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Animals

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Title: Animals


1
Animals
  • 6th Grade Science
  • 6-3

2
Animals
  • Characteristics of Animals
  • Multi-cellular Have many cells
  • Heterotrophs - Cannot make their own food, must
    get energy by eating plants or other animals
  • Animals are classified according to whether or
    not they have a backbone.

3
Invertebrates
  • Invertebrates - animals that lack a backbone
  • Ex. Sponges, segmented worms, echinoderms,
    mollusks, and arthropods.

4
Vertebrates
  • Vertebrates - Animals that have a backbone Ex.
    Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds or mammals.

5
Characteristics of Vertebrates
  • Vertebrates have
  • Backbones
  • Protective skin covering
  • An inside skeleton
  • Muscles
  • Blood that circulates through blood vessels
  • Lungs (or Gills) for breathing
  • Most have legs or fins for movement
  • A nervous system with brains that process
    information from their environments through
    sensory organs, for example eyes,such as ears or
    tongues.

6
Classes (or Groups) of Vertebrates
  • Fish
  • Amphibians
  • Reptiles
  • Birds
  • Mammals

7
Fish
  • have backbones
  • are cold-blooded (ectothermic)
  • obtain dissolved oxygen in water through gills
  • most lay eggs
  • have scales
  • have fins
  • live in water.

8
Amphibians
  • have backbones
  • cold-blooded (ectothermic)
  • can breathe in water with gills early in life,
    and breathe on land with lungs as adults
  • go through metamorphosis
  • lay jelly-like eggs

9
Amphibians Cont.
  • The major groups of amphibians are frogs, toads
    and salamanders.
  • Frogs and salamanders have smooth, moist skin,
    through which they can breathe and live part of
    their life in water and part on land.
  • Toads have thicker, bumpy skin and live on land.

10
Reptiles
  • Have backbones
  • Are cold-blooded (ectothermic)
  • Breathe with lungs
  • Most lay eggs, although in some the eggs hatch
    inside the female
  • Have scales or plates.
  • Examples Snakes, Lizards, Alligators,
    Crocodiles, Turtles and Tortoises

11
Reptiles
  • Alligators and Crocodiles

12
Birds
  • have backbones
  • are warm-blooded (endothermic)
  • breathe with lungs
  • lay eggs
  • have feathers
  • and have a beak,
  • two wings,
  • and two feet.

13
Mammals
  • have backbones
  • are warm-blooded (endothermic)
  • breathe with lungs
  • have babies that are born live
  • have fur or hair
  • and produce milk to feed their young.

14
Classes or Groups of Invertebrates
  • Sponges
  • Segmented Worms
  • Echinoderms
  • Arthropods
  • Mollusks

15
Invertebrate Review
  • Invertebrates are animals without backbones.
  • There are many more invertebrates than
    vertebrates. 90 of all animals are
    invertebrates.
  • The largest group of invertebrates are the
    arthropods. that include insects. 90 of all
    animals are invertebrates

16
Sponges
  • Are very simple animals
  • Have many pores holes through which water flows.
  • Water moves into a central cavity and out through
    a hole in the top.
  • Sponges obtain their food and eliminate wastes
    through this passage of water.
  • They live in fresh or salt water.

17
Segmented Worms
  • Have long tube-like bodies that are divided into
    segments.
  • They are the simplest organisms with a true
    nervous system.
  • A long digestive tube runs down the length of the
    worms inside body.
  • Examples are earthworms and leeches.

18
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19
Echinoderms
  • Have similar parts - arms - that extend from the
    middle body outwards.
  • They have tube feet and spines.
  • Examples are starfish (sea stars), brittle stars,
    sea cucumbers, or sea urchins.

http//www.vsf.cape.com/jdale/science/movement.ht
m Animated graphic of how tube feet look and work
20
Examples of Echinoderms
21
Arthropods
  • Have jointed legs
  • Live on land and in water
  • Have hard outer coverings called exoskeletons,
  • Have segmented bodies
  • Some have wings.
  • Examples are insects, spiders, and crustaceans.

