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Nuclear Weapons Today

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Most important - plutonium-239 (Pu-239) and uranium-235 (U-235) ... Bleeding from gums or within the skin. Massive infections. Death ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Nuclear Weapons Today


1
Nuclear Weapons Today
  • A presentation prepared by the Medical
    Association for Prevention of War

2
Nuclear Weapons Today
  • The Weapons
  • The Effects
  • The Locations
  • The International Response

3
The Basics
4
Nuclear Weapon Cores
  • Fission weapons require fissile isotopes
  • Most important - plutonium-239 (Pu-239) and
    uranium-235 (U-235)
  • Some weapons are made from both isotopes
  • Basic nuclear weapons rely on nuclear fission
    chain reaction to produce large amount of energy
    in a very short time

5
Nuclear Explosions
  • Explosive power measured by the mass equivalent
    of TNT
  • A 1 kiloton bomb has an explosive yield
    equivalent to 1000 tons of TNT
  • A 1 megaton bomb has an explosive yield
    equivalent to 1,000,000 tons of TNT

6
Plutonium
  • Weapons grade - produced in military
    plutonium-production reactors specifically for
    nuclear weapons use
  • Reactor grade - produced in all nuclear-power
    reactors
  • For electricity production, but can be used to
    make weapons

7
Plutonium
  • Powerful nuclear explosive
  • Highly radioactive and toxic
  • The half-life of plutonium is 24,500 years
  • Remains hazardous for 250,000 years

8
Uranium
  • Naturally occurring uranium contains 0.7 U-235
  • Weapons use highly-enriched uranium (HEU) -
    proportion of U-235 increased
  • Weapons grade - usually enriched to greater than
    90, but lower percentages still useable

9
Separated Plutonium Stocks
Country Military plutonium Civil plutonium
Russia 95 tonnes 88 tonnes
US 47 tonnes 45 tonnes
UK 3.2 tonnes 96.2 tonnes
France 5 tonnes 78.6 tonnes
China 4.8 tonnes -
Israel 0.6 tonnes -
India 0.4 tonnes 1.5 tonnes
Japan - 5.4 tonnes
Germany - 12.5 tonnes
10
Estimated HEU stocks
Country Military highly-enriched uranium
Russia 1070 tonnes
US 575 tonnes
UK 21.9 tonnes
France 29 tonnes
China 20 tonnes
Pakistan 1.1 tonnes
11
Core requirements
  • A 20 kt nuclear bomb requires
  • 4-5 kg of weapons grade plutonium OR
  • 10-15 kg of weapons grade uranium
  • A 1kt nuclear weapon could be made with
  • 1 kg of weapons-grade plutonium OR
  • 2.5 kg of weapons-grade uranium

12
The fission process
  • Nucleus of U-235 or Pu-329 captures a neutron -
    U-236, Pu-240 nucleus formed.
  • U-236, Pu-240 very unstable, rapidly split into
    two (fission)
  • Neutrons and a large burst of energy are emitted
  • Complete fissioning of 1 gram of U-235 releases
    23,000 kilowatt-hours of heat

13
The fission process
14
Critical mass
  • Each nucleus undergoing fission must produce a
    neutron that splits another nucleus
  • Critical mass - the minimum mass of fissile
    material that can sustain a nuclear fission chain
    reaction
  • Sphere is optimum shape

15
Nuclear explosions
  • Nuclear explosions occur at super-critical masses
  • Basic weapons contain fissile material less than
    critical mass.
  • Within half a millionth of a second
  • Temperatures - hundreds of millions degrees
    centigrade, and pressures - millions of
    atmospheres, build up

16
Fusion
  • Isotopes of hydrogen - deuterium and tritium
  • Extremely high temperatures required for reaction
    to occur
  • Require a fission bomb to provide energy to
    initiate reaction
  • Used mainly to boost fission bombs - increase
    fission rate by providing more high energy
    neutrons

17
Main Components Of Nuclear Weapons
  • High quality, high purity conventional high
    explosives and reliable detonators
  • Electronic circuits
  • A tamper and neutron reflector
  • A core of fissile material
  • A neutron source

