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But the first line, #!/usr/local/bin/perl, tells where to find the Perl compiler ... It's usually here or at /usr/bin/perl. Perl files should have the .pl extension ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Perl

  • Major parts of this lecture adapted from

Why Perl?
  • Perl is built around regular expressions
  • REs are good for string processing
  • Therefore Perl is a good scripting language
  • Perl is especially popular for CGI scripts
  • Perl makes full use of the power of UNIX
  • Short Perl programs can be very short
  • Perl is designed to make the easy jobs easy,
    without making the difficult jobs impossible. --
    Larry Wall, Programming Perl

Why not Perl?
  • Perl is very UNIX-oriented
  • Perl is available on other platforms...
  • ...but isnt always fully implemented there
  • However, Perl is often the best way to get some
    UNIX capabilities on less capable platforms
  • Perl does not scale well to large programs
  • Weak subroutines, heavy use of global variables
  • Perls syntax is not particularly appealing

What is a scripting language?
  • Operating systems can do many things
  • copy, move, create, delete, compare files
  • execute programs, including compilers
  • schedule activities, monitor processes, etc.
  • A command-line interface gives you access to
    these functions, but only one at a time
  • A scripting language is a wrapper language that
    integrates OS functions

Major scripting languages
  • UNIX has sh, Perl
  • Macintosh has AppleScript, Frontier
  • Windows has no major scripting languages
  • probably due to the weaknesses of DOS
  • Generic scripting languages include
  • Perl (most popular)
  • Tcl (easiest for beginners)
  • Python (new, Java-like, best for large programs)

Perl versions
  • To find out which version of Perl you are using,
    type perl -vat the command line
  • Alternatively, put the following in a file
  • !/usr/bin/perlprint "\n\nHello from Perl
  • Run this program with perl
  • This may or may not work, depending on where and
    how Perl is located on your system
  • Please use Perl 5 in your assignments
  • Im using Perl 5.8.8

Perl Example 1
!/usr/local/bin/perl Program to do the
obvious print 'Hello world.' Print a
Save this on a file named
Comments on Hello, World
  • Perl statements end with semicolons
  • Perl is case-sensitive
  • Perl is compiled and run in a single operation
  • Comments are to end of line
  • But the first line, !/usr/local/bin/perl, tells
    where to find the Perl compiler on your system
  • Its usually here or at /usr/bin/perl
  • Perl files should have the .pl extension
  • How to run the Perl program
  • perl may work, and may or may not
    require the first ! line
  • ./ (or .\ may work, and requires
    the first ! line

Perl in EasyEclipse
  • Open the Perl perspective
  • Window -gt Open Perspective -gt Other... -gt Perl
  • Create a Perl Project
  • File -gt New -gt Project... -gt Perl -gt Perl Project
  • File -gt New -gt Perl Project (if in the Perl
  • Create a file, and give it the .pl extension
  • File -gt New -gt Perl File
  • Write your Perl code
  • Create a run configuration
  • Run -gt Run... -gt Perl Local -gt New_configuration
  • In the Main tab
  • Name enter a meaningful name (in place of
    new_configurationProjectBrowse, choose
    projectFile to execute choose file
  • Apply and Run

Perl Example 2
!/ex2/usr/bin/perl Remove blank lines from a
file Usage singlespace lt oldfile gt
newfile while (line ltSTDINgt) if (line
eq "\n") next print "line"
More Perl notes
  • On the UNIX command line
  • lt filename means to get input from this file
  • gt filename means to send output to this file
  • In Perl, ltSTDINgt is the input file, ltSTDOUTgt is
    the output file
  • Scalar variables start with
  • Scalar variables hold strings or numbers, and
    they are interchangeable
  • Examples
  • priority 9
  • priority '9'
  • Array variables start with _at_

Perl Example 3
!/usr/local/bin/perl Usage fixm ltfilenamesgt
Replace \r with \n -- replaces input
files foreach file (_at_ARGV) print
"Processing file\n" if (-e "fixm_temp")
die " File fixm_temp already exists!\n"
if (! -e file) die " No such file
file!\n" open DOIT, " tr \'\\015'
\'\\012' lt file gt fixm_temp" or die
" Can't tr '\015' '\012' lt infile gt
outfile\n" close DOIT open DOIT, " mv
-f fixm_temp file" or die " Can't mv -f
fixm_temp file\n" close DOIT
Comments on example 3
  • In Usage fixm ltfilenamesgt, the angle brackets
    just mean to supply a list of file names here
  • In UNIX text editors, the \r (carriage return)
    character usually shows up as M (hence the name
  • The UNIX command tr '\015' '\012' replaces all
    \015 characters (\r) with \012 (\n) characters
  • The format of the open and close commands is
  • open fileHandle, fileName
  • close fileHandle, fileName
  • " tr \'\\015' \'\\012' lt file gt fixm_temp"
    says Take input from file, pipe it to the tr
    command, put the output on fixm_temp

