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Powered Industrial Trucks (P.I.T.)


Powered Industrial Trucks P'I'T' – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Powered Industrial Trucks (P.I.T.)

Powered Industrial Trucks (P.I.T.)
Powered Industrial Truck29 CFR 1910.178Final
1.5 million workers operating nearly 1 million
powered industrial trucks.
  • Roughly 100 workers killed per year related to
    powered industrial truck operations.
  • 36,340 Serious injuries.
  • 95,000 Injured (lost work days) per year
  • An estimated 20 - 25 of accidents are caused by,
  • a lack of training or inadequate training.

Powered Industrial TruckSource OSHA Analysis
of Serious Accident Reports 1984-1991
  • Operator inattention ----------------------- 59
  • Overturn ------------------------------------- 53
  • Unstable load--------------------------------
  • Operator struck by load------------------- 37
  • Elevated employees ------------------------ 26
  • No training ----------------------------------
  • Overload, improper use ------------------ 15
  • Accident during maintenance------------ 14

Powered Industrial TruckSource OSHA Analysis
of Serious Accident Reports 1984-1991 Cont..
  • Improper equipment----------------------- 10
  • Obstructed view ---------------------------- 10
  • Falling from platform or curb ----------- 9
  • Carrying excess passenger---------------- 8
  • Other employee struck by load---------- 8
  • Falling from trailer ------------------------
  • Vehicle left in gear--------------------------
  • Speeding --------------------------------------

From 1991 - 1992 170 Fatalities - Bureau of
Labor Statistics
  • 41 Truck Overturned
  • 13 Struck something or ran off a dock
  • 19 Worker pinned between objects
  • 29 Worker struck by material
  • 24 Worker struck by lift truck
  • 24 Worker fell from lift truck
  • 10 Worker died during lift truck repair
  • 10 Other accidents

Fatalities by Age Group1992 - 1996
  • 27 35 - 44
  • 22 25 - 34
  • 21 45 - 54
  • 12 56 - 64
  • 10 20 - 24
  • 5 65 Over
  • 3 Under 20

Original vs New
  • Original - Only trained and authorized operators
    shall be permitted to operate a powered
    industrial truck (Did not define type of
  • New December 1, 1999
  • 1. Operators must be trained per truck.
  • 2. Operators must be trained in their
  • 3. Operators must be evaluated and certified.
    Competency on truck - in their environment.

Effective date March 1, 1999 Compliance date
December 1, 1999 OSHA estimated that - after its
regulations are fully effective. The U.S. will
begin saving 11 of those lives and avoiding 10
of the current toll of injuries in the U.S. Or,
one life a month.
Performance - Oriented Requirements
  • The powered industrial truck operator training
    requirements are performance-oriented to permit
    employers to tailor a training program to the
    characteristics of their workplaces and the
    particular types of powered industrial trucks

Powered Industrial TruckANSI B56.1-1969
  • A powered industrial truck is defined as a
    mobile, power-propelled vehicle used to carry,
    push, pull, lift, stack, or tier material.
    Powered Industrial Trucks can be ridden or
    controlled by a walking operator.

Powered Industrial TruckANSI B56.1-1969
  • Excluded are trucks used for earthmoving and
    over-the-road hauling. Equipment that was
    designed to move earth but has been modified to
    accept forks are also not included.

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New StandardMandates
  • Development of a Training Program
  • Amount of Training
  • Type of Training
  • Sufficiency of Training of operator to
  • Acquire, Retain, Use Knowledge, Skills ,
    and Ability to Operate Safely
  • Periodic evaluation - each operators performance
  • Refresher Training Required when
  • Unsafe operation
  • Accident or near miss
  • Deficiency found in periodic evaluation

Operator Qualification
  • 1910.178 (L)(1)(i) - The employer shall ensure
    each potential operator is competent to operate a
    powered industrial truck safely, as demonstrated
    by the successful completion of the training and
    evaluation specified in this paragraph (L)
  • 1910.178 (L)(1)(ii) - Prior to permitting an
    employee to operate a powered industrial truck
    (except for training purposes) the employee has
    successfully completed the training required by
    this paragraph (L), except as permitted by
    paragraph (L)(5)

Training program implementation
  • 1910.178 (L)(2)(i) - Trainees may operate a
    powered industrial truck only
  • 1910.178 (L)(2)(i)(A) - Under the direct
    supervision of a person who has the knowledge,
    training, and experience to train operators and
    evaluate their competence and,
  • 1910.178 (L)(2)(i)(B) - Where such operator does
    not endanger the trainee or other employees

Training program implementation
  • 1910.178 (L)(2)(ii)-Training must consist of a
    combination of formal classroom instruction,
    operator practical exercises, and evaluation of
    the operators performance in the workplace
  • 1910.178 (L)(2)(iii)-All operator training and
    evaluation shall be conducted by persons who have
    the knowledge, training, and experience to train
    powered industrial truck operators and evaluate
    their competence

Training Program Content1910.178 (L)(3)
  • Powered industrial truck operators shall receive
    initial training in the following topics, except
    in topics which the employer can demonstrate are
    not applicable to safe operation of the truck in
    the employers workplace

