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Renewable Energy Workshop

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Chipper Frass. Chips. Logging Debris. And More !! Bio-Trend Systems Inc. And More !! Insects ... All Working Groups mid-90's. Climate Change Stress Mortality ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Renewable Energy Workshop


1
Renewable EnergyWorkshop
  • Biomass
  • From
  • Forest, Farm City

2
Biomass
City
Forest
Farm
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
3
Forest Biomass
4
Whats out there ??
Slash
Log Merchandizing
Defect
Non-Merchantable
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
5
More !!
Windrows
Windrows represent about 15 of the total stand
area
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
6
And More !!
Logging Debris
Chips
Chipper Frass
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
7
And More !!
Disease
Fire
Blowdown
Insects
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
8
And More !!
Low Quality Stands
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
9
And More !!
Plantation Thinnings
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
10
Plus Heritage Piles
Lots of Stuff
40 feet
Up Close
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
11
Whats Available ? Whats the Benefit ?
Source Million M³ (wet tons) Number of Households
Low Quality Stands (Allocated - Not Harvested) 5.1 310,503
Slash/Cull from Allocated but Not Harvested 1.8 108,676
Slash/Cull from Harvest 3.1 188,737
Harvest Residual (High Grading and By-Pass) 4.5 273,973
Fire (5 year average) 9.8 596,651
Disease (5 year average) 13.3 797,565
Insects (5 year average) 7.1 432,268
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
12
Whats the Outlook ? Annual Forest Depletion
All Working Groups mid-90s
Climate Change ? Stress ? Mortality
Can We Expect Increased Mortality?
Millions of Cubic Metres
?
  • Yes, BC precedent, over 600 MM³ killed by Mtn.
    Pine Beetle, in an area
  • nearly equal to the size of Wisconsin 60,000
    square miles!
  • Mortality directly linked to climate change.
    No -40C ? Larva survive
  • Beetle is in Alberta! Risk of migration to
    Jack Pine is real.

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
13
Farm Biomass
14
Switch Grass - a Weed ?
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
15
Willow Growin Like a Weed !
Pasture Abandon Land Available for Planting In
Ontario 1.2 Million ha !!!
At 3 Months After Coppicing
At 3 Years !!
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
16
Municipal Solid WasteMSW
17
Some Very Old Biomass
Mixed Plastics
Tires
CD Wood Waste
Medical Waste
E - Waste
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
18
Biomass Processing Densification
19
Processing Requirements
Type Waste Cleaning Sorting Drying Sizing Processing Cost
Shavings L L L 1
Sawdust L M L 2
Hog or Heritage H H M-H 5
Chips M M H 4
Farm Plant Waste M L M 3
MSW TIPPING FEE H L M-H 4
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
20
Densification
Grains
Fire Wood
Liquids
Wood or Grass Pellets or Brickets
Natural
Chips
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
21
Energy Density Comparisons
Energy Option BTU/pound
Grass bales 7,100
Grass brickets/pellets 7,600
Poultry litter 6,000
Wood green chips (40-50 moisture) 4,500
Wood dry chips (20 moisture) 6,900
Wood pellets 7,500
Bio-liquid traditional pyrolysis wood 8,000
Bio-liquid advanced pyrolysis wood 17,000
Coal 15,200
Number 2 Fuel Oil 19,200
Moisture
Densificaion
Innovation
Replace Fossil Fuels
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
22
Energy Use
BTU British Thermal Unit heat required to
Raise Temperature of 1 pound of water 1?F
4000
3000
Size of Your Home Square Feet
2000
1kWh 3,413 BTUs. A 2,000 sq.ft. home using
60,000 BTU is equivalent 17.6 kWh/day
1000
0
30
60
90
120
Thousand BTUs/Day
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
23
Relative Comparison of AlternativeEnergy Sources
40
Ontario Source
Oregon Source
30
20
Cost per Million BTUs
10
0
Propane
Heating Oil
Electricity
Grain (Corn)
Wood Pellets
Natural Gas
Fire Wood
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
24
Comparative Heating Costs forA 2000 Sq Ft Home
for 2008
3000
Source Grain Store Supplier
2000
Heat Cost 2000 sq ft Home
1000
Propane
Electricity
Heating Oil
Grain (Corn)
Natural Gas
Fire Wood
Wood Pellets
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
25
Efficiency Comparisons
  • The amount of energy harvested from 1 hectare of
    land minus all energy inputs to produce a fuel
    shows wide variation

26
Efficiency Comparisons
BioGas Electricity (corn)
Ethanol From Grain
Biodiesel (rapseed)
2nd Generation Biofuels (FT)
BioGas as Traffic Fuel (corn)
BioGas CHP (corn)
Short Rotation Forestry (Direct Combustion)
50
0
100
150
200
Net Energy Yield (GJ/ha)
1GJ 950,000 BTU 278 kWh
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
27
Efficiency Cost Comparisons
  • Why not use biomass options for electricity
    production, car fuels and heating?
  • Unfortunately, there is not sufficient quantity
    to serve all 3 markets.
  • Strive for maximum net energy at lowest cost,
    right?
  • Keep a close eye on pricing trends and subsidies
    for alternatives relevant to your needs.

