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Title: Some file for Nima

The PARTICLE Physics Frontier Center
A Joint Effort of Theoretical and Experimental
High-Energy Physicists at Princeton, Rutgers, the
Institute for Advanced Study, and Affiliate
Todays Presentation
  • The Scientific Context
  • The Scientific Challenge
  • The Need for a Center
  • Our Proposed Centers Structure
  • Major Activities
  • Outreach
  • Management
  • Response to Reviewers
  • Outlook

A Central Scientific Problem
  • The Synthesis of Quantum Mechanics and Relativity
    culminated in the construction of the stunningly
    successful Standard Model
  • But a fundamental feature violent
    short-distance vacuum fluctuations leads to
    sharp paradox
  • How does a macroscopic universe emerge from
    microscopic laws?
  • A simple question Why is gravity weak? Why
    are elementary particle masses so small?
    Hierarchy Problem
  • Deeply unsatisfactory answer Fine-tuning of
    parameters, to 1 part in 1032, delicately
    arranged to cancel the violent quantum
  • So severe a paradox that its resolution will
    likely involve a radical change in basic rules

The TeV Energy Scale
  • Tera-Electron-Volt 1012 eV
  • ? 103 mproton c2
  • ? 10-19 meters .0001 rproton
  • Masses of the known fundamental particles arise
    from physics at this scale
  • The Higgs Mechanism already verified
  • The Higgs boson or bosons predicted
  • At the TeV scale the resolution of this paradox
    must be revealed.
  • The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was built to
    probe this scale!

Resolutions of the Paradox
  • If solution to hierarchy problem is not
    fine-tuning, then the LHC will uncover the cause
  • Taming quantum fluctuations may require an
    extension of space-time.
  • Extra dimensions of space?
  • A quantum mirror of our space-time,
  • (supported by some remarkable
    circumstantial evidence).
  • This would be revolutionary
  • First alteration of our notion of space-time
    since Einstein
  • First illustration of broken space-time
    symmetries in the vacuum.
  • If these phenomena are not seen, even more
  • Indication of fine-tuning in the fundamental laws
    of Nature
  • Potentially far-reaching implications for the
    global properties of the Universe.

Hint of TeV-Scale New Physics Dark Matter
  • Neutral particles
  • with mc2 near 1 TeV
  • with interactions of range 10-19 m
  • arise naturally in many theories
  • Standard Big Bang Cosmology predicts the
    abundance of such particles would be just right
    to constitute the dark matter of the universe
  • The LHC could be a Dark Matter factory!

Proton beam
Proton beam
10-15 m
Proton beam
Proton beam
10-15 m
10-19 m
Quarks, antiquarks or gluons collide
something new
Proton beam
Proton beam
10-15 m
10-19 m
Quarks, antiquarks or gluons collide
something new
dark matter
dark matter
Proton beam
Proton beam
10-15 m
10-19 m
Quarks, antiquarks or gluons collide
The Enormous Machines
  • Big Science
  • 27 km circular tunnel
  • 1232 superconducting magnets to accelerate the
    beams of protons
  • Energy scale 7 times Tevatron
  • Collision rate up to 100 times Tevatron
  • Several experiments LHCb, ALICE, LHCf, TOTEM,
  • Two focused on highest-energy particle physics
  • CMS
  • Arguably largest, most complex precision
    instruments ever constructed
  • Tens of meters across
  • Charged-particle tracking to few microns
  • Number of electronic channels in the many

Atlas Detector
Length 45 m Diameter 24 m Weight 7000
tons Magnetic Field 2 Tesla
CMS Detector
Plastic scintillator/brass sandwich
Scintillating PbWO4 crystals
Length 21.6 m Diameter 15 m Weight 12,500
tons Magnetic Field 4 Tesla
1 Momentum Resolution
The Giant Challenge
  • Orders of Magnitude
  • Total Collision rate 109/sec
  • Production of top quarks 10/sec
  • Production of new particles 1/min? 1/hour?
  • Data Overload
  • To store every event would exceed earths entire
    computer resources
  • On-the-fly decision (trigger) must select 1 of
    each 1,000,000 events for storage.
  • Discoveries
  • Must find few events/day among 108 events
  • Must know what backgrounds look like
  • Must have an idea of what new signals might look