Truck Related Topics Content1910.178 (L)(3)(i)
  • (A) All operating instructions - warnings and
    precautions for the types of trucks the
    operator will be authorized to operate
  • (B) Similarities to, and differences from the

Forklift Narrow wheel track Short wheelbase High
structure 3-point suspension Center of Gravity is
higher and moves in a significant range w/loads 3
or 4 wheels, Steers from the rear
Automobile Wide wheel track Long wheelbase Low
structure 4- point suspension Center of Gravity
is low and moves in a narrow range 4 wheels ,
Steers from the front
Truck Related Topics Content1910.178 (L)(3)(i)
  • (C) Controls Instruments - Location, What they
    do, How they operate
  • (D) Engine or Motor - operation and maintenance
  • (E) Steering Maneuvering
  • (F) Visibility - including restrictions due to
  • (G) Fork and attachments - adaptation operations
    and limitations
  • (H) Vehicle capacity
  • (I) Vehicle stability

Truck RelatedContent Continued1910.198
  • (J) Vehicle Inspection and maintenance / that
    the operator will be required to perform
  • (K) Refueling and/or charging, recharging
  • (L) Operating limitations - and
  • (M) Any other operating instructions, warnings or
    precautions listed in the operator's manual for
    the types of vehicles that the employee is being
    trained to operate

Workplace Related Topics Content Continued
1910.178 (L)(3)(ii)
  • (A) Surface conditions where the vehicle will be
  • (B) Composition of loads to be carried load
  • (C) Load manipulation, stacking , unstacking
  • (D) Pedestrian traffic in areas where vehicle
    will be operated
  • (E) Narrow aisles and other restricted places
  • (F) Hazardous classified locations

Workplace Related Content Continued 1910.178
  • (G) Ramps and other sloped surfaces that could
    effect the vehicles stability
  • (H) Closed environments and other areas where
    insufficient ventilation or poor maintenance
    could cause a buildup of carbon monoxide or
    diesel exhaust
  • (I) Other unique or potentially hazardous
    environmental conditions in the workplace that
    could affect safe operation

Other Hazards
  • Falling Loads
  • Falling from Platforms, Curbs, Trailers, etc..
  • Obstructed Views
  • Inattention
  • Riders
  • Vehicle Not Maintained
  • Carbon Monoxide
  • Rough - Uneven - Unleveled floors
  • Unusual Loads
  • Classified Areas
  • Narrow Aisles
  • Pedestrians

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Refresher Training and Evaluation 1910.178 (L)
  • Refresher training , including an evaluation of
    the effectiveness of that training, shall be
    conducted as required by paragraph (L)(4)(ii) to
    ensure the operator has the skills needed to
    operate the powered industrial truck safely

Refresher Training or Back to School 1910.178
  • Refresher training in relevant topics shall be
    provided to the operator when
  • A The operator has been observed to operate the
    vehicle in an unsafe manner
  • B When the operator has been involved in an
    accident or a near miss incident
  • C When the operator has received an evaluation
    that reveals that the operator is not operating
    the truck

Refresher Training Continued 1910.178 (L)(4)(ii)
  • D The operator is assigned to drive a different
    type of truck or
  • E A condition in the workplace changes in a
    manner that could affect safe operation of the

Evaluation1910.178 (L)(4)(iii)
  • An evaluation of each powered industrial truck
    operators performance shall be conducted at
    least every three years

Avoidance of Duplicative Training 1910.178
  • If an operator has previously received training
    in a topic specified in paragraph (L)(3) of this
    section, and such training is appropriate to the
    truck and working conditions encountered,
    additional training in that topic is not required
    if the operator has been evaluated and found
    competent to operate the truck safely

Certification 1910.178 (L)(6)
  • The employer shall certify that each operator
  • Has been trained and evaluated as required in
    paragraph (L)
  • The certification shall include
  • Name of Trainee Operator
  • Date of Training
  • Date of the Evaluation
  • Identify the person(s) performing the training
    and evaluation

Out Source and Obligation
  • The user is responsible. When you hire an
    outside source to perform some of the training,
    you, the user, are fully responsible for
    everything that is done in the evaluation.
  • If something is ignored you are responsible.
  • The employer will be cited.
  • How well does an outsider know your trucks and
    your facility?

Medical and ADA Issues
  • ANSI B56.1-69 - Operators of P.I.T.s shall be
    qualified as to visual, auditory, physical, and
    mental ability to operate equipment safely.
  • ADA does not consider visual impairment (less
    than legal blindness), monocular vision or
    hearing loss (less than total deafness) as
    disabilities. Therefore the ADA does not apply,
    and reasonable accommodations for these operators
    of P.I.T.s should not be a consideration.

General Inspection Guidelines
  • Method of training. Formal, practical,
    evaluation, and review if trainer has knowledge,
    training, and experience.
  • Did employer train in applicable topics.
  • Determine if operator received training. IE
    Operators manual.
  • Observe operations of trucks.
  • Has employer certified the training?

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