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March 2, 2009 Technical

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Title: March 2, 2009 Technical


1
  • March 2, 2009 Technical Sales Training

2
Waste Treatment History, Processes and
Measurements Dissolved Oxygen Total Suspended
Solids pH / ORP
By Troy Morgan Product Development Manager
3
This presentation will cover
  • Evolution of Reason for Wastewater Treatment
  • Techniques of Wastewater Treatment
  • Generic Sensor Measurement Theory
  • Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
  • Total Suspended Solids (TSS)
  • pH / ORP covered in other presentation
  • Specific DO/TSS Methods Technologies available
  • BAT DO/TSS measurement advantages
  • Selling DO, TSS, pH ORP Who, How Why
  • Competition

4
About Troy Morgan
  • BS Physics from Centenary College in Shreveport,
    LA
  • Masters in Electronic Engineering from University
    of New Orleans
  • Thesis on Optical Dissolved Oxygen components
  • Thirteen years experience with Royce Instrument
    Corp. / Royce Technologies (now a division of ITT
    Industries Sanitaire)
  • Technician Phone Support (2 years)
  • Electronic Design Engineer (4 years)
  • Aquaculture Operations Manager (2 years)
  • Regional Sales Manager (5 years)
  • Three years experience with BAT
  • Design Production of Model 2402 OXY (galvanic
    ppm DO)
  • Production of Model 4401 OXY (optical ppb DO)

5
Poopology 101
  • Poopology 101

6
The Beginning
  • THE BEGINNING

7
People Settled Along Streams
8
Why?
Transportation
Drinking, Washing, Etc.
Waste Disposal
9
A Natural WWTP
Aeration
Settling
Solids Removal
10
Overload
11
Fixing the Problem
  • FIXING THE PROBLEM

12
Waste Water TreatmentIndustry
  • Raw Material Sewage
  • Process Materials Air Chemicals
  • Product Clean Water (Hopefully)
  • By-Products Sludge

13
COMMON TERMINOLOGY
  • MLSS Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids
  • Activated Sludge - Biologically Active Sludge
  • Nocardia Filamentous Organism (Bad Guys)
  • Microthrix - Filamentous Organism.(Bad Guys)
  • Bulking Poorly Settled Sludge

14
COMMON TERMINOLOGY
  • Dispersed Growth When micro-organisms do not
    clump together.
  • BNR Biological Nutrient Removal.
  • Nitrification Adding nitrogen.
  • Denitrification Eliminating nitrogen.

15
COMMON TERMINOLOGY
  • Aerobic The presence of oxygen.
  • Anaerobic or Anoxic The lack of oxygen.
  • OUR Oxygen Uptake Rate
  • SOUR Specific Oxygen Uptake Rate

16
COMMON TERMINOLOGY
  • SRT - Sludge Retention Time
  • F/M Ratio Food to (bio)Mass ratio
  • BOD Biochemical Oxygen Demand
  • RAS Return Activated Sludge
  • WAS Waste Activated Sludge

17
Primary Treatment
  • PRIMARY TREATMENT

18
PRIMARY TREATMENT
19
Bugs
Microbiological Organisms Or BUGS From Now On
20
PRIMARY TREATMENT
21
BOD COD
22
Secondary Treatment
  • SECONDARY TREATMENT

23
ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESSOR SECONDARY TREATMENT
  • DEVELOPED IN ENGLAND IN 1914
  • BY FAR THE MOST COMMON FORM OF SECONDARY TREATMENT

24
SECONDARY TREATMENT
25
Secondary Treatment
  • Removing or Chopping Big Solids
  • Bar Screens
  • Trash Rakes
  • Commutators
  • Removing Small, Heavy Solids
  • Grit Chambers
  • Primary Clarifiers

26
  • Aeration
  • Trickling Filters
  • Surface Aerators
  • Diffused Air Systems
  • Closed Diffused Oxygen Systems
  • Combinations of the Above
  • Removing the Remaining Solids
  • Secondary Clarifiers

27
  • Disinfection
  • Chlorine Contact Chamber
  • Ozone Contact Chamber
  • Ultraviolet Light
  • Sodium Hypochlorite

28
Various Forms of Aeration
  • AERATION IN
  • SECONDARY TREATMENT

29
Trickling Filter
30
Surface Aerators
Aerator Wide Open
Aerator Stopped
31
Diffused Aeration
Tube or Sleeve Aerators
Disk Aerators
32
Rotating Biological Contactors
33
Closed Oxygen System
34
Aerobic Reactors
COMPLETE MIX
RAW SEWERAGE FROM PRIMARY
MIXER
TO FINAL CLAIFIERS
RAS
35
AEROBIC REACTORS
  • PLUG FLOW

RAW SEWERAGE FROM PRIMARY
RAS
TO FINAL CLARIFIERS
36
Oxidation Ditch/Carousel
TO FINALS
BRUSH AERATIORS
FROM PRIMARIES
RAS
DIRECTION OF FLOW
37
Orbital Ditch Carousel
38
  • SEDIMENTATION IN
  • SECONDARY TREATMENT

39
SEDIMENTATION
  • CIRCULAR
  • RECTANGULAR

40
  • ADVANCED TREATMENT

41
ADVANCED TREATMENT
42
  • SLUDGE

43
(No Transcript)
44
  • Sludge Conditioning
  • Sludge Thickener
  • Gravity Thickener
  • Floatation Thickener
  • Sludge Digester
  • Sludge Holding

45
  • Sludge Dewatering
  • Belt Press
  • Filter Press
  • Vacuum Filter
  • Centrifuge
  • Dissolved Air Flotation Thickeners

46
  • Sludge Disposal
  • Direct Land Application
  • Composting for land application
  • Landfill
  • Incineration (good for UAI too)
  • Ocean Dumping (Yes It is Still done!)