Must combine first-rate Theory and first-rate
The Wide Range of Theory
  • Many different subjects in theoretical particle
    physics are needed
  • Fundamentals many different areas of expertise
  • Proton Structure the initial state
  • Computations of quark scattering and annihilation
    the final state
  • Theoretical modeling and simulation of entire
    process for experimental use
  • Wide range of possible models and experimental
  • Development of models of new particles
  • General predictions of signatures
  • Detailed simulations for experimental use
  • Implications of any detections (or not) for
  • Origin of masses of known particles
  • Nature of Space-time
  • Dark matter and other aspects of astrophysics and

Why a Center?
  • Big Theory for Big Experiment
  • Extracting the physics from the extremely
    challenging experimental environment will require
    marshalling intellectual firepower from across
    the entire spectrum of high-energy physics
  • LHC research can and must be done on a Center
  • Unprecedented need for intensive interactions
    between theorists and experimentalists
  • Must combine broad range of different research
  • Focal point for US activity in the discovery era
  • Training ground for next generation
  • Ideal opportunity to reach wider public

Princeton And Rutgers Theory Institute for
Collaboration with LHC Experiments
  • Complete our LHC Research Program
  • Theory/Experiment interface
  • Connections to other research fields
  • Establish a World Research and Training Center
    for LHC Physics
  • Training
  • Workshops
  • Visitors
  • Spread the Excitement of LHC Physics into the
    Public Sphere
  • Mentoring and Recruiting
  • High School Curriculum
  • Public Settings

  • An Outward-Looking Center Serving the US LHC
  • Three Institutions Operating as One
  • Central Location
  • Many Other Nearby Universities with LHC programs
  • Maryland, Johns Hopkins, Columbia, Yale, Brown,
    Cornell, Penn. State, Stony Brook, Rochester,
  • Current Affiliate Institutions
  • NYU, U.Penn, Bryn Mawr (so far)
  • On Northeast Corridor train line
  • On flight path to Geneva
  • Already Linked to Laboratory Centers
  • CERN, Fermilab LPC CMS,
  • Brookhaven ATLAS, also RHIC

Who We Are
Rutgers University
Graduate School of Education
Matthew Strassler PI, co-Director Scott
Thomas Tom Banks Greg Moore 2 Future Hires
Eva Halkiadakis Amit Lath budget Steve
Schnetzer co-PI, outreach Sunil Somalwar Future
Hire (offer made)
Eugenia Etkina
Princeton University
Institute for Advanced Study
Chris Herzog Steven Gubser Igor Klebanov Chiara
Nappi Herman Verlinde co-PI Lian-Tao Wang
Valerie Halyo Dan Marlow CMS expt.
contact James Olsen Chris Tully co-PI,
data-hosting, LPC contact
Nima Arkani-Hamed co-PI, co-Director Juan
Maldacena Nathan Seiberg Edward Witten
Affiliate Institutions
  • New York University ATLAS expt.
  • University of Pennsylvania ATLAS expt.
  • Bryn Mawr College Theory
  • More to be added over time

Overview of the PARTICLE Center
MA4 Community Resources Visitors Workshops Trainin
MA3 Implications to/from Other Research Areas
MA1 Theory/Experiment Ingredients for Discovery
MA2 Theory/Experiment From New Signals To New
Outreach, Education and Diversity High-School
Curriculum Development Recruiting Young
People Exciting Public Imagination
MA 4 LHC Community Building
  • This is the core of the Center!
  • Budget 540 k / year ( 65k / year Seed Funding
  • Center Day Joint Activities, once per week
  • Video-conferencing to assure maximal attendance
  • Talks made available to the wider community
  • Visitor Program Center as Crossroads
  • Visitors bringing expertise to the center
  • Visitors learning from local and visiting experts
    at the center
  • Pedagogical Activities Center as School
  • Regular Lecture Series
  • In the LHC environment, even Experts are Students
  • Lectures by Faculty, Postdocs, Visitors, Students
  • Training through Simulated Data
  • Response to LHC Data Center as Community
  • Quick Reaction Workshops 3-4 per year, 1-2 days

