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Jacksonian Democracy

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Jacksonian Democracy. Personality 'Old Hickory' From Tennessee frontier. Doer not thinker ... Worth of the common man. Equal opportunity to succeed. Made it ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Jacksonian Democracy


1
Jacksonian Democracy
2
Personality
  • Old Hickory
  • From Tennessee frontier
  • Doer not thinker
  • Invasion of Fla 1817
  • Decisive
  • Temper
  • Hero romantic figure

3
Election of 1824
Henry ClayKY
John Quincy AdamsMA
William H. CrawfordGA
4
Results of the 1824 Election
5
Election of 1828
  • JQA v. Jackson
  • Corrupt Bargain
  • Jackson appears virtuous
  • Mudslinging
  • Jackson
  • home wrecker
  • murderer
  • Adams
  • pimp
  • frivolous spender

6
1828 Election Results
7
Jacksonian Democracy
  • Worth of the common man
  • Equal opportunity to succeed
  • Made it cool to be common
  • Govt should not create special advantages
  • States rights
  • Strict interpretation of the Constitution
  • Union was a permanent entity

8
Jacksonian v. Jeffersonian Democracy
  • After Jefferson All Dem-Rep Presidents
  • Birth of Democratic Party
  • Differences
  • Education required for effective decision making
  • Jefferson Yes Jackson No
  • Jefferson OK to be a common man
  • Jackson Glorified the common man (mediocrity was
    a virtue)
  • Capable of uncommon things
  • Rotation in Office

9
King Andrew I
  • Weak federal govt but a strong presidency
  • Reshapes it
  • Representative of the will of the American people
  • Ignored Supreme Court and Congress
  • Veto use
  • Rules on constitutionality

10
Spoils System
  • Reward political supporters
  • Remove JQAs guys
  • To the victor goes the spoils
  • Seen as democratic, but also allowed him to
    control Presidency
  • Kitchen Cabinet

11
Retrenchment and Reform
  • Retrenchment (reduce expenses)
  • Eliminate federal deficit
  • Threat to liberty
  • Done by 2nd term
  • Reform
  • Remove corruption from govt
  • Kickbacks with government contracts
  • They were a threat to democracy

12
Crises
  • Peggy Eaton Affair
  • Nullification Crisis
  • The National Bank War
  • Indian Removal

13
Peggy Eaton Affair
  • John Eaton Sec of War
  • Married Peggy Timberlake commoner
  • Eatons excluded by Washington insiders
  • John Calhoun (VP) his wife was worst
  • Jackson will remove Calhoun in 1831

14
Nullification Crisis
  • South feels isolated
  • Tariffs (1816, 1824, 1828)
  • American System
  • Rising opposition to slavery
  • Tariff of 1832
  • Ordinance of Nullification
  • Clays Compromise Tariff of 1833
  • Force Bill
  • SC concedes

15
Second National Bank
  • First Bank expired 1811
  • Second Bank chartered 1816
  • 80 private investors some foreign
  • Bank Pres - Nicholas Biddle
  • Young, cultured, arrogant
  • He and Jackson did not get along

16
Bank War
  • Election of 1832 Jackson v. Clay
  • Bank recharter scheme
  • Jackson Veto
  • Bank of US is a monopoly
  • Bank is unconstitutional
  • Instrument of the wealthy
  • Foreign owned
  • The veto stands

17
Election of 1832
18
Destroy the National Bank
  • Pet Banks
  • pro-Jackson
  • Two Secs. of Treasury refused
  • Jackson appoints Roger B. Taney
  • Senate censure - 1834
  • Only time in history
  • Violation of the Constitution and abuse of power
  • Conflict of interest

19
Downfall of Mother Bank
20
Impact of Jacksons Economic Policy
  • National Bank no longer regulates currency
  • Land Speculation
  • Borrow from wildcat banks
  • Jackson discouraged by speculation
  • Issues Specie Circular - 1836
  • Land sales transactions must be completed in gold
    or silver
  • Stopped speculation
  • Land prices fall people lose everything
    (Foreclosures)
  • Banks go under
  • Leads to Panic of 1837

21
Destruction of the National Bank
  • Many historians argue..
  • Jackson destroyed a vital financial institution
  • Could have helped alleviate pressures from Panic
    of 1837
  • It seemed like he reduced this issue to a
    personal vendetta rather than trying to
    understand the importance of this institution to
    society. He did not keep the best interests of
    the country in mind.

22
Indian Removal Act
  • Cotton Land South East
  • Americans wanted it
  • Treaties gave land to Native Americans
  • Americans began encroaching
  • What are his alternatives?

23
Indian Removal Act
  • Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi legislatures
    disbanded the treaties
  • unconstitutional act - treaties were federal
    policies
  • Indian Removal Act
  • Some moved without issue
  • Seminoles fought Second Seminole War
  • Cherokees attempted to adopt European culture
  • Challenged the legislation through the court
    system
  • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia - 1831
  • Worchester v. Georgia - 1832
  • John Marshall has made his decision, now let him
    enforce it

24
Cherokee Nation 1820s
25
Indian Removal 1831-1838
26
Costly Mistakes
  • Lack of organization
  • no monitoring of this operation
  • Very few regulations established
  • Inadequate funds
  • Widespread disease, injuries and death
  • Trail of Tears
  • About 25 dont make it
  • Black eye for America

27
Trail of Tears
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