47
Covered Sludge Thickener
Open Sludge Thickener
48
Dissolved Air Flotation Thickener (DAF)
49
Covered Digester
50
  • SLUDGE
  • SEPARATION

51
(No Transcript)
52
Belt Press
53
Centrifuge (Hyperion, CA)
54
  • WASTEWATER PROCESS CONTROL

55
REAL CONTROL STARTS WITH RELIABLE PROCESS
INFORMATION
56
A Word About Manual vs Monitoring
57
From Plant to Process
  • We covered plant structures equipment.
  • Now what is the intention?

58
Trend Toward AdvancedTreatment
  • Biological Nutrient Removal
  • Nitrogen Removal
  • Phosphorous Removal
  • Doing more with less

59
BIOLOGICAL NITROGEN REMOVAL
  • TWO STEP PROCESS
  • Nitrification (requires aeration)
  • Denitrification (requires controlled lack of
    aeration)
  • REMOVAL OF
  • Ammonia
  • Organic Nitrogen (particulate and soluble)

60
BIOLOGICAL NITRIFICATIONA TWO STEP AEROBIC
PROCESS
  • OXIDATION of Ammonia (NH3) to Nitrite (NO2-) .
  • OXIDATION of Nitrite to Nitrate (NO3-)
  • Reduces toxicity thru removal of ammonia.
  • Reduces NITROGEN OXYGEN DEMAND

61
BIOLOGICAL DENITRIFICATION AN ANOXIC PROCESS
  • REDUCTION of Nitrates (NO3-) to Nitrogen Gas (N2)
  • REDUCTION process requires an electron donor
  • Organic matter
  • Sulfides
  • Added donor like methanol

62
NITROGEN REMOVAL
  • BIOLOGICICAL NITROGEN REMOVAL HAS TWO STEPS
  • NITRIFICATION (OXIDATION process)
  • DENITRIFICATION (REDUCTION process)
  • Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP) sensors can
    be used to monitor this process

63
BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL
  • 10 of Phosphorus is removed in primary
    sedimentation
  • Further removal is achieved thru process called
  • ENHANCED BIOLOGICAL
  • PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL (EBPR)
  • Performed by the addition of an anaerobic
    (absence of nitrate and oxygen) tank or zone
    prior to the aeration tank to selectively promote
    polyphosphate accumulating bacteria.
  • These bacteria accumulate large quantities of
    polyphosphate within their cells and the removal
    of phosphorus is said to be enhanced.
  • Phosphorous is removed when bacteria are wasted
    in sludge.

64
WHAT ALL THIS MEANS
  • THE PROCESSES INVOLVED IN TREATMENT ARE BECOMING
    MORE COMPLICATED
  • CONTROL IS REQUIRED
  • ACCURATE AND RELIABLE PROCESS INFORMATION IS THE
    KEY

65
TRUE WASTEWATER PROCESS CONTROL AUTOMATION AND
INSTRUMENTATION from
66
Sales Start with Knowledge of Treatment Plants
WhatWhereWhy
67
Sales Start with Knowledge of
  • Structures dictate WHAT you can sell
  • Types of Aeration Surface, Course, Fine,
    Orbital, Trickle Filter, Roughing Filter, Solids
    Contact, RBC, Pure O2
  • Types of TSS handling Activated sludge,
    Sequential Batch Reactor, Aerobic digester
    anaerobic digester.
  • Processes dictate WHAT you can sell
  • Primary Treatment
  • Fixed film growth, Suspended growth systems
  • Activated Sludge, BNR, Phosphorous Removal
  • Membrane Bioreactors (MBR)

68
Sales Start with Knowledge of
  • Customers (and their hot buttons) dictate HOW
    you sell
  • Superintendent (cost savings labor reduction)
  • Process Supervisor (better control, more
    accuracy)
  • Electrical Instrumentation (less maintenance)
  • Maintenance personnel (less maintenance)
  • Consulting Engineer (features benefits)
  • Integrator (spec price)

69
Sales Start with Knowledge of
  • The Sales Triangle Single Most Important

Find who has purchasing authority and their
motivation (replacement, electricity savings,
reduced upset, regulations)
Key Wastewater Personnel
Get Specified
Not a direct customer, but important in who gets
specified on job. Requires presentations.
Independent of product cost.
Play the triangle to your advantage
Lowest price that meets spec wins.
Systems Integrator (subbed from GC)
Consulting Engineer
70
Dissolved Oxygen Controlthe Hot Buttons
  • Process Benefits
  • Biological Oxygen Demand Removal
  • Biological Nitrogen Removal
  • Biological Phosphorous Removal
  • Monetary Benefits
  • Optimize Energy Usage
  • Lower Maintenance

71
Buckets of MONEY
Wastewater Industrial / Municipal
Clean H2O
Sludge
72
What costs the most MONEY?
ENERGY What Consumes the most energy?
Blowers
Surface Aerators
For Reactor Aeration
73
Bio-Reactor Aeration is controlled by Dissolved
Oxygen Monitoring Systems
  • A reliable and accurate Dissolved Oxygen
    Monitoring System results in the following
    benefits
  • Energy Savings
  • Minimal Cost of Ownership
  • Improved Process Control
  • Improved Nutrient Removal
  • Improved Final Effluent

74
Four DO MeasurementTechnologies Used Today
  • Polarographic
  • Galvanic
  • Membraneless
  • Optical

75
Construction
  • Galvanic
  • Noble Metal Cathode
  • Silver, Gold, Platinum
  • Sacrificial Anode
  • Zinc, Lead
  • Electrolyte
  • KCl
  • Oxygen permeable membrane
  • Teflon

76
How Works?
  • Galvanic
  • Oxygen migrating through membrane oxidizes the
    anode creating an electrical current.
  • Current is proportional to the oxygen
    concentration in the environment.
  • Temperature sensor adjusts for oxygen diffusion
    rates.

