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Unit 7: Application Equipment

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Awareness of drift precautions and how to reduce drift risk ... Frequently used for soil & foliar applications. 80 fan angles. 20' centers, 17-19' boom height ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 7: Application Equipment


1
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Chapter 12

2
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Unit 7 Objectives
  • Identify various nozzles and their functions
  • Understand how to calibrate sprayers
  • Awareness of drift precautions and how to reduce
    drift risk

3
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Most common applied
  • Sprays
  • Granule
  • Powder
  • Direct injection
  • gas

4
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Equipment and method specialized to specific use
  • ID target
  • What is the pest?
  • How does the pesticide work?
  • Where it should be applied? (on plant, soil)
  • Airborne mosquito vs leaf fungus

5
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Adequate coverage
  • reach target and stay there
  • Particle size
  • Too big land and run off
  • Too small not heavy enough and drift

6
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • All part will be affected

7
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Spot
  • Portion of total area
  • Dandelions
  • Band
  • Narrow strip
  • Between rows of corn
  • Uniform within strip

8
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Broadcast
  • Entire field
  • Insect infestation

9
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
10
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Spray pattern that applies over the adjoining
    area to improve uniformity
  • Expressed in percentages

11
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
12
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Nozzle Nomenclature
  • Various types of nozzles
  • Flow rates
  • Spray angles
  • Droplet sizes
  • Spray patterns
  • Often coded by the manufacturer to identify spray
    characteristics

13
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Tip number
  • Nozzle type
  • Flow rate
  • Spray-fan angle
  • May also list operating conditions
  • Sprayer Calibration Guidelines
  • Three variables affecting application rate
  • Nozzle flow rate
  • Ground speed of the sprayer

14
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Effective sprayed width/nozzle
  • Application rate can be determined w/ the
    following equation
  • GPA spray applied g/ac
  • GPM output/nozzle, g/m
  • MPH ground speed
  • W effective spray width/nozzle, inches

GPA GPM 5840
GPA MPH W
15
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • For broadcast spraying
  • W the nozzle spacing
  • For band spraying
  • W the bandwidth
  • Row crop applications
  • W row spacing (bandwidth) divided by nozzles
    per row
  • 5940 constant that converts all units to
    gallons/ac

16
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Selecting the proper nozzle tip
  • Determine the required flow rate from each nozzle
    at a selected application rate (GPA), MPH, W
  • Flow rate/nozzle

GPM GPA MPH W
GPM 5940
17
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Select a nozzle that produces the required flow
    rate and droplet size when operated within the
    recommended pressure range
  • Range of droplet sizes droplet spectrum
  • 6 categories
  • Very fine (VF, red)
  • Fine (F, orange)
  • Medium (M, yellow)
  • Coarse (C, blue)
  • Very coarse (VC, green)
  • Extremely coarse (XC, white)

18
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Depends on nozzle space and spray height
  • Higher increased overlap
  • Lower decreased overlap
  • Nozzle 20 in apart
  • Overlap 50
  • 10 in overlap

19
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Effective swath width distance each successive
    swath should offset in order to allow the edges
    of neighboring swaths to overlap
  • Swath path

20
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Effective swath total / 1 overlap
  • Overlap 50 (.50)
  • Total swath 40 inches (area covered)
  • ? Need to find effective swath ?
  • 40 / 1 .5 27 inches effective swath

21
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Apply the right amount you need to know how much
    area you have
  • Application rate amount of material applied per
    unit treated
  • Most areas irregular shaped
  • Combination of several geometric shapes
  • Basic dimensions are measured in feet
  • Area square feet
  • Acre area / 43,560(amt of square feet)

22
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Rectangle
  • Length width
  • Square feet
  • Divide by 43,560 to get acre
  • 400 ft long
  • 200 ft wide
  • Area 80,000 ft2 (400 200)
  • Acre 80,000 ft2 / 43,560 ft2 1.84 acres

23
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Triangle
  • Length of one side (longest side) (base)
  • Multiplied by the height
  • Straight from the point
  • Divide by two
  • Base 40 ft
  • Height 30 ft
  • Area 600 ft2 ( 40 30 1200 / 2 600 ft)

24
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Circle
  • pr2
  • p pi 3.14
  • r radius
  • Diameter divide by 2 to get radius
  • 40 ft radius
  • Area 3.14 40 40 5,024 ft2

diameter
radius
25
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Circle
  • Diameter 80 ft
  • 80 / 2 40
  • 3.14 40 40 5,024