MA 4 LHC Community Building
  • A Typical Weekly Gathering
  • Rutgers and Institute for Advanced Study
    postdocs, students and available faculty converge
    on Princeton University
  • Pedagogical lecture given by a postdoc or a
    visitor on the topic of the following weeks
    Quick-Reaction Workshop
  • Student meeting on Simulated-Data Challenge
  • Experimentalist/Theorist lunch discussing latest
    LHC developments
  • Technical seminar by a visitor on LHC-related
    particle-physics topic

Major Activities 1 and 2
  • MA1 Ingredients for Discovery
  • Close collaboration of theorists and
    experimentalists to extract discoveries from
    enormous background
  • Triggering Strategies
  • Standard Model Background Calculation/Measurement
  • Upgrades to the Detectors
  • MA2 From New Signals to New Laws
  • Close collaboration of theorists and
    experimentalists to allow interpretation of these
  • Tools for Simulation of Signals
  • Model-Building to Explain Observations
  • Hosting of Published Data (Novel Approaches)
  • Budget 300k / year for MA1, 300k / year for
  • 3 postdocs, 3 graduate students split between the
    two activities

Major Activity 3
  • MA3 Extending the Scientific Impact of the LHC
  • LHC Particle Physics Links with Many Other
  • Cosmology and Astrophysics
  • Formal Field/String Theory
  • Nuclear Physics LHC has a Heavy Ion program
  • Lower-Energy Particle Physics LHCb, many
    pre-LHC expts.
  • Our institutions
  • Unique strength in first two areas
  • Theory strength in novel approaches to Heavy Ion
  • Experimental strength in low-energy particle
  • Budget 200 k / year
  • 2 graduate students
  • Note also visitors (in MA4 budget)

Possible Fall 2008 Activity
  • Before discoveries, need fundamental baseline
  • Proton structure (parton distribution
  • Post-collision debris (underlying event)
  • Total cross-sections (Pomeron)
  • Very challenging mix of theory and experiment
  • Local experimentalists measuring, few nearby
    theory experts
  • All theory/experimental simulation tools must be
    retuned to fit data
  • Need to train Center members, spread knowledge to
    other nearby institutions
  • Possible Combination of Center Activities
  • One semester-long visitor
  • Two or three 1- or 2-week-long visitors
  • Pedagogical lectures on these subjects by these
  • Seminars by these visitors at nearby universities
  • Quick-Reaction Workshop in response to first

By 2010 Rapid-Fire Developments
  • The Major Activities will interplay strongly in
    LHC research
  • Quick Reaction Workshop
  • Certain experimental anomalies are discussed
  • Theorists at Workshop invent model that
  • explains the data and
  • predicts a subtle effect
  • Center postdoc, 2 students alter their existing
  • Permits Center/Affiliate experimentalists to
    explore whether effect is measurable
  • Center Day activities discussions lead to new
    triggering strategy
  • Result of measurement surprises community and
    illuminates origin of supersymmetry breaking

By 2010 Rapid-Fire Developments
  • The Major Activities will interplay strongly in
    LHC research
  • Quick Reaction Workshop
  • Certain experimental anomalies are discussed
  • Theorists at Workshop invent model that
  • explains the data and
  • predicts a subtle effect
  • Center postdoc, 2 students alter their existing
  • Permits Center/Affiliate experimentalists to
    explore whether effect is measurable
  • Center Day activities discussions lead to new
    triggering strategy
  • Result of measurement surprises community and
    illuminates origin of supersymmetry breaking

  • These developments will occur somewhere, even
    without our Center
  • But with our Center,
  • These activities will proceed more rapidly in the
    US than otherwise
  • Major discoveries are more likely to be made in
    the US

Seed Funding and Diversity Goals
  • Other programs Seed Funding
  • PARTICLE Center Visiting Scholars
  • PARTICLE Center Faculty Awards
  • Retraining Grants for formal theorists
  • These programs, along with the visitor program,
    workshops and schools of MA4, give the PARTICLE
    Center many tools with which to address national
    diversity goals
  • One way Bring first-rate researchers to the
  • Professional visibility at a research cross-roads
  • Center Visiting Scholar or Center Faculty
    Award convey prestige
  • Direct scientific benefits to their research
  • Serve as role models for Center and visiting
  • Advisory board will have oversight role to assure
    we meet these goals