77
Construction
  • Polarographic
  • First Clark type design
  • Cathode (usually gold), non-sacrificial
  • Anode (usually silver), non-sacrificial
  • Electrolyte (usually KCl)
  • Semi-porous membrane
  • Temperature sensor

78
How Works?
  • Polarographic
  • Analyzer provides a polarizing voltage (0.7V)
    between electrodes
  • Electrical current to reduce oxygen at the
    cathode and maintain equilibrium is dependent on
    concentration
  • Reading is adjusted for temperature effects.

79
Construction
  • Fluorescence
  • (Same as Luminescence)
  • Sensor consists of
  • Light receiver (usually sensitive to orange
    light)
  • Light emitter (usually blue LED)
  • Fluorescent material (fluorophore) immobilized in
    substrate (ie. Sensing Element)
  • Temperature sensor
  • Sensor operation
  • Blue light stimulates fluorophore.
  • Fluorophore fluoresces orange light.
  • Both intensity and time delay of produced light
    is reduced by presence of oxygen.

80
How Works?
  • Fluorescence
  • Details of Sensor Element
  • Fluorescent material (fluorophore)
  • Ruthenium metal complex
  • Platinum metal complex
  • Immobilizer
  • Glass such as Sol-Gel
  • Silicone Rubber
  • Polystyrene
  • PVC
  • Both Excitation and Fluoresced colors/intensity/ti
    me affected by various combinations from above.
  • Only a few specific combinations of above are
    affordable to wastewater industry.

81
How Works?
  • Fluorescence
  • Details of Various Immobilizers (Manufacturer
    Specific)
  • Sol-Gel (Sintered Glass)
  • Glass must be sintered to allow it to be
    permeable to oxygen.
  • Without protection from silicone rubber,
    fluorophore is exposed to wastewater and allows
    leaching.
  • Polystyrene
  • Is not oxygen permeable, so fluorophore must be a
    thin coating on surface of immobilizer.
  • Destroyed by exposure to UV and sunlight.
  • Silicone Rubber
  • Best immobilizer as it is naturally oxygen
    permeable and completely protects the fluorophore
    from wastewater.
  • Same material that is used for weatherproofing
    home exteriors, bathroom sealant, aquariums.
  • Patented combination.

82
Membraneless
  • Membraneless
  • Patented and manufactured by a Swiss company
  • Two dissimilar metals (anode cathode) are
    exposed to the process water.
  • Using water as the electrolyte an electrical
    current is produced between anode cathode.
  • Current is dependent on oxygen concentration.
  • Reading is adjusted for temperature effects.
  • Rotating grindstone keeps the metal surfaces
    clean.

83
Galvanic Advantages
  • Whatever the DO is in the sample is exactly what
    a Galvanic sensor will report, if the membrane is
    clean.
  • The ability to read at 0.1PPM is very important
    for de-nitrification monitoring in aeration
    basins.
  • The parent instrument has no control over the
    sensor whatsoever.
  • Electrolyte is not consumed.

84
Polarographic Disadvantages
  • Needs 700mV polarizing voltage from analyzer to
    work
  • Polarization time takes 45-90 minutes
  • At zero DO, sensor output is something other than
    zero
  • Small plated electrodes, usually silver or gold
  • Silver electrodes contaminated by H2S common in
    biological reactors
  • Major accuracy problems, especially below 1ppm

85
Fluorescence
  • ADVANTAGES
  • No membrane (But most require sensor cap change)
  • Not flow dependant
  • Perceived new technology but actually developed
    about 25 years ago
  • DISADVANTAGES
  • Fluorescing material leaches in water (reason for
    sensor cap change)
  • Many are damaged by sunlight and chlorine
  • Air or water jet cleaning hastens sensor cap
    deterioration

86
Need For Sensor Cleaning
87
Four Types of Automatic DO Sensor Cleaning
  • Electro-Chemical Cleaning (Active)
  • Generates chlorine gas at sensor tip to kill
    organic fouling.
  • Jet Cleaning (Active)
  • Should use 2, 4 or 5 mil membranes
  • For use with House air/water or small local
    compressor system.
  • Ultra Sonic Cleaning (Active)
  • Uses ultrasonic frequencies to shake loose
    fouling.
  • Velocity Cleaning (Passive)
  • Float ball concentrates water velocity across
    sensor tip creating a sheer force cleaning
    action.

