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Title: Web Resources on Science Literacy


1
Web Resources on Science Literacy Dan Sporea and
Adelina Sporea National Institute for Lasers,
Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest,
Romania Motto Scientific literacy may
likely determine whether or not democratic
society will survive into the 21st century. -L.
M. Lederman, Nobel Laureate Purpose of the
report a review of the concept for its better
understanding, in order to make more efficient
different means of implementation (i.e. Hands-on
Science project, dissemination of the RD
outcome) Presentation outline ? Implications
of scientific illiteracy ? Definition(s) of
science literacy ? Approaches in solving the
problem ? Directions of interest ? Additional
resources ? Science Curriculum Materials
Developers
2
  • Implications of scientific illiteracy. The
    concept of Science literacy. General remarks
  • ? Building Websites for Science Literacy
    by Victoria Welborn and Bryn Kanar
  • http//www.library.ucsb.edu/istl/00-w
    inter/article2.html
  • ? Who's Getting It Right and Who's Getting
    It Wrong in the Debate about Science Literacy? By
  • Matthew Nisbet - http//www.csicop.or
    g/scienceandmedia/literacy/
  • ? Test Your Scientific Literacy! by
    Richard Carrier
  • http//www.infidels.org/library/moder
    n/richard_carrier/SciLit.html
  • ? Mathematics and Science
    Literacy-Bridges to carrier-Designing
    Professional Development for
  • Teachers of Science and Mathematics
    by Susan Loucks-Horsley, et al., 1998.
  • ? The General Populations Ignorance of
    Science Related societal Issues A Challenge for
    the
  • University, AAPT Announcer 30(2)
    105 (2000) -http//www.physics.indiana.edu/hake/
  • ? Two Revolutions in K-8 Science Education
    by Lopez, R.E. T. Schultz, 2001, Physics Today
  • 54(9) 44-49 - http//physicstoday.o
    rg/pt/vol-54/iss-9/p44.html

3
  • What is science literacy?
  • non-scientists generally lack it
  • the current levels of civic scientific literacy
    are too low
  • scientists themselves often fail to understand
    basic scientific principles
  • outside their areas of specialization
  • science is as much about a way of thinking as
    it is about results
  • basic level of scientific literacy is required
    in order for individuals to function
  • in a scientific and technological culture and
    for a nation to compete more
  • effectively in the industrialized world
  • effective professional development
  • enhancing one's ability to make personal
    decisions

4
  • Definition(s) of science literacy (last 6
    years)
  • references from http//www.library.ucsb.e
    du/istl/00-winter/article2.html
  • lists of basic facts that the scientifically
    literate should know (Raymo 1998, Trefil 1996)
  • "behaviors that serve as guidelines for
    interpreting the functions of science/technology"
    (Paul
  • DeHart Hurd 1998)
  • "successful information seeking behavior" (Sapp
    1992)
  • "scientific awareness" (Devlin 1998)
  • "scientific ways of knowing" (Maienschein 1999)
  • Science for All Americans (American Association
    for the Advancement of Science Project 2061
    Update 2001-20002 http//asa.aip.org) defines a
    science literate person as one who
  • is familiar with the natural world
  • understands some of the key concepts and
    principles of science
  • Has the capacity for scientific ways of
    thinking
  • Is aware of some of the important ways in which
    mathematics, technology and science depend
  • Upon one another
  • Knows that science, mathematics and technology
    are human enterprises and what that implies

5
  • At http//www.yesican.yorku.ca/home/sci-literacy.
    html
  • A British political scientist suggested that the
    term encompassed the following components
  • a) An appreciation of the nature and
    aims of science and technology, including their
    historical
  • origins and the epistemological and
    practical values which they embody
  • b) A knowledge of the way in which
    science and technology actually work, including
    the funding of
  • research, the conventions of
    scientific practice, and the application of new
    discoveries.
  • c) A basic grasp of how to interpret
    numerical data, especially relating to
    probability and statistics.
  • d) A general grounding in selected areas
    of science, including, for example, a number of
    key
  • interdisciplinary areas such as
    matter and energy, information theory, and
    environment and
  • health.
  • e) An appreciation of the
    interrelationships between science, technology
    and society, including
  • the role of scientists and
    technicians as experts in society, and the
    structure of relevant political
  • decision-making processes.