Outreach, Diversity and Education
  • Our Objectives
  • Explain particle physics in general, and
    excitement of LHC in particular, to wide range of
    public and student audiences
  • High school curriculum development
  • Mentoring of high school and undergraduate
  • Exhibits for the general public
  • Increase awareness within underrepresented groups
    to possibilities and rewards of careers in
    particle physics
  • Our Strengths
  • Unique capability of PARTICLE Center for focus on
    LHC physics
  • Participation of theorists and experimentalists
    from all Center institutions
  • Collaboration with experienced members of Rutgers
    Graduate School of Education (GSE)
  • Build on existing programs and expertise
  • Ready access to diverse demographic population in
    New Jersey
  • Our Budget 136k / year

High School Curriculum Development
  • Summer Institute 3 week program with 15 teachers
    and 15 students
  • Develop high school curriculum in particle
  • Emphasis on active engagement, active learning
    and group work
  • Building on Established Programs
  • Experience with existing astrophysics institute
  • Other existing work QuarkNet, LHC
    collaborations, FNAL, etc.
  • Unique features and strengths
  • Focus on LHC physics
  • Active involvement of top faculty
  • Close collaboration with GSE
  • Emphasis on assessment and follow up
  • Progressive development over five-year period
  • Classroom implementation by participating
  • Large pool of teachers from throughout New Jersey
  • Inclusion of teachers and students from urban

Student Mentoring
  • Liberty Science Center Partners in Science
  • Mentor two high school students each summer
  • Major science museum in NYC area
  • Advertise to underrepresented students
  • (Newark, Jersey City, etc.)
  • Douglas Project for Women
  • Mentor two students each summer
  • Award-winning program for women in science and
  • Douglas College a womens college within Rutgers
  • Eva Halkiadakis Douglas alumna (Bunting-Cobb
  • Weekend Academy (program in particle physics)
  • PSURE Summer Undergraduate Research Program at
  • Mentor two students each summer
  • Students selected from colleges throughout US
    each summer
  • Emphasis on women and minority students

Exhibits for General Public
  • Detection of cosmic rays by optical spark
  • Make particle physics real (visualize tracks)
  • Dynamic exhibit based on those at Einstein Museum
    (Bern), CERN
  • Display in prominent public areas (two exhibits)
  • Associated large monitor web-based display on
    particle physics
  • Duplicate monitor displays in other public areas,
    high schools
  • Expand on program of Eva Halkiadakis from NSF
    CAREER Award
  • Enlist high school students and teachers for
  • Rutgers Science Explorer Bus
  • Brings hands-on physics to middle and junior high
  • We will contribute activities on particle physics
  • Cosmic ray detection with scintillation paddles
    and cloud chamber
  • Additional material on LHC

LHC Days Workshop
  • Multi-day workshop at the end of each summer
  • Unifying theme The Physics of the LHC
  • Bring together outreach participants
  • Center members describe current
  • research, answer questions
  • General public also invited
  • Objectives
  • Draw all outreach activities together
  • Participants learn from each others experience
  • High visibility for LHC physics
  • Learn lessons for future years on what
  • has/hasnt worked well

Management Structure
  • 2 Co-Directors
  • Arkani-Hamed and Strassler
  • Proposed Administrator
  • Salome Arencibia (administrator, Rutgers NHETC)
  • Advisory Board
  • Sally Dawson, chair (Brookhaven Lab., Theory)
  • Michelangelo Mangano (CERN, Theory)
  • Ann Nelson (U. Washington, Theory)
  • Lawrence Sulak (Boston U., CMS Expt.)
  • Mel Shochet (U. Chicago, ATLAS Expt.)
  • Bruce Winstein (U. Chicago, Expt.)
  • One position unfilled

Response to Reviewers
  • We received
  • five Excellent reviews (Reviewers 1,2,3,6,7),
  • two Very Good reviews (Reviewers 4,8), and
  • one Poor review (Reviewer 5).
  • The criticisms of the five Excellent reviews
    and of reviewer 8 were relatively minor.
  • Reviewer 4 gave a thoughtful review raising
    several important points.
  • Reviewer 5s report is inconsistent with the
    others, and we will address it separately.