88
This is WhyYou Need Self-Cleaning!
Jet Cleaning using Air or Water LESS
Maintenance MORE Run Time INCREASED Accuracy
89
Replaceable Sensor Cartridge
  • Pure Platinum Cathode
  • Field Replaceable
  • Operator Friendly
  • No electrolyte or membranes to handle
  • Available with 1, 2, 5 mil membranes
  • Galvanic technology good to 0.0ppm
  • Indefinite shelf life

90
Model 546 DO Sensor
  • Reusable Body
  • Can utilize Jet Clean with 2, 4 5 mil membranes
  • Fully protected temperature sensor

91
Model C36 Jet Wash Head
  • Fully self contained cleaner
  • Can replace cartridge without removing sensor
  • Tests indicate great accuracy in direction of jet
    spray to keep membrane clean

92
Competitor Jet Head
93
Non Effective Cleaning
94
Expensive Repairs
95
2402 OXY DO Analyzer
  • Microprocessor controlled
  • All features standard
  • Cal to air or sample
  • Two 4-20mA outputs (DO Temperature)
  • Galvanic or Polarographic sensors supported
  • Four relays (alarm, wash, 2 set point)
  • Continuous sensor check
  • PID control function
  • Jet Wash can use compressor or solenoid for plant
    air/water

96
2402 OXY DO With Compressor
  • Analyzer and compressor integrated into single
    enclosure
  • Reduces cost of equipment installation
  • Plan for dual channel unit

97
Jet Head Assembly
98
Installation Diagram
99
Installation Diagram
100
Specific Analyzer Configuration
  • Enter Configuration
  • Press Conf, 1200, enter
  • Select Sensor Type A
  • Select 30 NTC temperature probe
  • Enter 0000 mV polarization voltage
  • Calibration Mode
  • SAt (Saturation) for calibration to air
  • Conc (Concentration) for calibration to
    portable
  • Self Cleaning
  • Select rinse as cleaning method
  • Rinsing interval of 2 hours
  • Rinse duration of 30 seconds
  • Contact response N/O
  • Exit Configuration
  • Press Conf

101
Precision Dissolved Oxygen Analyzer
  • Single Button Calibration
  • 3 Independent Relays
  • Jet Blaster for Cleaning
  • Adjustable Cleaning Cycles
  • Easy Control and Setup
  • Elevation Adjustment
  • 4 20 mA Output for Oxygen
  • 4 20 mA Output for Temperature
  • UV Protected Keypad

102
What Makes Us Different and Better?
PDO Sensor
  • 5 Year Warranty on the Sensor
  • Steel reinforced body
  • Epoxy Filled to Protect Electronics
  • Our Lumiphore is imbedded in a Silicon Material
    for Better Stability (Patented)
  • We provide Optical Isolation to protect the
    sensor from Sunlight

103
Calibration to Portable
  • With sensor in air
  • Enter Calibration Mode
  • Press cal, 1100, enter
  • Enter relative humidity (approx 50)
  • Enter calibration pressure
  • Wait for automatic drift check to complete
  • Press enter to accept calculated concentration

104
Calibration to Air
  • With sensor in process
  • Place portable DO unit next to BAT sensor
  • Enter Calibration Mode
  • Press cal, 1100, enter
  • Enter relative humidity of 100
  • Enter calibration pressure
  • Wait for automatic drift check to complete
  • Enter desired value of DO
  • Press enter to accept calibration

105
Real World
106
Woodman Point - WATenix MBR Pilot Plant
The Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) plant operates
with MLSS at 18,000 mg/l. Picture shows sensor
straight out of the reactor after 6 months.
107
Woodman Point - WATenix MBR Pilot Plant
The Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) plant operates
with MLSS at 18,000 mg/l.
108
Manufacturers ofGalvanic Sensors
  • Barben Analyzer Technology
  • Royce Technologies
  • Zullig
  • IC Controls
  • WTW
  • ATI

109
Manufacturers of Polarographic Sensors
  • Endress Hauser
  • Orbisphere
  • Danfoss (no longer)
  • WTW
  • ABB
  • Barben Analyzer Technology (proposed)

110
Manufacturers ofOptical Sensors
  • Hach
  • Royce
  • Insite
  • Endress Hauser
  • Environmental Instruments
  • Barben Analyzer Technology

111
QUESTIONS
112
TSS Equipment
113
Turbidity and Suspended Solids
  • Basic Definition of Turbidity
  • General definition of Turbidity It is the
    decrease in the transparency of a liquid caused
    by the presence of undissolved substances
    (ISO/EN27027).
  • Turbidity Measurement Solids so finely
    dispersed in the liquid that they do not
    significantly settle even when allowed to stand
    for a long period of time.
  • Suspended Solids Measurement Solids
    sufficiently large that they will drop to the
    bottom of a sample given sufficient opportunity.
    These solids would be characterized by larger
    particles that may or may not be identified as
    discreet particles by the naked eye.

114
Turbidity TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDSUnits of
Measurement
  • MG/L MILLIGRAM PER LITER
  • PPM PARTS PER MILLION
  • NTU NEPHELOMETRIC TURBIDITY
    UNITS
  • FTU FORMAZINE TURBIDITY UNITS
  • JTU JACKSON TURBIDITY UNITS

115
TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDSDefinitions
  • MLSS Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids
  • Activated Includes Biological Components
  • WAS Waste Activated Solids
  • RAS Return Activated Solids

116
TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS Theory
  • THE ONLY PROPER WAY TO CALIBRATE A SUSPENDED
    SOLIDS INSTRUMENT IS TO CALIBRATE IT TO A KNOWN
    SAMPLE OF THE LIQUID TO BE MEASURED.

117
TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS Theory
  • THE INSTRUMENT MUST BE CALIBRATED IN THE
    APPROXIMATE RANGE IT IS GOING TO MEASURE.