6
2. An enterprise in the USA which has as its
central purpose the reform of education in
science, mathematics and technology started by
defining what were considered to be the basic
dimensions of scientific literacy a)
Being familiar with the natural world and
recognizing both its diversity and its unity.
b) Understanding key concepts and principles
of science. c) Being aware of some of
the important ways in which science, mathematics
and technology depend upon one
another. d) Knowing that science,
mathematics and technology are human enterprises
and knowing what that implies about
their strengths and limitations. e)
Having a capacity for scientific ways of
thinking. f) Using scientific knowledge
and ways of thinking for individual and social
purposes
7
3. A Canadian educator's description of
scientific literacy as a basis for science
education presented the following elements
a) Scientific knowledge which includes
facts, concepts, principles, and skills and their
applications to new situations in
science and technology. b) The ability
to engage in the processes of scientific inquiry.
c) General ideas about the
characteristics and limitations of science.
d) Important relationships between science
and society. e) Attitudes and
interests related to science.
8
  • From Michigan Science Education Guidebook
  • To be scientifically literate all graduates of
    today schools should be
  • ? knowledgeable about the important
    concepts and theories of the three major branches
    of
  • scientific study earth, life, and
    physical sciences
  • ? able to think scientifically and use
    scientific knowledge to make decisions about
    realworld
  • problems
  • ? able to construct new knowledge for
    themselves through research, reading, and
    discussion
  • ? familiar with the natural world, and
    respectful of its unity, diversity, and
    fragility
  • ? able to make informed judgments on
    statements and debates claiming to have a
    scientific
  • basis
  • ? able to reflect in an informed way on
    the role of science in human affairs.
  • According to the Michigan Curriculum Frameworks
    (in Literacy in Science Project by Kristie
  • Thompson Holly Hoffman -http//www.msu.edu/hoff
    ma51/ScienceLiteracy.html) scientific literacy is
    the ability to
  • ? construct scientific knowledge,
  • ? reflect on scientific knowledge, and
  • ? use scientific knowledge to describe,
    explain, and make predictions about real world
    events,
  • phenomena and systems.

9
  • Two categories of interest
  • Civic Scientific Literacy (according to Miller
    1998, referred to in
  • http//www.library.ucsb.edu/istl/00-winter
    /article2.html
  • 1. "a vocabulary of basic
    scientific constructs...
  • 2. an understanding of the process
    or nature of scientific inquiry
  • 3. some level of understanding of
    the impact of science and technology on
    individuals and on society.
  • Science Information Literacy (according to
    Shapiro and Hughes 1996 Information Literacy as
    a Liberal Art Enlightenment proposals for a new
    curriculum http//www.educause.edu/pub/er/review
    /reviewarticles/31231.html
  • The ability to "access information", the ability
    to engage in "critical reflection on the nature
    of information itself, and its social, cultural
    and even philosophical context and impact, based
    on
  • 1. Tool Literacy the ability to use
    and understand information tools including
    computers,
  • printers, and network
    applications
  • 2. Resource Literacy the ability to
    "understand the form, format, location and access
    methods
  • of information resources"
  • 3. Social-structural literacy an
    understanding of "how information is socially
    situated and
  • produced and how it fits into
    the life of groups...such as universities,
    libraries, research
  • communities.

10
  • Approaches in solving the problem
  • ?? Family and community involvement, through
    direct interaction with
  • ? the natural world (gardening, looking for pets
    and plants, visits to natural park and zoos)
  • ? man-created environment (assistance in
    household activities small repairs, cooking -
    visits to
  • hands-on science center, museums, radio and
    TV broadcasting)
  • ? American Association for the Advancement of
    Science http//asa.aip.org/
  • ? www.ScienceEverywhere.org
  • ? www.tryscience.org
  • ? http//www.michigan.gov/mde/0,1607,7-140-5233---
    ,00.html
  • ? http//www.btinternet.com/Brian.Fisher/s6.htm
  • ? http//www.smv.org/
  • ? Internet Resources for Parents
    www.scimathmn.org
  • Michigan Science Education Guidebook
  • science toys and kits