Arithmetic in Perl
a 1 2 Add 1 and 2 and store in a a
3 - 4 Subtract 4 from 3 and store in
a a 5 6 Multiply 5 and 6 a 7 /
8 Divide 7 by 8 to give 0.875 a 9
10 Nine to the power of 10, that is, 910 a
5 2 Remainder of 5 divided by 2 a
Increment a and then return
it a Return a and then
increment it --a Decrement a
and then return it a-- Return a
and then decrement it
String and assignment operators
a b . c Concatenate b and c a b x
c b repeated c times a b
Assign b to a a b Add b to a a
- b Subtract b from a a . b
Append b onto a
Single and double quotes
  • a 'apples'
  • b 'bananas'
  • print a . ' and ' . b
  • prints apples and bananas
  • print 'a and b'
  • prints a and b
  • print "a and b"
  • prints apples and bananas

  • _at_food ("apples", "bananas", "cherries")
  • But
  • print food1
  • prints "bananas"
  • _at_morefood ("meat", _at_food)
  • _at_morefood ("meat", "apples", "bananas",
  • (a, b, c) (5, 10, 20)

push and pop
  • push adds one or more things to the end of a list
  • push (_at_food, "eggs", "bread")
  • push returns the new length of the list
  • pop removes and returns the last element
  • sandwich pop(_at_food)
  • len _at_food len gets length of _at_food
  • food returns index of last element

Visit each item in turn and call it
morsel foreach morsel (_at_food) print
"morsel\n" print "Yum yum\n"
  • Zero is false. This includes 0, '0', "0", '',
  • Anything not false is true
  • Use and ! for numbers, eq and ne for strings
  • , , and ! are and, or, and not, respectively.

for loops
  • for loops are just as in C or Java
  • for (i 0 i lt 10 i) print

while loops
!/usr/local/bin/perl print "Password? " a
ltSTDINgt chop a Remove the last
character (\n) while (a ne "fred") print
"sorry. Again? " a ltSTDINgt chop
do..while and do..until loops
!/usr/local/bin/perl do print
"Password? " a ltSTDINgt chop
a while (a ne "fred")
if statements
if (a) print "The string is not
empty\n" else print "The string is
if - elsif statements
if (!a) print "The string is empty\n"
elsif (length(a) 1) print "The string
has one character\n" elsif (length(a) 2)
print "The string has two characters\n" else
print "The string has many characters\n"
Why Perl?
  • Two factors make Perl important
  • Pattern matching/string manipulation
  • Based on regular expressions (REs)
  • REs are similar in power to those in Formal
  • but have many convenience features
  • Ability to execute UNIX commands
  • The Perl interpreter emulates these commands on
    non-UNIX platforms
  • Often Perl is used simply for its UNIX emulation

Basic pattern matching
  • sentence /the/
  • True if sentence contains "the"
  • sentence "The dog bites."if (sentence
    /the/) is false
  • because Perl is case-sensitive
  • ! is "does not contain"

RE special characters
. Any single character except a
newline The beginning of the line or
string The end of the line or
string Zero or more of the last
character One or more of the last
character ? Zero or one of the last
RE examples
. matches the entire string hi.bye
matches from "hi" to "bye" inclusive x y
matches x, one or more blanks, and y Dear
matches "Dear" only at beginning bags?
matches "bag" or "bags" hiss matches
"hiss", "hisss", "hissss", etc.
Square brackets
qjk Either q or j or k qjk
Neither q nor j nor k a-z Anything
from a to z inclusive a-z No lower
case letters a-zA-Z Any letter a-z
Any non-zero sequence of
lower case letters
More examples
aeiou matches one or more
vowels aeiou matches one or more
nonvowels 0-9 matches an unsigned
integer 0-9A-F matches a single hex
digit a-zA-Z matches any
letter a-zA-Z0-9_ matches identifiers
More special characters
\n A newline \t A tab \w Any
alphanumeric same as a-zA-Z0-9_ \W Any
non-word char same as a-zA-Z0-9_ \d Any
digit. The same as 0-9 \D Any non-digit.
The same as 0-9 \s Any whitespace
character\S Any non-whitespace character \b
A word boundary, outside only \B No
word boundary
Quoting special characters
\ Vertical bar \ An open square
bracket \) A closing parenthesis \
An asterisk \ A carat symbol \/ A
slash \\ A backslash
Alternatives and parentheses
jellycream Either jelly or cream (egle)gs
Either eggs or legs (da)
Either da or dada or
dadada or...
  • is a test, as in sentence /the/
  • ! is the negated test, as in sentence !
  • is also used for replacement, as in
    sentence /london/London/
  • This is an expression, whose value is the number
    of substitutions made (0 or 1)

The _ variable
  • Often we want to process one string repeatedly
  • The _ variable holds the current string
  • If a subject is omitted, _ is assumed
  • Hence, the following are equivalent
  • if (sentence /under/)
  • _ sentence if (/under/) ...