26
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Used to treat volumes
  • Volume of water in a pond, volume of grain
    (bushels) in a bin
  • Area height or depth
  • Pond 5 acres
  • Depth 3 ft
  • 5 3 15
  • Grain bin
  • Floor area 1,256 ft2
  • Height 40 ft
  • 1256 40 50,240 ft3
  • 50,240 / 1.25(cubic feet per bushel) 40,192
    bushels

27
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Liquid gallons, quarts, pints, fluid ounces
  • Label tells how much active ingredient in
    formulation
  • Dry pounds, ounces
  • Label 25WP
  • 25 active ingredient by weight

28
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • of 100 20 20 of 100
  • part/whole 100
  • Part whole /100
  • 5 of a mixture for application
  • Total 64 fluid ounces
  • How many ounces?
  • Part ? 64 5/100
  • Part 3.2 ounces

29
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Whole part 100/
  • Need 6oz active ingredient of a 20 formulation
  • Whole ? 6 oz 100/20
  • Whole 30 oz

30
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • To mix the right amount you need to know
  • What area treated?
  • Rate of the formulation?
  • Total amount needed?
  • How much pesticide is needed to treat 20 acres
    with 3 ounces per acre?
  • What is the area? 20 acres
  • What is the application rate? 3 oz per acre
  • How much is needed? 203 60 oz

31
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • How much the area can treat
  • Tank capacity /application rate treatable area
  • 50 lbs of granules, 2 lb per 100 square ft. How
    much can be treated?
  • 50/2 25lbs granules/hundred square ft
  • 300 gallons applied at 15 gallons per acre. How
    much can be treated?
  • 300/15 20 acres

32
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Labels restrict how much applied in one year
  • Two applications same active ingredient
  • First 3 oz per 1000 square feet
  • How much of a 2 liter formulation can be used if
    limit is 6 oz per thousand square feet?
  • Second application can not exceed 3 oz

33
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Spray most common
  • Most diluted with carrier
  • Usually water
  • Can be other agents ( liquid fertilizer)

34
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Many different kinds of equipment
  • Basic parts in common
  • Pump
  • Peristaltic, centrifugal, turbine, roller,
    diaphragm, piston
  • Centrifugal
  • Low pressure (140 psi)
  • High volume

35
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Roller
  • Smaller
  • Low and medium pressure(300psi)
  • Not as many gallons per minute as centrifugal
  • Diaphragm
  • Medium flow rate
  • Medium to high pressure(725psi)
  • Piston
  • Low flow rate
  • High pressure(1000psi)

36
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Tanks
  • Safely hold solution
  • Strong
  • Chemically resistant
  • Proper shape for agitation
  • Easy to clean
  • Agitation
  • Hydraulic
  • Circulates through pump and back into mix
  • Mechanical
  • paddles

37
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Strainers
  • Filters for foreign objects
  • Hoses
  • Proper size, strength, and material
  • Pressure gauge
  • Allows applicator
  • Pump working
  • Monitor application for problems
  • Sudden drop or rise
  • Measure near nozzle
  • Most force

38
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Pressure and flow control
  • Controlled with valves
  • Spring loaded
  • Adjusted to open at desired pressure
  • Divert excess flow back in to tank
  • Ball valve
  • Restricts flow
  • Nozzles
  • Uniformity
  • Reduce drift
  • Amount sprayed

39
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Amount of spray
  • Orifice
  • The spray opening
  • Determined by nozzle
  • Bigger nozzle bigger orifice more liquid can
    pass
  • Measured
  • Gallons per minute at different pressures
  • Dont increase pressure to get more spray
  • Increase drift
  • Get larger nozzle

40
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Individual requirements
  • Mounting
  • Overlap
  • Misuse poor results
  • On boom
  • Same size and type

41
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42
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Clean thoroughly after each use
  • Prevent contamination
  • Nozzles
  • Use nozzle brush

43
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Selecting the right size orifice (nozzle) and
    operating pressure
  • Applied properly and make adjustments
  • Three factors affecting how much is applied
  • Application per minute
  • Speed
  • Spray width

44
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
45
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Calculation
  • Flow rate of nozzle (GPM)
  • Relationship between GPM PSI
  • See equation pg. 316
  • Speed (MPH
  • Effective spray width (W)
  • GPA GPM 5,940 / MPH W
  • Find GPM
  • Collect clean water from sprayer for 1 minute
  • Determine fluid ounces divide by 128

46
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Example
  • How many gallons are applied per acre of the
    nozzle provides 0.3 gpm, are 20 inches apart, and
    you travel 12 miles per hour?
  • GPM 0.3
  • MPH 12
  • W 20
  • GPA 0.3 (GPM) 5,940 / 12 (MPH) 20 inches
  • GPA 1,782 / 240 7.4 GPA