118
TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS Theory
  • THE ONLY TRUE MEASUREMENT OF SUSPENDED SOLIDS IS
    TO TAKE A KNOWN VOLUME OF A LIQUID, REMOVE ALL
    THE LIQUID, AND CAREFULLY WEIGH THE REMAINING
    RESIDUE. IE- 1 LITER OF WATER WHEN EVAPORATED
    LEAVES 10 MG OF RESIDUE EQUALS 10MG/L TSS

119
Turbidity and Suspended Solids
  • Crossover Point
  • It is difficult to give a definition of where
    turbidity stops and suspended solids start but
    for practical purposes we use 1000 NTU/FTU as a
    crossover point.
  • Units of Measurement
  • NTU An instrument that measures turbidity by the
    90 light scattering method is called a
    nephelometer. The measuring units are
    Nephelometric Turbidity Unit or NTU.
  • FTU Formazin is the only reliable standard with
    which we have to measure turbidity and suspended
    solids. Calibrations made with Formazin are
    called Formazin Turbidity Units or FTUs.

120
Turbidity and Suspended Solids
  • Units of Measurement
  • As it is not possible to calibrate an instrument
    in NTUs (there is no standard) it has been
    normal to quote NTUs/FTUs which tells you that it
    is a nephelometer i.e. 90 degree light scatter
    principle - and has been calibrated against the
    formazin turbidity standard.
  • The ISO units of measurement are Formazin
    Nephelometric Units, FNUs.
  • Formazin is a manufactured chemical and the
    maximum measurable value for formazin is 4000
    FTU.
  • It is available from Hach as a stabilised
    solution.

121
Turbidity and Suspended Solids
  • Accuracy
  • Formazin measurements are based on the fact that
    increasing concentrations of formazin in water
    decrease the amount of light (either full
    spectrum or near infrared) in a linear fashion.
  • Calibrations made against formazin calibration
    liquids (Stabical) from the Hach Company in the
    USA cannot be better than 1 as this is the best
    accuracy of the (Stabical) calibration solutions.

122
TSS Measurement Technologies
  • Gravimetric Common manual laboratory analysis
  • Nuclear Intensity of radiation
  • Microwave Change in phase shift
  • Ultrasonic Measurement of echo intensity
  • Optical Light Absorbed Scattered Intensity

123
TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS Methods of Process
Measurement
  • Optical
  • Can measure the entire range of densities.
  • Ultrasonic
  • Limited to high density solids only.
  • Microwave
  • Limited to high density solids only.

124
Gravimetric Analysis
  • Though it is a manual laboratory analysis, it is
    the only method that is reportable to EPA.
  • One liter of sample is poured through a filter
    paper which is then dried. The milligram
    difference in weight of the filter paper is your
    mg/l value.

125
Nuclear Density Meter
  • Measurement principle The gamma radiation emitted
    by a shielded source is attenuated when it passes
    through matter. The degree of attenuation depends
    on the measuring path and product density. Given
    a constant length measuring path, radiation
    absorption as measured by a scintillation counter
    is a function of the density of the material
    being measured.

126
Microwave Density Meter
  • Calibrated with water
  • Signal passes through material and is compared to
    the reference signal
  • Phase shift is proportional to Total Solids (TS)
    content of material measured
  • Measures Total Solids (combination of dissolved
    and suspended).

127
Ultrasonic Meters
  • The ultrasonic pulse passing through clear water
    returns a strong signal and the meter reads zero.
  • The presence of TSS absorbs some ultrasonic
    energy making the echo weaker and the meter
    correlates this to a total suspended value.

128
Optical Technology
  • Light source on one side of a gap and a light
    receiver on the other side of a gap.
  • Presence of suspended solids blocks the travel of
    light.
  • Width of the gap allows for selection of proper
    measurement range
  • Larger gap provides greater low range sensitivity
    but prevents high concentration readings.
  • Smaller gap provides greater high range
    sensitivity but prevents low concentration
    readings.

129
Comparison of TSS Measurement Technologies
  • Gravimetric
  • Laboratory analysis - Only technique that is
    accepted by EPA
  • Prone to sampling and measurement errors
  • Labor intensive
  • Optical (either visible light or infrared light)
    Ultrasonic
  • Can measure the entire range of densities.
  • Is limited by process color can not measure
    pure white or pure black.
  • Microwave
  • Limited to high density solids only.
  • Not affected by sludge color.
  • Nuclear
  • Limited to high density solids only.
  • Not affected by sludge color.
  • Requires special operator certification and
    handling procedures.
  • Disposal of equipment can cost more than purchase
    price.

130
TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDSOptical Measurement
Methodologies
  • Absorbance The loss of light when particles are
    located directly between the energy source and
    receptor.
  • Scatter Light that is dispersed from a particle
    and measured at a specific angle.

131
Turbidity and Suspended Solids
Operation Principle
S Series Sensors
T Series Sensor
132
Turbidity and Suspended Solids
  • Measurements
  • The absorbed light principle works better in
    medium to high concentrations, gt 1000 NTU. The
    Quadbeam S10, S20 and S40 sensors measure
    absorbed light.
  • The 90 light scattering principle works better
    in low turbidity applications, 1 to 1000 NTU. The
    Quadbeam T30 sensor measure 90 scattered light.

133
Single Beam Operation
E1
D1
  • The reading of detector D1 depends on
  • Intensity of light emitted from E1
  • Transmittance of window on E1
  • Concentration of medium
  • Distance between E1 and D1
  • Transmittance of window on D1
  • Sensitivity of D1

134
Single Beam Operation
  • The Problems
  • The reading of detector D1 depends on
  • Intensity of light emitted from E1
  • Transmittance of window on E1
  • Concentration of medium
  • Distance between E1 and D1
  • Transmittance of window on D1
  • Sensitivity of D1
  • Ideally, the reading of D1 should only depend on
    the concentration of liquid.
  • However! Items 1, 2, 5 and 6 do change with time
    due to dirt build up on the sensor and the
    components ageing.