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
28
Efficiency Comparisons Biomass to Heat
Minimum
80
Maximum
Energy Loss In Converting Biomass
40
Pellets Electricity Biofuels (FT)
0
Subsidy/MW In Canada Dollars
75
Minimum
Maximum
150
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
29
Efficiency Comparisons
  • Comparison Energy loss and subsidy distribution
    are closely linked.
  • Why do the most inefficient energy systems get
    the highest subsidy??......OUR tax dollars
  • Note
  • A 10 kW electric heating system can be replaced
    by a simple pellet stove (efficiency gt90) for
    3,000
  • Client cost 105/MW versus 242/MW for direct
    heating with electricity
  • Producing electricity from biomass without using
    the heat is the most inefficient use of primary
    energy
  • And there is MORE

30
We Need to Change Our Energy Use Patterns
Transport
Oil
Gas
Heating Cooling
Electricity
Hydro Wind Solar-E
Light Information Power
Solar-H Biomass
Inefficient
Efficient
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
31
Technology
32
Fire Wood
Free Standing
Outdoor Space Water Heat
Insert
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
33
Pellets
Free Standing
Furnace/Boiler with Auto-Feed
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
34
Bio-Gas
Anerobic Fermentation
Gasification Close-Coupled
Typically Animal Waste
Typically Plant or Recycled Waste
35
Anaerobic DigestionCow Power
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
36
GasificationHot Air
Tars Other Particulates
Gas Clean-up 2
Gas Clean-up 1
Catalyst Treatment
Alcohols
Combustion Gasification
Gas Separation
GasTurbine
Waste Heat Boiler
Ash Waste
Steam Turbine
Biomass
MSW
Note Gasifiers that use the gas internally
(close-coupled) are,technically, combustion
units.
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
37
Bio-Liquids
  • Acidic/Corrosive
  • 25 Water
  • Biphasic
  • Heated Storage
  • 8.0 K BTU/lb
  • Heavy Odor
  • Not miscible in oil

Fast Pyrolysis Liquid
Transportable, Modular and Remote Access
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
38
Hi Value Hi ReturnWaste Remediation Energy
Production
Carbon Black
Oil from Tires
Oil from Mixed Plastic
  • Miscible in oil
  • Less than .05 Water
  • Minimal Odor
  • 18.0 K BTU/lb
  • pH neutral
  • Stores well

Comparable to 1 Fuel Oil
Comparable to 2 Fuel Oil
Steel Belts
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
39
Realistic Burning OptionsforToday
40
Market Ready Options
  • Firewood
  • Wood Stove/Boiler
  • In home space heat. Basic combustion unit
  • In yard space and/or water heat. Combustion or
    Close-Coupled Gasifer)
  • Lower cost, particularly using family labor
  • Suited for folks with time they can dedicate to
    bucking, splitting, stacking and lugging, lugging
    and stacking, cleaning house, etc.
  • Pellets (Wood or Grain)
  • Pellet Stove Space Heat
  • Cleaner, less ash/particulates, pellet supply,
    pellet quality (white vs. brown)
  • Pellet Furnace Space and/or Water Heat
  • Buildings between 2,500 to 50,000 sq ft
  • Heating capacity less than 800 kW (Chips best
    for 800kW, or larger)
  • Examples
  • Home 2,000 sq. ft. ? 60,000 BTU (17.6
    kWh/day) (Pellet Stove)
  • Small 12,000 sq. ft. ? 420,000 BTU (123
    kWh/day) (Pellet Furnace)
  • Medium 105, 000 sq. ft. ? 2,500,000 BTU (Chip
    Boiler)

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
41
Close-up Living with Wood
  • Northern Ontario Home 3,000 sq. ft. Two wood
    stoves
  • Tandum Load 22 face cords 700 (annual)
  • Saw 600 (10 year life)
  • Bucking and Stacking 10 days, 1 person
    1,000, or in-kind
  • Chains, Chain oil, Gas, Maintenance, etc. 250
    (annual)
  • Splitter 2 people for 2 days 340, or in-kind
  • Hauling and Stacking 2 people 200, or
    in-kind
  • Daily hauling from wood pile to house In-kind
  • Ash removal 1 person once a week In-kind
  • Chimney cleaning 1 person twice a year 200,
    or in-kind
  • Comfort - Priceless
  • Note Assumes neighborhood labor..kids at 10
    bucks an hour

Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
42
Household Consumption
Month kWh/Month kWh/Day Cumulative kWh
August 950 33 950
September 970 30 1920
October 770 27 2690
November 830 28 3520
December 1470 46 4990
January 1480 51 6470
February 2150 74 8620
March 1670 60 10290
April 1680 51 11970
May 970 31 12940
June 1150 36 14090
July 940 31 15030
Average/Total kWh 1211 40 15030
Average/Total BTU 4.13 Mill 136,520 53.7 Million
Total kWh All Electric 24000 - 36000
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
43
END ? We Have Choices
UNCONTROLLED
CONTROLLED AND RECOVERED
Wood
Pellets
Liquid
Bio-Trend Systems Inc.
44
Conversion Factors
  • Wood Chip Volume
  • 1 Green Ton (GT) 1 M3 2,000 pounds
  • 1 Cord 2,500 pounds 1.25 Green Tons
  • Transportation Factors
  • 1 Chip Van 25 GT 1 Standard Log Truck 10
    Cords
  • Electricity Factors
  • 1 MW (MW Million Watts) ? Power for 750 to 1000
    homes annually
  • Thermal Energy Factors
  • 1 Therm 100,000 BTU (or about 100 cu ft of
    natural gas)
  • 1 Ton of Woody Fuel 15.7 Million BTU or 157
    Therms
  • 1 Ton of Wood Pellets 15.6 Million BTU or 156
    Therms
  • 15.6 Million BTUs would service a 1.91 Million
    Sq. Ft. Building

45
  • 1MW 3.4 million BTU ? service 750 to 1000 homes
  • 1kW 3,400 BTU
  • 25 kW 140,000 BTU ? service 18 to 25 homes
  • 100 kW 340,000 BTU ? service 75 to 100 homes
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