18
Detonation techniques
  • Gun technique
  • Only used with HEU
  • Mass of sub-critical HEU fired at another - sum
    of two masses supercritical
  • Simple technique
  • Long assembly time
  • Hiroshima bomb

19
Detonation techniques
  • Implosion technique
  • 1/10 the assembly time of the gun technique
  • HEU or plutonium can be used
  • Fissile core surrounded by conventional high
    explosives

20
Detonation techniques
  • Implosion technique
  • Explosives detonate and uniformly compress the
    core and increase its density, making it
    super-critical
  • Neutrons also fired into fissile material to
    encourage fission chain reaction

21
Delivery Systems
  • Gravity Bombs
  • Ballistic Missile Warheads
  • Cruise Missile Warheads
  • Other Forms
  • Anti-ballistic Missiles
  • Anti-submarine Warfare

22
Tactical vs. Strategic Nuclear Weapons
  • Tactical
  • US and Russian definition - less than 500 km
    range
  • Strategic
  • Intended to be detonated in other countries, i.e.
    intercontinental delivery

23
Launch on Warning (LoW)
  • Retaliation with nuclear weapons to a perceived
    nuclear attack by another state
  • Response to a warning (by radar or satellite
    sensors) of attacking missiles
  • Decision must be made in minutes

24
The Effects of Nuclear Weapons
25
August 6, 1945
  • US detonated a 15 kiloton bomb over Hiroshima,
    Japan
  • Deaths 66,000
  • Injuries - 69,000

26
August 9, 1945
  • US detonated a 21 kiloton bomb over Nagasaki,
    Japan
  • Deaths - 73,884
  • Injuries - 74,909
  • 6.7 million square metres leveled

27
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
  • Ground temperatures reached about 7,000 degrees
  • Black rain containing radioactive fallout
    poured down for hours after the explosions

28
One-Megaton Bomb Detonated In The Air
  • Flash
  • Intense flash of light, a thousand times brighter
    than lightning
  • Pulse of heat radiation - sets fire to
    combustible material 14 km away
  • Pulse of X-rays, lethal within 3 km

29
One-Megaton Bomb Detonated In The Air
  • Fireball
  • Forms after the flash and rises in the air
  • Can permanently blind people up to 80 km away
  • All exposed body parts burned deeply within 10 km
  • Superficial burns within fifteen km

30
One-Megaton Bomb Detonated In The Air
  • Blast
  • Powerful blast wave - starts immediately, but
    travels slower than the flash and fireball
  • Destroys everything within 2 km
  • 100 fatalities within 3 km
  • 50 of people killed within 8 km
  • Major damage to buildings within 14 km, windows
    broken out to 20-30 km

31
One-Megaton Bomb Detonated In The Air
  • Blast
  • Hurricane force winds, first outwards, then
    inwards
  • Tornado force winds (six hundred km/hr), within
    four km - can drive glass splinters into people
  • People picked up and hurled into any object
    strong enough to be still standing

32
One-Megaton Bomb Detonated In The Air
  • Firestorm
  • Fires started by the first flash coalesce
  • Cause sufficient updraft to form their own wind,
    which blows inwards from all sides - increasing
    the intensity of the fire
  • Fire uses all available oxygen
  • People caught in the open would melt, those in
    shelters would probably be baked

33
One-Megaton Bomb Detonated In The Air
  • Acute Radiation Exposure
  • Central nervous system dysfunction
  • Gastrointestinal damage
  • Uncontrolled internal bleeding
  • Bleeding from gums or within the skin
  • Massive infections
  • Death

34
One-Megaton Bomb Detonated In The Air
  • Delayed Radiation
  • Everything in vicinity of explosion radioactive
  • Hiroshima - radioactive rainstorms
  • 1/3 of original fissile material not destroyed
  • Widespread contamination
  • Increased risk of developing cancer for survivors

35
One-Megaton Bomb Detonated In The Air
  • In case of a nuclear bomb - dont bother to call
    your doctor
  • No significant medical response possible
  • Hospitals destroyed, most health care providers
    killed