135
Four Beam Operation (S series)
  • The Solution
  • Use 2 Emitters and 2 Detectors, a 4 beam operation

Two IR Emitters
Two Photocell Detectors
The two light sources are switched on and off
alternatively
136
Four Beam Operation (S series)
E1
D1
D2
E2
137
Four Beam Operation (S series)
E1
D1
With light E1 off and E2 on
With light E1 on and E2 off
D2
E2
Quotient 1 (D1/D2) eliminates the light
characteristics of E1
Quotient 2 (D1/D2) eliminates the light
characteristics of E2
Quotient 3, which is Quotient1/Quotient 2,
eliminates the receiver characteristics of D1 and
D2
138
Four Beam Operation (S series)
Clean Sensor Example
6
3
3
6
E1,D1 E1,D2
6 3
2 0.5 4


2
Note Ratio increases with an increase in
absorption.
E2,D1 E2,D2
3 6


0.5
139
Four Beam Operation (S series)
Contaminated Sensor Example, Same Liquid
70
60
60
50
E1,D1 E1,D2
0.7x6x0.6 0.7x3x0.5
2.52 1.05



2.4
2.4 0.6 4
Same result as before!
1.08 1.80
E2,D1 E2,D2
0.6x3x0.6 0.6x6x0.5



0.6
140
Four Beam Operation (T30)
  • Four beam operation similar to suspended solids
  • Emitter and detector positions are at 90 to
    each other
  • The reflected light is very sensitive at low
    concentrations.
  • Conforms to ISO 27027 as they are true
    nephelometers which measure light at 90 degrees
    to the transmitted light.

141
Four Beam Operation
  • The readings from D1 and D2 are converted to a
    number which we call Probe Signal or PS.
  • To get from PS number to units of suspended
    solids, we create a calibration table of PS
    values at various concentrations.
  • This table is easily created from laboratory
    tests.
  • The usual lab test is an oven dry test which is
    very simple and every laboratory can do it.
  • Using this table, a curve is plotted of Probe
    Signals versus suspended solids.

142
Four Beam Operation
We now have a curve of Probe Signals versus
suspended solids

143
Sensor Selection
T30
S40
S20
S10
Low
High
Concentration
144
Calibration Principles
  • Often calibrations are made against industry
    standards and are usually measured in , mg/l,
    g/l or ppm.
  • mg/l is milligrams of dry solids per litre of
    liquid, this is usually determined by an oven dry
    test.
  • Loss monitors in the dairy industry are
    calibrated against a standard 2 milk-fat sample.
  • Is the sensor good for this application? That
    depends on the PS difference between the two
    samples.
  • The minimum difference is 1000 PS for S series
    sensor, 5000 PS for T30.
  • If the difference is below the minimum, use a
    more sensitive sensor.

145
PS Test
  • After you select a sensor. Get a solution with
    the maximum concentration the sensor should
    measure.
  • Put the sensor in the maximum concentration and
    record the PS value
  • Put the sensor in the low concentration (usually
    water) and record the PS value
  • Is the sensor good for this application? That
    depends on the PS difference between the two
    samples.
  • The minimum difference is 1000 PS for S series
    sensor, 5000 PS for T30.
  • If the difference is below the minimum, use a
    more sensitive sensor.

146
Oven Dry Test
  • Once you determined the correct sensor for the
    sample, you should find out its concentration in
    a scientific unit.
  • You can either use a hand held meter or do an
    oven dry test.
  • Oven dry test is done by placing a filter paper
    in the oven to dry any moisture on it, then
    weight it.
  • Pour a known volume of the sample solution
    through the filter paper.
  • Place the filter paper back in the oven, then
    weight it again after it is dry.
  • Using the weight difference and the known volume,
    you can now work out the concentration in mg/L,
    ppm etc.

147
Sensor Overview
  • There are Five QuadbeamTM Sensors
  • S10 Sensors measure up to 25g/L
  • S20 Sensors measure up to 10g/L
  • S40 Sensors measure up to 2.5g/L
  • S90 Sensors measure up to 1g/L or 1000NTU
  • Obsolete, only sold as a replacement for BTG
    RD120/25. Use a T30 for new applications.
  • T30 Sensors measure up to 1g/L or 1000NTU
  • These figures are indicative only as the
    measurement range is dependant upon the material
    in suspension.

148
GENERAL APPLICATIONS FOR TSS IN WWT PLANTS
  • Plant Influent (1,000 to 4,000 mg/l)
  • Aeration Basins (Bio-reactors)
  • (1,000 to 4,000 mg/l)
  • Waste Activated or Return Activated Sludge Lines
  • (.3 TO 8 Percent)
  • Membrane Plants (0 to 17,000 mg/l)
  • Clarifier Effluent
  • (0 TO 50 Mg/l)
  • Plant Effluent Turbidity
  • (0 TO 10 Mg/l)

149
Medium Range Submersion Applications
  • Open Basin MLSS Monitoring and Control
  • Some Open Channel RAS Monitoring
  • S20 Immersion sensor and MSSD5353

150
High Range TSS Pipe Insertion Applications
  • Waste Activated Sludge (WAS) Lines
  • Primary Secondary Clarifiers
  • Return Activated Sludge (RAS) Lines
  • Secondary Clarifiers
  • Solids Thickening
  • Polymer Feed Control
  • Thickening Equipment Feed Control
  • S10 sensor installed through a ball valve
    mounted at 45 degrees to the pipe MSSD53