11
  • ?? Schools contribution by training through
  • experiments, observation, analysis, data mining
    and processing, discussions and communication of
  • results, didactic materials
  • ? http//www.isd77.k12.mn.us/resources/cf/Sc
    iProjIntro.html
  • ? The Physics Classroom
    http//www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/B
    Board.html
  • science guides (National Research Council)
  • ? National science education standards.
    Washington, DC National Academy Press
  • http//www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/n
    ses/
  • science NetLinks
  • ? http//www.sciencenetlinks.com/about.htm
  • ? The National Science Teachers
    Association http//www.nsta.org/
  • science learning centers with simple and cheep
    experiments
  • ? http//web2.airmail.net/kboyle/
  • full Option science system
  • ? http//lhsfoss.org/index.html
  • school study group seminars
  • ? The New Science Literacy Main
    Mathematics and Science Alliance - www.mmsa.org
  • ? American Association for the Advancement
    of Science http//www.project2061.org/

12
  • ?? Local authorities
  • ? Alberta Science Literacy Association
    http//www.asla.ca/
  • ? http//www.astro.ufl.edu/doug/gslop/
  • ? SLIP, Rhode Island College
    www.ric.edu/slip
  • ?? Students activities for supporting science
    literacy
  • ? The Odyssey of the Rational Mind, a
    registered organization with Associated Students
    at the
  • University of California, San Diego
    http//www.sciscript.net/odyssey.htm
  • NGOs activities on specific topics
  • ? general public education/ training and
    virtual tours on marine science and biotechnology
    at
  • http//www.SGA.seagrant.org
  • ? National Center for Science Education
    http//www.natcenscied.org/default.asp
  • ? ENC http//www.enc.org/weblinks/math/0,15
    44,12Dshapescirclessolidspolyhedra
  • polygonstriangles2Dany2DGeometricFi
    gures,00.shtm
  • ? Summit on Science http//www.summitscienc
    e.org/literacy/index.html
  • ? Institute for Information Literacy
    http//www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlissues/acrlinfolit
    /infolitoverview/

13
  • ? Professional societies activities in promoting
    science literacy
  • ? Institute of Ocean - Sciences
    http//atocdb.ucsd.edu/
  • ? American Chemical Society
    http//membership.acs.org/M/Midl/ChemEd.htm
  • ? http//www.nestanet.org/
  • ? American Physical Society Policy
    Statement on K-12 Science and Mathematics
    Education
  • http//www.aps.org/apsnews/0201/020101
    .html
  • ?? Teaching general liberal-science courses to
    the non-scientists and informal education
  • ? Science Literacy, by Gentry Lee,
    http//tlcserv.la.utexas.edu/
  • ? courses on recent scientific theories,
    Boston University
  • http//people.bu.edu/wwildman/WeirdWildWe
    b/courses/sl/sl_top.htm
  • ? http//www.space.com/opinionscolumns/gentr
    ylee/science_literacy_gentry_000804.html
  • ? The National Science Teachers Association
  • http//www.nsta.org/main/news/stories/
    nsta_story.php?news_story_ID49921
  • ?? Teachers education in using science related
    curriculum materials
  • ? The Center for Curriculum Materials in
    Science http//www.sciencematerialscenter.org/

14
  • ?? Appropriate literature for teachers
  • ? http//www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/search-h
    andle-url/index3Dstripbooks2526field-
  • keywords3Dscience2520literacy2526re
    sults-
  • process3Ddefault2526dispatch3Dsearc
    h/ref3Dpd5Fsl5Fov5Ftops-
  • 15Fstripbooks5F62551735F1/002-956313
    7-1775204
  • ? Global Science Literacy (2002) by Kluwer
    Academic Publishers Thier Marlene and Daviss
  • Bennett
  • ? The New Science Literacy Using Language
    Skills to Help Students Learn Science.
  • http//www.lib.msu.edu/corby/reviews/p
    osted/thier.htm
  • ? Resources for Science Literacy
  • http//www.oup.com/us/catalog/general/sub
    ject/?viewusaci0195108736
  • http//www.actionbioscience.org/
  • ? http//www.scienceweb.org/new.html
  • Role played by public libraries
  • ? A Science Literacy Program of the Santa
    Cruz Public Libraries
  • http//scplweb.santacruzpl.org/science/
  • ? Promoting Information Literacy for
    Science Education Programs Correlating the
    National
  • Science Education Content Standards
    with the Association of College and Research
    Libraries