Global substitutions
  • s/london/London/
  • substitutes London for the first occurrence of
    london in _
  • s/london/London/g
  • substitutes London for each occurrence of london
    in _
  • The value of a substitution expression is the
    number of substitutions actually made

Case-insensitive substitutions
  • s/london/London/i
  • case-insensitive substitution will replace
    london, LONDON, London, LoNDoN, etc.
  • You can combine global substitution with
    case-insensitive substitution
  • s/london/London/gi

Remembering patterns
  • Any part of the pattern enclosed in parentheses
    is assigned to the special variables 1, 2, 3,
    , 9
  • Numbers are assigned according to the left
    (opening) parentheses
  • "The moon is high" /The (.) is (.)/
  • Afterwards, 1 "moon" and 2 "high"

Dynamic matching
  • During the match, an early part of the match that
    is tentatively assigned to 1, 2, etc. can be
    referred to by \1, \2, etc.
  • Example
  • \b.\b matches a single word
  • /(\b.\b) \1/ matches repeated words
  • "Now is the the time" /(\b.\b) \1/
  • Afterwards, 1 "the"

  • tr does character-by-character translation
  • tr returns the number of substitutions made
  • sentence tr/abc/edf/
  • replaces a with e, b with d, c with f
  • count (sentence tr///)
  • counts asterisks
  • tr/a-z/A-Z/
  • converts to all uppercase

  • split breaks a string into parts
  • info "CaineMichaelActor14, Leafy
    Drive"_at_personal split(//, info)
  • _at_personal ("Caine", "Michael", "Actor",
    "14, Leafy Drive")

Associative arrays
  • Associative arrays allow lookup by name rather
    than by index
  • Associative array names begin with
  • Example
  • fruit ("apples", "red", "bananas", "yellow",
    "cherries", "red")
  • Now, fruit"bananas" returns "yellow"
  • Note braces, not parentheses

Associative Arrays II
  • Can be converted to normal arrays_at_food
  • You cannot index an associative array, but you
    can use the keys and values functionsforeach
    f (keys fruit) print ("The color of f is
    " . fruitf . "\n")

Associative Arrays III
  • The function each gets key-value pairs
  • while ((f, c) each(fruit)) print
    "f is c\n"

Calling subroutines
  • Assume you have a subroutine printargs that just
    prints out its arguments
  • Subroutine calls
  • printargs("perly", "king")
  • Prints "perly king"
  • printargs("frog", "and", "toad")
  • Prints "frog and toad"

Defining subroutines
  • Here's the definition of printargs
  • sub printargs print "_at__\n"
  • Where are the parameters?
  • Parameters are put in the array _at__
  • _at__ has nothing to do with _ they are unrelated

Returning a result
  • The value of a subroutine is the value of the
    last expression that was evaluated

sub maximum if (_0 gt _1)
_0 else _1
biggest maximum(37, 24)
Local variables
  • _at__ is local to the subroutine, and
  • so are _0, _1, _2,
  • local creates local variables

Example subroutine
sub inside local(a, b)
Make local variables (a,
b) (_0, _1) Assign values
a s/ //g
Strip spaces from b s/ //g
local variables (a
/b/ b /a/) Is b inside a

or a inside b? inside("lemon", "dole
money") true
Perl 5
  • Perl 5 is usually described as a whole new
  • However, Perl 5 is mostly backward compatible,
    and there are only a few apparent differences
  • The most significant difference is that Perl can
    now be written in a more object-oriented fashion
    (like C compares to C)
  • Perl 4 had three types of data scalar , _at_array,
    and hash
  • Perl 5 adds another item the reference
  • References are indicated by \
  • Perl 5 interpolates arrays into double-quoted
  • Perl 5 provides reluctant quantifiers (with ?)
  • Perl 5 has modules, which are similar to classes
  • Perl now provides a handful of modules (just as
    Java has always provided prewritten classes)
  • Perl 5 has auto variables
  • Variables may now be declared within a lexical

Perl 6
  • Whereas Perl 5 is often described as a whole new
    language, Perl 6 is a whole new language
  • The best summary of the differences that Ive
    found is http//
  • Perl 6 status Vaporware?
  • Under development since 1999 or 2000
  • Larry Wall We're working on it, slowly but
    surely...or not-so-surely in the spots we're not
    so sure...
  • Just interesting reading An interview with Larry

The End
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