151
Other WWTP Applications
  • Primary clarifier
  • ILA sludge level by two S20 immersion sensors
    and MSSD 33R controllers to control pumps or
    valves.
  • Gravity Thickener
  • A S10 Sensor installed through a ball valve and
    mounted at 45 degrees to the pipe. When mounted
    at 45degrees the sensor is essentially self
    cleaning. This application is successful at one
    of Sydneys (Australia) WWTP. Looking for an
    order for up to 25 more. We are measuring a
    mixture of primary and secondary sludge before
    the centrifuge. Competition was WTW and Mowbrey
  • Dewatering
  • Supernatant measurement. A S20 sensor and MSSD 53
    can be used for this measurement.
  • Final Effluent
  • T30 can be used as long as values are greater
    than around 1 NTU in which case will have to use
    a bypass system rather than an immersion.

152
The BAT / QuadBeam Line ofTotal Suspended
SolidsSystems
153
Sensor Overview
S10
S20
T30
S40
154
Sensor Overview
  • The Sensors are Available in Two Body Styles
  • Immersion Style a general purpose design
    commonly used in water, wastewater, mining and
    chemical industries.
  • Hygienic Style to meet the requirements of the
    food industry.

S20 Immersion sensor
S20 Hygienic sensor
155
MSSD53 Transmitter
  • Only available in Surface Mount.
  • IP66 / NEMA 4X.
  • General purpose only - not Intrinsically Safe.
  • Polyurethane foam enclosure with internal EMC
    spray coating.

156
MSSD53 Transmitter
  • Features
  • Unit is easily configured by the keypad.
  • Large backlit multifunction display.
  • Multilingual text/error messaging.
  • User adjustable calibration menu.
  • Powered by 85 to 260 VAC/DC, or 18 to 36 VAC/DC.
  • Simulated input for commissioning /fault finding.
  • Facility to store two linearization curves.
  • Up to 5 points may be entered on each curve.

157
MSSD53 Transmitter
  • Features
  • Adjustable input filter for noisy sensor
    readings.
  • 2 Fully configurable relay outputs
  • Single isolated fully scaleable 0/4 - 20mA
    current output. Can be driven to 22mA or 2mA in
    an error condition.
  • Has 3 digital inputs to initiate MSSD53 functions

158
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159
MSSD33R Controller
  • Surface mounting enclosure with SS mounting
    brackets.
  • IP66/NEMA 4X Enclosure.
  • General purpose only, not Intrinsically Safe.
  • 24Volt DC Supply.
  • Microprocessor based.
  • A common application is product/water interface
    which is also called transition detection or
    phase detection.

160
Our Advantageous
  • The alternating light principle design improves
    the measurement reliability and span stability of
    optical suspended solids instruments.
  • The QuadbeamTM alternating light principle
    compensates for variations in light intensity and
    detector sensitivity by using two light sources
    and two detectors.
  • By design, Quadbeam sensors automatically
    compensate for component ageing, sensor fouling
    and daylight interference.
  • No sensor has ever failed due to liquid ingress.
  • Quadbeam Sensors operate in the near infrared
    range of 880nm. outside the visible light
    wavelength of 400 to 700nm.

161
Competition Weaknesses
  • Most operate on a single beam principle.
  • Almost all of them end up leaking, some take
    longer than others!
  • Some need to be returned to factory to calibrate.

162
Suspended Solids Applications
  • Series 10 Type Sensor Applications
  • Return and waste sludge measurements.
  • Thickened and digested sludge to clarifiers.
  • Centrifugal, gravity or filter separation
    processes.
  • Dairy industry for the determination of fat in
    cream.
  • Percentage solids in fruit juice.
  • Coal and mining slurries.

163
Suspended Solids Applications
  • Series 20 Type Sensor Applications
  • Product loss monitors in milk processing plants.
  • Dairy industry for the determination of fat in
    milk.
  • Percentage solids in fruit juice vegetable
    juices.
  • Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids.
  • Return Activated Sludge
  • (RAS).
  • Sludge blanket detection.

164
Suspended Solids Applications
  • Series 40 Type Sensor Applications
  • Raw water inlet turbidity measurements in water
  • treatment plants.
  • Final effluent monitoring.
  • White water solids concentration.
  • Product breakthrough on
  • plate heat exchangers.
  • Solids content in whey.

165
Suspended Solids Applications
  • Other Applications
  • Controlling flocculent addition in a rock quarry
    waste
  • water treatment plant.
  • Coal washers.
  • Verifying pulp content in canned apple juice.
  • Detecting solids in filtered fruit juices.
  • Nickel mining.
  • Alumina production.
  • Dissolved air floatation plants.

166
Turbidity Applications
  • Monitoring of clarifier overflow weirs in waste
    water treatment plants.
  • Final outlet of effluent from dissolved air
    floatation plants.
  • Breakthrough on plate heat exchangers and
  • filtration plants.
  • Raw water inlet measurements
  • in water treatment plants.
  • Solids loading in rivers.
  • Surface water monitoring.

167
Waste Water Treatment Plant
  • Influent screening, which removes plastic and
    other indigestible solids.
  • The primary clarifier separates heavier particles
    from the liquid. It is done using gravity and
    time by allowing the solids to settle to the
    bottom of the tank.
  • The aeration basin makes use of bacteria to break
    down the sewage. The floor of this basin has many
    air nozzles which supply the bacteria with
    oxygen.