15
  • Role of the media
  • ? Approaches to Media Literacy in Science
    Education National Media Education Conference
  • 2003 - http//www.med.sc.edu1081/tim.
    htm
  • ? Science Literacy for Public Radio
    Reporters and Producers Workshop
  • http//www.dnafiles.org/scienceworkshop/p
    rogramdescription.html
  • ? http//www.csicop.org/scienceandmedia/lit
    eracy/
  • Foundations supporting projects on science
    education
  • ? Clark Foundation - http//www.clarkfoundat
    ion.org/literacy.html
  • ? Science Technology Literacy
    Videoconference Program Series -
  • http//www.diane.tnstate.edu/Dell-Di_scit
    ech_schedule.html
  • ? http//www.westga.edu/byates/scientif.htm
  • Cinema as a tool for science literacy
  • ? http//arxiv.org/abs/physics/0404078

16
  • Directions of interest and strategies in
    teaching science
  • Basic readings
  • ? Next Steps, Project 2061 to Focus on
    Building Public Support and Improving Texts,
    Winter 2002,
  • Volume 12, Number 1, American
    Association for the Advancement of Science -
    www.aaas.org
  • ? Michigan Science Education Guidebook
  • ? Science for all Americans -
    http//www.project2061.org/tools/sfaaol/chap11.htm
  • ? Science Teaching Standards Standards
    for Professional Development for Teachers of
    Science
  • Science Content Standards Science
    Education Program Standards Science Education
    System
  • Standards, National Committee on
    Science Education Standards and Assessment,
    National
  • Research Council -
    http//www.nap.edu/catalog/4962.html
  • http//www.ridoe.com/standards/framework
    s/science/
  • National Academy Press -
    http//books.nap.edu/catalog/4962.html
  • ? http//cela.albany.edu/research/project2
    .23.htm
  • ? AIMS Education Foundation
    www.AIMSedu.org
  • ? American Association for the
    Advancement of Science-
  • http//www.project2061.org/tools/ben
    chol/bolintro.htm
  • ? Shaping the future new expectations
    for undergraduate education in science,
    mathematics,

17
  • ? Science Literacy, Gentry Lee
  • http//www.space.com/opinionscolumns/gentry
    lee/science_literacy_gentry_000804.html
  • ? Science and Literacy, by Ellen Stone
  • http//www.usoe.k12.ut.us/curr/Science/Read
    Science/NEF20Sci20and20Lit.html
  • ? Achieving Scientific Literacy, From Purposes
    to Practices by Rodger W. Bybee
  • http//www.heinemann.com/product/07134.asp
  • Redesigning Education by Wilson, K.G. B.
    Daviss, 1994. (Henry Holt, 1994)
  • http//www-physics.mps.ohio-state.edu/kgw/
    RE.html
  • Science Education Petition of 22 December 1999
    by Woolf, L. 1999 -
  • http//www.sci-ed-ga.org/standards/
  • Improving Science Literacy and Conservation¬†in
    Developing Countries by Carlos L. de la Rosa
  • http//www.actionbioscience.org/newfrontier
    s/delarosa.html
  • ? http//www.sciteched.org/curriculum/Circles/lit
    eracy.htm
  • ? http//www.arches.uga.edu/pwang/literacy.html
  • ? http//www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index
    .asp?HREF/articles/yerrick/index.html
  • ? http//www.bcis.pacificu.edu/journal/2002/03/ki
    ng.php
  • ? http//www.kbs.msu.edu/K12_Partnership/Index.ht
    m
  • ? http//course.lib.uci.edu/ed/spirit/focus/
  • ? http//groups.ucanr.org/STEL/