22
Mollusks
  • Have soft bodies
  • Most have a thick muscular foot for movement or
    to open and close their shells
  • Live in salt or fresh water or on land
  • Some have shells.
  • Examples are snails, clams, and octopuses.

23
Animal Adaptations
  • Adaptations - Special features that enable an
    animal to survive in its environment
  • Animals have structures with basic functions that
    allow them to defend themselves, to move, and to
    obtain resources.

24
Adaptations for Defense
  • Hiding adaptations the animal avoids the
    predator entirely.
  • Ex. Camouflage and mimicry

25
Flight Adaptations
  • Flight adaptations allows animals to flee from
    predators and escape danger.
  • Birds and bats, light skeletons and wings to fly
    away
  • Long legs for extra speed or strong legs for
    jumping
  • Paws or toenails that allow them to construct
    holes or tunnels to run into and hide.

26
Physical Features
  • Physical features -allow an animal to make a
    direct attack painful
  • Horns, claws, quills, stingers, shells, smells
  • Change its size
  • Taste bad or be poisonous to the predator -
    Monarch butterflies are brightly colored but
    poisonous to animals.

27
Adaptations for Movement
  • Animals move
  • to fulfill their needs
  • to move their bodies from one place to another.
  • to find food
  • escape predators.
  • Animals have certain structures for movement for
    example, legs, feet, tails, shape, and skeleton.

28
Adaptations to Obtain Needed Resources
  • Examples of some of these structures are
  • Filtering adaptations for filter feeders (such as
    sponges or clams) that consume food found in the
    water.
  • Tube-shaped mouth parts for fluid-feeders.
    Examples are mosquitoes, aphids, or hummingbirds.

29
Adaptations to Obtain Needed Resources Cont.
  • Feeders that consume large prey have tentacles,
    pinchers, claws, fangs, expandable stomachs or
    flexible jaws.

30
Adaptations to Obtain Needed Resources Cont.
  • Feeders that consume food where it is located.
  • different shaped beaks
  • sharp teeth for ripping and tearing of flesh
  • large rounded teeth for grinding plants
  • rough tongues for drinking water
  • or long necks or legs to get food.

31
Endothermic vs. Ectothermic(Warm-blooded vs.
Cold-blooded)
  • Animals differ in their abilities to regulate
    body temperature.

32
Endothermic
  • Endothermic -Animals that maintain a constant
    internal temperature.
  • Endo means inside therm means heat.
  • Animals metabolism works hard to keep body the
    right temperature for activity all the time.

33
Endothermic
  • Too hot? Cool off by
  • sweating, panting, (generating heat loss through
    evaporating water)
  • changing position or changing location in the
    world (seeking shade or shelter)
  • changing posture (controls to some extent the
    heat absorbed from the environment around them)

34
Endothermic
  • Endothermic animals must eat much more often than
    an ectodermic animal. For example, a lion
    (endothermic) eats its weight in food every seven
    to ten days.

35
Ectothermic
  • Ectothermic - Animals that do not maintain a
    constant internal temperature and must gain heat
    to perform internal activities.
  • Ecto means outside therm means heat.

36
Ectothermic
  • Too cool? Animals are slow moving and sluggish
  • Use sun to heat up their bodies and allow any
    activity.
  • Examples are snakes, lizards, fish, frogs or
    insects.

37
Ectothermic
  • Snakes must bask in the sun before they can move
    about to hunt for food. If the temperature gets
    too hot, a snake must find shade or burrow in the
    ground to keep its body cool or die.
  • If an animal is cold blooded, they take on the
    temperature of their surroundings so they don't
    have to use food energy to keep warm. This means
    they don't have to eat as often.

38
Reactions to the EnvironmentStimulus and Response
  • Animals have physical responses that are caused
    by environmental stimuli.
  • Ex. Shedding, blinking, shivering, sweating,
    panting, and food gathering.