A basic waster water treatment plant has four
main stages.
168
Waste Water Treatment Plant
  • The secondary clarifier separates the remaining
    sludge from the final effluent. Some of this
    sludge is returned to the aeration basin
    (Returned Activated Sludge - RAS) and some is
    sent to the sludge thickening process (Waste
    Activated Sludge - WAS) where it is then either
    sent to a digester or de-watered and sent to
    landfill.

169
TSS Equipment
170
Waste Water Treatment Plant
Screen
Primary Clarifier
Influent
Pump
Aeration Basin
Secondary Clarifier
Final effluent
RAS
Pump
WAS
171
Waste Water Treatment Plant
Primary Clarifier
MSSD33/53
MSSD33/53
MSSD53
Weir
T30
S20
S20
172
Waste Water Treatment Plant
  • Primary Clarifier Sludge Blanket Detection
  • The heavier particles accumulate in the bottom of
    the clarifier tank and are referred to as the
    sludge blanket. They require emptying at regular
    intervals to make room

for more settling in a process known as
de-sludging.
173
Waste Water Treatment Plant
  • Primary Clarifier Sludge Blanket Detection
  • A de-sludging pump controlled by a timer is
    usually unsatisfactory. Under heavy loads it will
    allow sludge to overflow and under light it loads
    will pump out water with the sludge.
  • The preferred solution is to use two MSSD33/53
    monitors with Series 20 sensors immersed in the
    tank to the maximum and minimum levels.

174
Waste Water Treatment Plant
  • Primary Clarifier Sludge Blanket Detection
  • This will control the action of the underflow
    sludge pump to ensure blanket is always
    maintained between these two levels.

175
Waste Water Treatment Plant
Aeration Basin
176
Waste Water Treatment Plant
  • Aeration Basin
  • Use an S20 sensor with an MSSD53 transmitter to
    monitor the amount of solids in the aeration
    basin.
  • Use an T30 sensor with an MSSD53 transmitter to
    monitor the amount of solids in the weir going to
    the secondary clarifier.

177
Waste Water Treatment Plant
Secondary Clarifier
SLD
MSSD53
T30
MSSD53
S20
RAS
S10
WAS
178
Waste Water Treatment Plant
  • Secondary Clarifier
  • This clarifier has a rotating rake which moves
    the sludge to the center of the tank. This is
    then pumped out. Use an S20 sensor with a sludge
    level detector to monitor the

the solids profile of the clarifier. This is
done by lowering the sensor in
in steps and recording the readings of
level and suspended solids.
179
Waste Water Treatment Plant
  • Secondary Clarifier
  • Use an T30 sensor with an MSSD53 transmitter to
    monitor the amount of solids in the weir which is
    the discharge out of the waster water treatment
    plant.

sludge and decide whether to send it to
the aeration basin or to a digester and then a
landfill.
  • Use an S10 sensor with a MSSD53 transmitter to
    monitor the activated.

180
Total Suspended Solids Controlthe Hot Buttons
  • Process Benefits
  • Instant TSS result to control wasting now (not in
    3-4 hrs)
  • More stable TSS less food variation for bugs
  • Ensure high concentration solids and not water
    are being sent to anaerobic digesters
  • Monetary Benefits
  • Reduction of sample collection throughout plant
  • Reduction on laboratory work
  • Better treatment with less cost
  • Lower Maintenance

181
Turbidity Controlthe Hot Buttons
  • Process Benefits
  • Instant determination of sand bed filter
    break-thru
  • Control of backwash cycle in sand bed filters
  • Ensure effluent is within compliance
  • Closed loop control of polymer dosing
  • Monetary Benefits
  • Reduction of sample collection throughout plant
  • Reduction on laboratory work
  • Reduce Discharge Out Of Compliance fines
  • Reduced polymer costs disposal

182
Clarifier Controlthe Hot Buttons
  • Process Benefits
  • Maintain effective blanket depth on Secondary
    Clarifiers
  • Ensure a blanket exists in Primary Clarifiers to
    prevent low concentration solids from being sent
    to the anaerobic digesters
  • Monetary Benefits
  • Prevent over-torque on Primary Clarifiers
  • Reduction of polymers usage in secondary
    clarifiers (if used)
  • Reduction of fines from exceeding effluent solids
    discharge permit

183
COMPETITION
  • Dr. Lange/Hach
  • (DANAHER GROUP-HACH, DR. LANGE, POLYMETRON,
    ORBISPHERE, BTG, GLI, FSP, CONTRONICS, EBI,
    MONITEC)
  • STRENGTHS
  • TSS Made in Germany by Dr. Lange
  • Competitively Priced
  • Dual Channel Available
  • WEAKNESSES
  • Disorganized Sales Force
  • Cleaning Technology Poor
  • Must use a Standard to Calibrate

184
COMPETITION
  • ENDRESS HAUSER
  • STRENGTHS
  • One Stop Shop
  • Low Price
  • Strong Routes to Market
  • Global Marketing
  • WEAKNESSES
  • Poor Product Performance
  • Cleaning Technology Poor
  • Field Sales People Lack Process Expertise

185
OTHER COMPETITORS
  • CERLIC
  • Swedish
  • Old designs w/ no self-cleaning
  • Expensive
  • WTW
  • Multi-channel
  • Smart sensors
  • Ultrasonic Cleaning

Mowbrey Partech MJK
186
Thank You
  • Presented by Troy Morgan
  • Product Development Manager for UAI/BAT
  • TMorgan_at_UniversalAnalyzers.com
  • 775-883-2500 x103
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