36
One-Megaton Bomb Detonated In The Air
  • Medical response barriers
  • No electricity, water or telephone service
  • No drugs, sterile IV solutions, bandages
  • Impassable roads, inaccessible areas
  • Overloading of emergency/ hospital services in
    surrounding areas
  • Rescuers risk radiation exposure

37
One-Megaton Bomb Detonated In The Air
  • Medical problems one city of 1-2 million
  • Fifty times more severe burns than burn beds in
    North America
  • A years supply of blood for transfusions needed
    immediately
  • Bottlenecks and delays due to the need for
    radioactivity assays
  • Most of injured die, even from easily treated
    injuries

38
One-Megaton Bomb Detonated At Ground-Level
  • Enormous crater - 400 metres wide and 70 metres
    deep
  • Major fallout of radioactive particulates,
    potentially lethal hundreds of kilometres
    downwind
  • Area of blast damage and immediate deaths about
    one half of air detonation scenario
  • More deaths days to weeks after bomb due to
    radiation sickness from fallout

39
Effect Of Nuclear War
  • Many nuclear bombs exploded
  • Radioactive contamination of whole continents
  • Permanent large scale damage to environment
  • Nuclear winter

40
Nuclear Winter
  • Airborne contaminants absorb and reflect the
    suns rays
  • Results in an extended period of semi-darkness
    and freezing temperatures
  • Potentially generated from less than 100
    detonations

41
Nuclear Winter
The view of the Earth from Apollo 10 (18 May
1969) from 26,000 nautical miles on its journey
to the Moon
42
Nuclear Winter
This is what the world would look like after a
large-scale nuclear holocaust
43
Nuclear Winter
  • Nuclear winter could occur with detonation of 100
    nuclear warheads over major cities
  • 30,000 weapons currently, deployed 90
    reduction of deployed weapons could still cause
    nuclear winter
  • This puts nuclear weapons are in a league of
    their own

44
Nuclear Weapons Testing
45
Nuclear Testing
  • 2,058 nuclear test explosions by 8 countries
  • United States 1,030
  • Russia (USSR) - 715
  • France - 210
  • United Kingdom - 45
  • China - 45
  • India - 7
  • Pakistan - 6

46
Effects of Nuclear Testing
  • 2.4 million people estimated to die from cancer
    as a result of nuclear testing
  • Tests sites around the world contaminated

47
Nuclear Terrorism
48
Nuclear Terrorism
  • Only 20kg of HEU and 10kg of Plutonium needed
  • Possibilities
  • -primitive nuclear explosive
  • -attacking a nuclear-power reactor
  • -nuclear weapon
  • -transport attack
  • -dirty bomb

49
Nuclear Material Availability
  • Fissile materials are not controlled or accounted
    for effectively
  • At least 40 kg of weapons-usable uranium and
    plutonium has been stolen
  • Only 1/3 of an estimated 600 tonnes of
    weapons-usable material in the former USSR has
    been secured

50
Terrorism And Nuclear Energy
  • The International Atomic Energy Agency has
    confirmed that current nuclear power plants are
    structurally vulnerable against the Sept. 11
    attack scenario
  • Over 120 documented cases of nuclear sabotage
  • Credible threats reported by security agencies

51
States Possessing Nuclear Weapons
52
Nuclear Weapons -Declared States
Strategic Tactical Reserve Total
USA 4530 780 5000 10,310
Russia 3800 3400 11000 18,200
France 290 60 350
China 400 150 550
Britain 185 15 200
53
Nuclear Weapons - De Facto States
  • Israel 75-200
  • India 40-50
  • Pakistan 25-50
  • Nth Korea - ?