39
Reactions to the EnvironmentStimulus and Response
  • All organisms respond to their environment.
  • A response is a reaction to a stimulus. For
    example, if a lion charges a gazelle, the gazelle
    may respond by running away.

40
Reactions to the EnvironmentStimulus and Response
  • Responses may be simple or complex.
  • simple response may be moving away from strong
    heat.
  • Complex responses is behavior.
  • Ex. Annual migration of a bird is a behavioral
    response to changes in the season.
  • Climate affects the vegetation and the animals in
    an area causing a variety of responses.

41
Reactions to the EnvironmentStimulus and Response
  • Most living things have adaptations that help
    them survive. Adaptations are responses by
    organisms to an internal or environmental
    stimulus that help them survive

42
Response to Temperature Change
  • Shedding - To maintain internal temperatures,
    animals form thick coasts of fur to insulate
    their body from cold weather similarly in hot
    weather animals will shed this extra fur,
    providing a cooling effect

43
Response to Temperature Change
  • Sweating - an organisms major way of getting rid
    of excess body heat, which is produced by
    metabolism or working muscles.
  • Sweat can be made in response to nerve
    stimulation, hot air, and exercise.
  • When sweat evaporates from the surface of the
    skin, it removes excess heat and cools the animal.

44
Response to Temperature Change
  • Panting breathing heavily with mouth open
  • Some animals don't sweat.
  • They are covered with fur which insulates them
    and keeps the heat in.
  • They pant to get rid of excess heat from their
    bodies.
  • The heat turns the water in their mouths into
    water vapor.
  • The heat is used for a different purpose instead
    of heating the dog's body, it is used to
    evaporate the water from the animals mouth.

45
Response to Temperature Change
  • Shivering - a mammals mechanism to increase
    heat production.
  • An involuntary response to a drop in the
    temperature of air in contact with the body.
  • A method that the body uses to increase the rate
    at which energy is transformed for use.
  • The same effect could occur by exercising, which
    would be a voluntary method of raising the
    metabolic rate

46
Examples of other common responses to weather,
temperature and moisture are
  • Blinking - a response to moisture loss
  • Provides protection to the eye
  • Animals need to blink to keep their corneas
    covered with a tear film
  • which serves to protect the eye from drying out
  • from potential infection
  • helps to nourish the eye with oxygen
  • without this tear film eyes would dry out.
  • The blink response also serves to protect the eye
    from injury.

47
Food Gathering
  • Food gathering- The process of finding food by
    hunting or fishing or the gathering of seeds,
    berries, or roots, rather than by the cultivation
    of plants or the domestication of animals
    sometimes called foraging.

48
Food Gathering
  • Storing food Many animals will begin to gather
    and store food for the winter. One such animal
    is a squirrel.

49
Food Gathering
  • Storing nutrition in the form of fat Many
    animals will overeat and reduce their physical
    activity to conserve energy in response to
    environmental stimuli such as cold weather or
    drought.

50
Behavioral Responses
  • Behavioral Responses to the environment
  • hibernation,
  • migration,
  • defense, and
  • courtship

51
Behavioral Responses
  • Hibernation - a special, very deep sleep where
    the animal's body temperature drops, its
    heartbeat and breathing slow down using very
    little energy.

52
Hibernation Cont.
  • Cold weather (stimuli) causes some animals to
    conserve food stores in the body.
  • Some animals "hibernate" for part or all of the
    winter (stimuli).
  • Some ectothermic animals become dormant. When the
    weather gets cold (stimuli), they move to the
    bottom of lakes and ponds.
  • Ex. Frogs, turtles or some fish hide under
    rocks, logs, or fallen leaves. They may even bury
    themselves in the mud and become dormant.

53
Migration
  • Migration travel to other places where the
    weather is warmer or they can find food
  • Cold weather (stimuli) causes some animals
    migrate to find food.
  • The cycle is controlled by changes in the amount
    of daylight and the weather.

