes Act by
  • Returning communal land to tribes
  • Encouraging the self-government of tribes (create
    tribal councils constitutions) and,
  • Restored the management of tribal lands to the
    tribe
  • The IRA, like other New Deal programs, lost
    momentum due to the onset of World War II.

77
The Navajo Code Talkers
78
Navajo Code Talkers
  • The Navajo Code Talkers were a group of Navajo
    Marines who transmitted military messages in the
    Navajo language, during World War II

79
Navajo Code Talkers
  • The Code Talkers used words in the Navajo
    language that could not be broken by the
    Japanese, during the war in the Pacific.

80
(No Transcript)
81
  • Some examples
  • "besh- lo" (iron fish) meant "submarine
  • "dah-he- tih-hi" (hummingbird) meant "fighter
    plane"
  • "debeh-li-zine" (black street) meant "squad"

82
(No Transcript)
83
(No Transcript)
84
Flag being raised on the island of Iwo Jima
during World War II
  • Ira Hayes, Pima, was one of the flag raisers

85
Windtalkers
  • What was a tank in English? (what animal)
  • What is Joes mission?
  • Why does Joes not want to get too friendly with
    Yazzi?
  • Why does Yazzi say hes fighting?
  • How did the code help during the first battle?
  • Why were some of the Marines concerned with Yazzi
    swimming alone?
  • How does Yazzi fool the Japanese?
  • What happened to Yazzi at boarding school?
  • What happens to Charlie Whitehorse?

86
Relocation
87
Purpose of Relocation
  • Time Period 1948- 1979
  • The Bureau of Indian Affairs encouraged Indians
    to migrate to urban areas
  • By 1960, a total of 33,466 Indians had been
    relocated.
  • Government relocation provided
  • Job placement
  • Job training (vocational skills)
  • Counseling
  • Transportation
  • Subsistence funds until the first paycheck

88
Effects of Relocation
  • More Native Americans live in urban areas today
    than on reservations
  • Pow wows were created as a way for diverse tribes
    to come together to celebrate their Indian
    heritage
  • Some brought skills learned back to
    reservations/tribal communities (Ex. Lumbees in
    Baltimore Detroit)

89
(No Transcript)
90
Termination
91
Purpose of Termination
  • Time Period 1953- 1970
  • The policy hoped to terminate the responsibility
    that the federal government had with Native
    American tribes.
  • The hope was to pass laws to end the existence of
    Indian tribes.
  • The government argued that Native Americans
    should be treated exactly as all other citizens
  • Congress wanted to work toward the withdrawal of
    all federal support and responsibility for Native
    American affairs.

92
Effects of Termination
  • Services (healthcare education) were withdrawn
    from about 11,500 Native Americans
  • 1.5 million acres of land were taken from tribes
  • Tribes/members became dependent on welfare
  • Red Power, led by AIM (American Indian
    Movement) arose to protest this policy
  • Occupation of Alcatraz Island in San Francisco
    Bay from 1969-1971
  • Trail of Broken Treaties occupation of the BIA in
    Washington, DC in 1972
  • 71-day Siege at Wounded Knee in 1973

93
(No Transcript)
94
Occupation of Alcatraz
95
Occupation of the BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs)
96
Occupation of the BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs)
97
Occupation of the BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs)
98
1973 Siege at Wounded Knee
99
Mary Brave Bird (Mary Moore/ Mary Crow Dog)
100
Leonard Crow Dog
101
Self-Determination
102
Self-Determination
  • Time Period 1970- Present
  • President Nixon ended the termination policy and
    ushered in the current policy called
    Self-Determination

103
Purpose of Self-Determination
  • This policy recognizes the sovereignty of tribes
  • Self-determination emphasizes self-government
    tribal administration of its affairs including
    healthcare, education, housing, law enforcement,
    and welfare

104
Effects of Self-Determination
  • Tribes have gained back rights to land, water,
    and hunting/fishing sites
  • Religious sacred sites have been returned
  • Tribes are finally recognized by the government
    as SOVEREIGN!

105
In the Light of Reverence
  • What do you think about people climbing on
    Devils Tower?
  • Is it fair to ban people from using portions of
    our National Parks because some Native Americans
    think certain sites are sacred? Explain your
    belief.

106
Read about Wilma Mankiller complete a stickman
107
Wilma Mankiller
108
Test Review
  • Clue- identify the policy (New Deal, Relocation,
    Termination, Self-Determination)
  • Navajo Code Talkers (who, what, when, where, how
    did learn)
About PowerShow.com