54
Nuclear Weapons
55
Numbers by Region
56
Arms Control and Disarmament
57
International Law and Nuclear Weapons
  • Multilateral (3 or more states)
  • Bilateral (2 states)
  • Unilateral (1 state)
  • In existence proliferation, testing, geographic
    limitations
  • Not in existence complete disarmament, fissile
    material control

58
Key Terms
  • Disarmament
  • Decrease in number
  • General and Complete
  • Weapon Specific
  • Abolition
  • Arms Control
  • Limitations
  • General and Complete
  • Weapon Specific
  • Non-Proliferation

Vertical
Horizontal
59
United Nations
  • Main roles
  • Forum
  • Facilitating
  • Verification Enforcement
  • Education
  • UN Treaties
  • Antarctica Treaty, PTBT, Outer Space Treaty, NPT,
    Sea-Bed Treaty, NWFZs, CTBT

60
IAEA
  • Established by UN in 1957
  • Nuclear non-proliferation
  • Nuclear Science and Technology in Sustainable
    Development
  • Nuclear Safety and Security

61
Conference on Disarmament
  • UN Body
  • Established in 1979
  • 66 countries are members
  • Agreement by Consensus
  • Based in Geneva, Switzerland

62
Major Treaties (Bilateral Multilateral)
  • INF
  • START
  • NPT
  • CTBT

63
Intermediate-Range Forces (INF) Treaty
  • Missiles with ranges of 500-5,500 km
  • World-first in disarmament talks
  • Nuclear arsenal reduction
  • Category of weapon eliminated
  • Extensive on-site verification
  • Signed 8 December 1987

64
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties (START)
  • START I - signed in 1991
  • US and Russia agreed to reduce ICBMs, SLBMs and
    warheads
  • START II - signed in 1993
  • Reduction of strategic nuclear arsenals to
    3,000-3,500 by 2007
  • START III superceded by SORT
  • SORT not verified or reversible

65
Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)
  • Opened for signature in 1968
  • More signatures than any other arms control
    treaty
  • Two-part bargain between nuclear weapon states
    (NWS) and non-nuclear weapon states (NNWS)

66
(NPT) Article VI
  • Each of the Parties to the Treaty
  • undertakes to pursue negotiations in good faith
    on
  • effective measures relating to
  • cessation of the nuclear arms race
  • at an early date and to
  • nuclear disarmament,
  • and on a
  • treaty on general and complete disarmament
  • under strict and effective international
    control.

67
(NPT) Safeguards
  • The International Atomic Energy Agency is
    responsible for a safeguards system to verify
    compliance with the NPT by conducting regular
    inspections of signatories to the Treaty

68
(NPT) The Review Cycle
  • Review Conference (RevCon)
  • every 5 years over 4 weeks
  • meetings held at United Nations in New York
  • 1995 NPT indefinite extension
  • 2000 13 Point Action Plan

69
NPT 2005 Review
  • 2-27 May 2005
  • Disagreement over conference agenda
  • -Nth Korea, Iran, CTBT, disarmament, non-NPT
    states, past decisions/agreements
  • No substantive text produced

70
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
  • Opened for signature 24 September 1996
  • Bans all nuclear tests
  • All 44 Annex II must sign and ratify
  • 3 Annex II states still to sign
  • 11 Annex II states still to ratify
  • CTBTO working from Vienna

71
Fissile Materials Cut-Off Treaty (FMCT or
fissban)
  • First suggested at the UN over 50 years ago
  • Enthusiasm for a FMCT from early 1990s onwards
  • Talks at Conference on Disarmament deadlocked
  • Disagreement over
  • -Existing stocks
  • -Scope of the treaty

72
Security Council Res 1540
  • 28 April 2004
  • Threat from Non-state actors
  • Calls on states to enact national legislation
  • Member states must report to the 1540 Committee

73
International Court of Justice
  • Advisory Opinion, July 8, 1996
  • ...the threat or use of nuclear weapons would
    generally be contrary to the rules of
    international law applicable in armed conflict,
    and in particular the principles and rules of
    humanitarian law.