47
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Measure MPH ( DO NOT RELY ON SPEEDOMETER)
  • MPH feet 60 / seconds 88
  • Half full of clean water
  • Drive on similar terrain to what will be sprayed
  • Time how long it takes
  • How fast are you going if it takes 68 seconds to
    walk 300 feet?
  • MPH 300 60 / 68 88
  • 18,000 / 5,984 3.0 MPH

48
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Effective spray width (W)
  • Distance between nozzles
  • Band applications - width of the band
  • Check label for range
  • Change nozzle
  • Calculate GPM (what you need)
  • Rate (GPA)
  • Speed (MPH)
  • Effective spray width (W)

49
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • GPM GPA MPH W / 5,940
  • Example What flow rate should a nozzle provide
    if you apply 25 GPA in a 15 inch band traveling 4
    miles per hour?
  • GPA 25
  • MPH 4
  • W 15
  • GPM 25 4 15 / 5,940
  • GPM 1,500 / 5,940 0.25 GPM

50
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Small areas
  • Test course
  • Clean water
  • Gallons per minute

51
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Components
  • Hopper
  • Meter
  • Agitator
  • Distributor
  • Calibration
  • Put plastic bag under outlet
  • Simulate spreading 100 square feet
  • Distance area / effective swath

52
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Example If your spreader pattern is 4 feet wide
    how far do you have to travel to cover 100 square
    feet?
  • Distance 100 sq.ft / 4 feet 25 feet

53
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Extended Range Flat-fan Nozzles
  • Frequently used for soil foliar applications
  • 80 fan angles
  • 20 centers, 17-19 boom height
  • 110 fan angles
  • 30 centers, 20-22 boom height
  • 20 centers, 10-12 boom height
  • 50 overlap recommended

54
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Soil Application
  • 10-30 psi, drift risk at psis gt30
  • 40 psi should only be used for foliar application
    where penetration of canopy is essential
  • Even Flan-Fan Nozzles
  • Very uniform coverage
  • Used only for banding over the row
  • Psi operation range 15-30 psi

55
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Band widths boom heights

Band width 80 series boom height 95 series boom height
8 5 4
10 6 5
12 7 6
15 9 8
56
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Flooding Flat-fan Nozzles
  • Wide-angle, flat-fan pattern
  • Used to apply
  • Herbicides
  • Mixed herbicides
  • Liquid fertilizers
  • Spacing 40 or less
  • 8-25 psi operational range
  • 100 overlap recommended
  • Doesnt provide as complete coverage as other
    nozzles

57
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • More sensitive to psi adjustments
  • Can be mounted vertical, horizontal, or at any
    angle depending on need
  • Turbo Flood Nozzles
  • Combine precision uniformity of flat-fan and
    flooding nozzles
  • Increases droplet sizes pattern uniformity
  • Operating psi 8-25
  • 50 overlap

58
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Turbo Flat-fan Nozzles
  • Drift reduction over wider range of psis (15-90)
  • 30 spacing, 50 overlap
  • Raindrop Nozzles
  • Recommended when drift is a major concern
  • 20-50 psi operation range
  • Wide angle, hollow cone spray pattern
  • No more than 30 spacing, angle at 30 from
    vertical

59
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Best used w/ soil applied herbicides
  • 100 overlap is best for good coverage
  • Especially in foliar applications
  • Wide-Angle Full-Cone Nozzles
  • Produces larger droplet sizes to reduce drift
    over wide psi ranges
  • Produces 120 spray angle
  • 15-40 psi
  • Only 25 overlap recommended

60
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Hoods
  • Hoods on the sprayer nozzles and booms can be
    effective or extremely ineffective depending on
    the use
  • Concept is to reduce drift
  • How can it actually cause more drift?
  • How can it work effectively?
  • Do you think row hoods are a good idea?
  • What advantages would they provide?

61
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Emerging technologies
  • Optical sensors
  • Sensor detects weeds
  • Activates spray nozzle to emit chemical
  • Protect sensitive crops
  • Reduce drift
  • Reduce chemical costs of application
  • Electronics for precision application
  • Monitors for ground speeds, pressure, flow rates,
    etc.
  • How will it improve chemical effectiveness/efficie
    ncy?

62
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Precision Agriculture (VRT)
  • Use of GPS/GIS technologies to apply
    chemicals/fertilizers
  • Concentrate herbicide applications to areas where
    the weeds are
  • Reduce or eliminate chemical application to areas
    where there are no weeds present
  • Reduces cost of chemical applications
  • Reduces environmental contamination risks

63
Unit 7 Application Equipment Calibration
  • Find an article related to Precision Agriculture.
  • Write a 1 page response/summary of the article.
  • Bring to class to share.
  • Worth 40 pts.
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