Responses to Various Reviewers
  • Rev. 3 asks do there really need to be new hires
    to make the center successful?
  • Yes we must complete our LHC program, so that we
    are active across all areas of LHC physics. This
    will allow us to pursue our most important Center
    goals effectively.
  • Rev. 6 comments there is weakness of personnel
    in phenomenology of the Standard Model,sadly
    characteristic of most university programs in the
  • We agree we intend to aggressively recruit in
    these critical areas.
  • Rev. 2 suggests that retraining for string
    theorists interested in getting involved in LHC
    physics is very naïve and somewhat
  • In fact, there are a number of recent precedents
    of theorists closely associated with our
    activities, moving from abstract formal subjects
    to actively working in model-building, collider
    physics and collaboration with experimentalists.
  • Rev. 8 takes the opposite point-of-view from Rev.

  • Rev. 2 this is already a very well supported
    group of physicists, and the creation of the
    center will not qualitatively affect the
    goings-on at the three institutions
  • Only with additional funding can we build
    forcefully at the theory/experiment interface
    without giving up existing strength in other
    areas of LHC-related research.
  • Armed with additional strength at the
    theory/experiment interface, we can more
    effectively serve the wider US LHC community

Reviewer 8
  • It is difficult at present to see how theorists,
    even phenomenologists, can participate at the
    pre-publication stage, given the strict codes of
    secrecy that will be in force.
  • The secrecy that protects unpublished data is
    vital to the experimental process
  • However there are many ways that theorists can
    contribute to an experimental analysis
    background computations, discussions of
    methodology, suggestions of possible signals and
    important cross-checks
  • There are important examples of theorists having
    a positive impact on analysis in the past, and we
    see no reason why we cannot help foster this
    activity without crossing the wall of secrecy
  • Decisions about novel styles of
    publicationwould need full approval of the
  • We agree completely we never intended to suggest
  • The Data Hosting activities include the
    dissemination of published data in novel formats
  • Such formats are being discussed by the
    collaborations now.

Reviewer 4
  • Theme This PFC aims to concentrate resources so
    as to further our own institutions promoting
    this group as THE Theory Center for LHC Physics,
    even given the strength of the proponents, seems
    un-egalitarian it is not true that PARTICLE
    has a monopoly there will be many centers for
    LHC physics.
  • This misses the fundamental outward focus of our
    proposal. Indeed reviewer 4 barely mentions MA4,
    which we view as the heart of the proposal. Our
    goal is to be a national center strengthening the
    entire US LHC program.
  • The need for such a center is clearly articulated
    by reviewer 2 the center would serve as a
    nucleus of research, where one would go for
    intellectual resources, and reviewer 7, LHC
    theory effort would benefit from a flagship
  • The reviewer appreciates our focus on catalyzing
    vigorous interaction between theory and
    experiment, declaring MA1..should be THE
    blueprint for theory-experiment interaction
  • But we can only accomplish this with new hires,
    which would be made possible by PFC funds.

Reviewer 4
  • This proposal seems to place a huge burden on
    the small number of local experimentalists, most
    of whom are already deeply involved in many
    aspects of CMS or ATLAS.
  • We did not mean to imply that MA1/2 activities
    would involve only local experimental groups.
  • Our experimentalists, in addition to
    participating in some of these activities
    directly, will serve as contact point between
    theorists (local and visitors) and the LHC
    collaborations, and will also help identify key
    experimentalists to invite to the Center as
  • The reviewer also suggests that if the physics is
    easy, the activities of MA1 will not be
  • Hard-to-detect subtle features in the Data could
    hold crucial keys to the structure of the
    underlying theory (cf. CP violation in the
    development of the Standard Model), even if the
    dominant signals for new physics are relatively
    easy to see. The LHC must uncover both kinds of

Reviewer 4
  • The reviewer is concerned about duplication of
    effort with the LPC (LHC Physics Center) at
  • One of our co-PIs, Chris Tully, was a founding
    member and is a current co-director of the LPC.
  • The LPC is more narrowly focused on the CMS
    experiment, and is not directed at building the
    wider particle theory community. The PARTICLE
    centers goals are complementary to those of the
    LPC as well as those of the ATLAS center at
    Brookhaven. We expect to develop
    mutually-beneficial relationships with these
    existing centers.
  • Finally, the reviewer worries that the rest of
    the theory community will feel slighted by
    exclusion from this PFC.
  • This again misses the community-building aspect
    of our Center, and the benefits that it will
    bring to theorists across the country.
  • We have found high-energy theorists keenly
    appreciate the need for a national LHC center and
    are generally very supportive of our efforts (cf.
    the theory members of our advisory board.)
  • The majority of the reviewers take our point of