54
Defense Mechanisms
  • Defense Defense mechanisms vary with different
    types of animals. Some examples are
  • Camouflage
  • Smells
  • Stingers
  • Ejection
  • Mimicry

55
Camouflage
  • Camouflage - protective coloration to aid an
    animal to survive in its environment.
  • Some animals develop their camouflage in response
    to the weather for example the artic fox and
    snowshoe hare. They develop a white coat for the
    winter to blend in with the snow and a gray coat
    in the summer to blend in with the forest.

56
Smells
  • Smells Skunks use an offensive odor in response
    to fear. The skunk turns the predator's sense of
    smell against it by issuing a stream of oily,
    foul smelling musk.

57
Stingers
  • Stingers Wasps and bees use a stinger for
    protection when frightened or threatened.

58
Ejection
  • Ejection shooting something from the body
  • The black ink cloud of an octopus is an
    adaptation because it allows the animal a chance
    to run away without being eaten.

59
Ejection Cont.
  • When the horned lizard gets really scared, it
    shoots blood out of its eyes by increasing the
    blood pressure in its sinuses until they explode.
    The blood doesn't hurt the lizard's enemy but it
    scares them, so the horned lizard has time to
    escape.

60
Mimicry
  • Mimicry When a weaker animal copies stronger
    animals' characteristics to warn off predators.
  • Some flower flies resemble black and yellow wasps
    that have a powerful sting and use this disguise
    to ward off predators.

61
Courtship
  • Courtship - adults of a species become mating
    pairs.
  • Courtship behaviors ensure that males and females
    of the same species recognize each other.
  • Environmental stimuli such as warmer weather and
    longer days will stimulate courtship.
  • Often sensory cues will attract a potential mate.
  • Chemical odor cues or color often serve as
    courtship attractants in animals.

62
Animals Internal Stimuli
  • Animals have internal stimuli, or cues, that
    ensure their survival including
  • hunger,
  • thirst, and
  • sleep.

63
Hunger
  • Hunger - Animals need food for several reasons.
  • If animals did not have the hunger stimulus, they
    may not eat and could not survive.
  • Feeding is the response to the internal stimulus
    of hunger.

64
Thirst
  • Thirst - Animals have mechanisms for surviving
    long periods of time without food before they
    die, but some can only survive for a few days
    without water. Survival is dependent on water.

65
Sleep
  • Sleep - is triggered by a stimulus from the
    brain.
  • Sleep is not an option it is required for
    survival.

66
Behavior
  • Some animal behaviors are instincts, or traits
    that the animal is born with, and some are
    learned behaviors, or behaviors that were taught
    to the animal, often by its parent.
  • behavior - a specific action that an animal does
    that can be observed.
  • These different behaviors influence animal
    survival.

67
Learned Behavior
  • Learned behavior - Behavior that has changed
    because of a certain experience or practice.
  • Ex. a goldfish can be trained to come to the
    waters surface when a light is flashed.
  • Many animals must learn how to hunt effectively
    for food.
  • When the environment changes behavior patterns
    also change.

68
Learned Behavior
  • Learned behaviors are modified by experience. An
    organisms pattern of behavior is related to the
    organisms environment, including
  • kinds and numbers of other organisms present,
  • the availability of food and other resources,
  • the physical characteristics of the environment.

69
Inherited Behaviors
  • Inherited behaviors - Behaviors that are passed
    on from parents to offspring.
  • In higher invertebrates and vertebrates, the
    simplest form of inherited behavior is a reflex.
    A reflex, such as a frog jumping when touched, is
    simply an automatic reaction.

70
Instincts
  • A more complex inherited behavior is called an
    instinct.
  • Examples of animals acting on instinct
  • When a snail digs a hole to lay its eggs,
  • a bird builds a special kind of nest,
  • or when a fiddler crab waves its claw to attract
    a female.
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