74
International Court of Justice - Implications
  • Supplements and reinforces the role of
    international laws (UN Charter, humanitarian law
    NPT etc)
  • Nuclear weapons are now in effect illegal under
    international law

75
Nuclear Free Zones (NWFZs)
  • Treaties completely banning nuclear explosive
    devices in territories
  • Latin America (Treaty of Tlatelolco)
  • South Pacific (Treaty of Rarotonga)
  • South East Asia (Treaty of Bangkok)
  • Africa (Treaty of Pelindaba)
  • Proposed zones for Central Asia, Central Europe
    and the Middle East

76
Existing NWFZs
6
4
5
2
3
1
1. Antarctic Treaty 2. Treaty of Tlatelolco
3.Treaty of Rarotonga 4.Treaty of Bangkok
5.Treaty of Pelindaba 6. Mongolia
77
Status Of Key Treaties In 2006
  • NPT Signed-188, Ratified-188
  • CTBT Signed-175, Ratified-122 (Annex 2-33)
  • FMCT Treaty in draft form
  • NWC Treaty in draft form

78
Status Of The Non-proliferation Disarmament
Regimes
  • The risk of nuclear war has not gone away and is
    in fact increasing
  • The opportunity presented by the end of the cold
    war was squandered
  • Multilateral disarmament deadlocked

79
The ICAN Campaign
  • ICAN stands for International Campaign to Abolish
    Nuclear weapons

80
ICAN
  • ICAN to address the erosion of the global nuclear
    disarmament regime
  • Nuclear Weapons Convention Review, update,
    progress
  • MAPW to take a leading role within IPPNW and the
    global peace movement in the ICAN Campaign

81
Model Nuclear Weapons Convention (NWC)
  • Draft text produced by NGOs
  • Submitted to the UN by Costa Rica in 1997
  • NWC would prohibit
  • development
  • testing
  • production
  • stockpiling
  • transfer
  • use and threat of use

82
What ICAN Would Aim For
  • IPPNW members feel that a coordinated effort
    across states and institutions, in the framework
    of voluntary governmental and non-governmental
    participation, is necessary if there is to be a
    reversal of the nuclear threat.
  • One element of such coordination will be a
    multilateral agreement to prohibit and eliminate
    nuclear weapons a Nuclear Weapons Convention.

83
How To Work Towards A NWC
  • It is strongly felt that the campaign for a NWC
    would need to be based on an Ottawa style process
    that lead to the Landmines Treaty a strong and
    effectively coordinated global coalition of NGO's
    and international organisations that drew in
    governments, starting with Canada, and achieved a
    treaty in the space of five years.

84
Phases for Elimination
  • All States possessing nuclear weapons will be
    required to destroy their arsenals according to a
    series of phases.

85
Step by Step
  • The Convention outlines a series of five phases
    for the elimination of nuclear weapons beginning
    with
  • taking nuclear weapons off alert
  • removing weapons from deployment
  • removing nuclear warheads from their delivery
    vehicles
  • disabling the warheads
  • removing and disfiguring the "pits"
  • and placing the fissile material under
    inter-national control.

86
Fissile Materials And Delivery Vehicles
  • The Convention also prohibits the production of
    weapons-usable fissile material and requires
    delivery vehicles to be destroyed or converted to
    make them non-nuclear capable.

87
Working Towards A Nuclear Weapons Free World
  • Today some of these issues may appear
    intractable, and there is no guarantee that they
    are soluble.
  • However, a robust and open debate is the most
    likely - if not the only - way to generate
    creative solutions and engage the broad
    transnational and cross-industrial involvement
    necessary for a nuclear weapons free world.

88
Nuclear Weapons Knowledge
  • Nuclear weapons knowledge cannot be disinvented.
    However, a vast portion of the knowledge, design
    and maintenance information can and should be
    destroyed once it is no longer necessary for
    disarmament.

89
Our Responsibility
  • Moreover, and precisely because we cannot return
    to a world innocent of nuclear weapons knowledge,
    the answer to the "genie out of the bottle" is to
    increase scientific responsibility and awareness
    of potential proliferation risks.

90
Get Involved
  • For further information about the NCW, please
    see http//www.ippnw.org/NWC.html
  • or contact the Medical Association for Prevention
    of War (Australia)
  • phone (03) 8344 1637
  • email mapw_at_mapw.org.au

91
Medical Association for Prevention of War
Australia (MAPW) National Office P.O. Box
1379, Carlton VIC 3053, Australia Ph 03 8344
1637 Fax 03 8344 1638 www.mapw.org.au
mapw_at_mapw.org.au Australian affiliate of
International Physicians for Prevention of
Nuclear War (IPPNW)
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