18
  • Which way?
  • Development of concepts on science
  • Building familiarity with complex ideas
  • Science related vocabulary expansion
  • ? Reveal common themes
  • ? systems
  • ? models physical, mathematical,
    conceptual
  • ? constancy and change - stability and
    equilibrium, conservation, symmetry,
  • patterns of change, trends, cycles,
    chaos, evolution, rates, interactions
  • ? scale
  • Inter-disciplinarily
  • ? Thematic science

19
  • How?
  • Engaging Students with Phenomena (direct
    experiment)
  • Doing mathematics in science
  • Creating of appropriate training aids
  • ? Promoting inquiry
  • ? Providing opportunities for students to
    express ideas
  • ? Taking Account of Student Ideas
  • ? Encouraging self-monitoring
  • ? Team building
  • ? Improving of communication skills in promoting
    science related knowledge

20
  • Major themes
  • Development of employability skills
  • ? Partnership in teaching science (parents,
    community, scientists, teachers, university
    professors)
  • Preparation of guiding standards to ensure all
    students access to science (i.e. the need for
  • literacy in writing, labeling drawings,
    completing concept maps, developing spreadsheets,
    and
  • designing computer graphics)
  • Development of standards for teachers training
    on science understanding
  • Benchmarking on science teaching
  • Science literacy in developing countries

21
  • Additional resources (selection from
    http//www.project2061.org/tools/bluepol/Resource/
    text.htm)
  • ? National Association of Secondary
    School Principals, www.nassp.org
  • ? Association for Supervision and
    Curriculum Development, www.ascd.org
  • ? National Science Teachers Association
    National Convention, www.nsta.org
  • ? National School Boards Association,
    www.nsba.org
  • ? National Council of Teachers of
    Mathematics, www.nctm.org
  • ? National PTA, www.pta.org
  • ? Science Education Resource Guide.
    Developed by Gary Appel, MSSI (Michigan Statewide
  • Systemic Initiative for Reform of
    Mathematics and Science), http//mde.state.mi.us
  • ? Pathways to School Improvement, an
    Internet service developed by North Central
    Regional
  • Educational Laboratory (NCREL) and
    the Midwest Consortium for Mathematics and
    Science
  • Education - http//www.ncrel.org/ncr
    el/sdrs/pathways.htm
  • ? The Coalition of Essential Schools is a
    school-university partnership
  • http//www.essentialschools.org/
  • ? Eisenhower Program is designed to
    improve the skills of teachers and quality of
    mathematics and
  • science - http//www.enc.org
  • ? National Assessment of Educational
    Progress, http//nces.ed.gov/
  • ? Statewide Systemic Initiatives Program
    (SSI) encourages improvements in science,
    mathematics,

22
  • ? National Association of Geology
    Teachers, http//www.nagt.org/
  • ? National Association for Research in
    Science Teaching, http//www2.educ.sfu.ca/narstsit
    e/
  • ? National Earth Science Teachers
    Association, http//www.agu.org
  • ? National Science Teachers Association,
    http//www.nsta.org
  • ? National Academy of Sciences, National
    Research Council Center for Science, Mathematics,
    and
  • Engineering Education,
    http//www.nas.edu
  • ? American Association for Higher
    Education, http//www.aahe.org
  • ? National Education Association,
    http//www.nea.org
  • ? National Association of Secondary
    School Principals, http//www.nassp.org
  • Science Curriculum Materials Developers
    (selection from
  • http//www.project2061.org/tools/blue
    pol/Resource/text.htm
  • ? Activities Integrating Math and Science
    (AIMS) Education Foundation, http//www.aimsedu.or
    g
  • ? Educational Development Center, Inc.,
    http//www.edc.org
  • ? Technical Education Research Centers
    (TERC), http//www.terc.edu
  • ? NASA Central Operations of Resources
    for Educators (CORE),
  • http//core.nasa.gov/
  • ? National Science Resources Center,
    http//www.nsrconline.org/
  • ? U.S. Department of Education,
    http//www.ed.gov/offices/OERI/
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