Reviewer 5
  • Theme Suggests that we are largely top-down
    theorists who have just discovered the LHC and
    are making an end-run around the phenomenology
  • This is simply inaccurate.
  • We are a diverse mix of theorists and
  • Several of our theorists
  • have worked on collider physics since their
    graduate student days,
  • have past and ongoing active collaborations with
    other collider-phenomenologists and with
    experimentalists, and
  • have had substantial impact on the hadron
    collider experimental program.
  • One of our core goals is in fact to strengthen
    the US collider-phenomenology community.
  • We have a established track record in LHC
    research and training
  • Our advisory board includes highly respected
    figures in the experimental and
    collider-phenomenology communities.
  • The breadth of our theoretical program beyond
    these core areas is a significant strength, not a
  • Strong positive comments from the other
    reviewers solidly support our vision for the

Outreach/Budget Issues
  • Most concerns raised were misunderstandings
  • Outreach (already addressed above)
  • Strong emphasis on diversity goals
  • Douglas Project, Summer Institute, PSURE
  • Build on QuarkNet, but moving beyond, without
  • We emphasize the LHC focus of our outreach
  • Curriculum development LHC-oriented
  • Spark-chamber exhibits LHC-oriented
  • Summer students immersed in LHC physics
  • Budget Issues (mostly misreadings)
  • Visitor funding requirements Senior faculty
    versus postdocs
  • Extra family/travel expenses for long-term senior
  • Based on experience at our home institutions

  • Summary and Outlook

Envisioning Our Centers 5 Year Scientific Impact
  • History suggests that uncovering the laws of
    Nature requires the convergence of multiple
    theoretical and experimental approaches
  • A Center can provide the setting in which
    talented researchers can interact and form
    crucial collaborations, ensuring the US fully
    capitalizes on this once-in-a-generation
    scientific opportunity
  • We intend to be that Center

Envisioning Our Centers 20 Year Scientific Impact
  • Leadership of high-energy experiment has moved to
  • By organizing now, we can
  • Strengthen interface of Theory and Experiment for
    the long-term
  • Train the next generation in this context
  • Keep the intellectual leadership in this country
  • Students and post-docs participating in big
    discoveries will have
  • the experience needed to take the lead in the
    scientific breakthroughs
  • of the next generation.

Envisioning Our Centers Long-Term Broader Impact
  • Bring the Discoveries and Excitement of
    High-Energy Physics
  • Into the widest possible scientific setting
  • Into the high-schools of our country
  • To the attention of young people in
    under-represented groups
  • Into public discourse and the collective
  • Quantum Mechanics and Relativity inspired
    generations and are part of
  • our cultural fabric.
  • The LHC may be similarly revolutionary.
  • We will transmit its discoveries and their
    implications into the wider world

Our PFCs Value-Added
  • Strengthening of US High-Energy Physics Community
  • International crossroads with workshops and
  • Bolstering of the theory/experiment interface
  • Recruitment and training of top young talent
  • Scientific Opportunities for US Research Program
  • Joint activity for CMS, ATLAS, Particle Theory
    and beyond
  • Rapid response to data as it comes in
  • Effective interaction among theorists and
  • Cross-talk among experts from all sub-disciplines
  • Much greater likelihood of decisive US impact
  • Reaching the Public and Building the Future
  • The LHC excites the public imagination make use
    of it!
  • Reach out to high school and undergraduate
  • Recruit participants from New Jerseys diverse
  • All carried out by a group of energetic young
    faculty with a
  • track-record in high-impact research, pedagogy
    and outreach

  • There is no time like the present!
  • Current Schedule
  • Close the Experiments June 2008
  • First beam Summer 2008
  • First collisions Summer/Fall 2008
  • First results Fall 2008/Spring 2009
  • First discoveries Summer/Fall 2009 ?