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Introductory%20Training%20Course%20for%20Bilingual%20Teacher%20Certification

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Title: Introductory%20Training%20Course%20for%20Bilingual%20Teacher%20Certification


1
Introductory Training Course for Bilingual
Teacher Certification
Introductory Professional Development
for Bilingual Teacher Certification
Mathematics
Prepared by Carmen Tejeda-Delgado, Ed.D. Texas
AM University Corpus Christi
2
  • Guaranteed and viable instructional strategies
    coupled with classroom curricular design have the
    single most impact on student achievement than
    any other contributing factor (Marzano, 2001
    Classroom Instruction That Works).

3
Action steps toward successful mathematics
instruction
  • Step 1
  • Identify, understand, and communicate the
    content considered essential to provide quality
    and engaging mathematical instruction.
  • Step 2
  • Sequence and organize the essential content so
    that students have necessary time to learn it.
  • Step 3
  • Ensure teachers can articulate proven and
    effective Bilingual and English Language Learners
    (ELL) instructional strategies that will impact
    student achievement for all students.

4
Step 1 Identify, understand, and communicate
the content considered essential to provide
quality and engaging mathematical instruction.
  • 1.A Analyze The Texas Essential Knowledge and
    Skills (TEKS).
  • 1.B Provide an example of an activity that will
    assist students in meeting the particular TEKS
    statement being taught.
  • 1.C Understand the terminology (verbs and nouns)
    included in each TEKS -- they are intentional
    and literal.
  • 1.D Determine what resources are available to
    help understand the TEKS and the student
    expectations.

5
Step 1A. Analyze The Texas Essential Knowledge
and Skills
  • Analyzing the TEKS is a critical practice for
    any educator it is essential for a novice
    teacher.
  • Bilingual teachers must familiarize themselves
    with the TEKS to lay a strong foundation for
    curriculum planning. Curriculum planning often
    takes the form of a Scope and Sequence.

6
Step 1A Analyze The Texas Essential Knowledge
and Skills (continued)
  • Texas public schools use a legislatively
    mandated curriculum The Texas Essential
    Knowledge and Skills (TEKS). http//www.tea.state.
    tx.us
  • As stipulated in Texas Education Code (TEC),
    Chapter 28, the required curriculum consists of
    foundation and enrichment subjects.
  • The foundation TEKS are English Language Arts and
    Reading, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies,
    Spanish Language Arts and English as a Second
    Language.
  • The enrichment TEKS are Languages Other Than
    English, Fine Arts, Health, Physical Education,
    and Technology Applications
  • Texas school districts are required to provide
    instruction in the essential knowledge and skills
    in both the foundation and enrichment curriculum.

7
Step 1A Analyze The Texas Essential Knowledge
and Skills (continued)
  • Grade 3 Strand Number, Operation, and
    Quantitative Reasoning

The TEKS illustrated above are 3.1A, 3.1B, and
3.1C. The 3 represents the grade level, the (1)
represents the TEKS and the order in which it is
listed in the Third Grade TEKS document, and the
letter (A,B,C,etc.) represents student
expectations necessary to fulfill the
requirements of any specific TEKS.
8
Step 1 B Provide an example of an activity to
assist students to meet this student expectation.
A Product of the Charles A. Dana Center at the
University of Texas
  • The student is expected to
  • (3.1.A) use place value to read, write (in
    symbols and words), and describe the value of
    whole numbers through 999,999
  • Students play a game in which they try to
    build the largest number possible. Each player
    draws a game board as shown
  • ____ ____ ____, ____ ____ ____
  • Players take turns rolling a ten-sided number
    polyhedron or spinning a spinner labeled with
    numbers zero through nine. After each roll or
    spin, every player writes that number as a digit
    in one space on his or her game board. Once
    written, that digit cannot be moved. The winner
    has the largest number and can read it.

9
Step 1.B Questioning
  • Open with...
  • Do you think you have made the greatest
    number and will win?
  • Why or why not?

10
Step 1.B Questioning
  • Probe further with...
  • What is your number?
  • How can you write your number with words?
  • Who has made the greatest number? What is
    it? How did you decide this is the greatest
    number?
  • Who has a 3 in the thousands place?
  • Whose number is closest to your number?
    How did you decide this is the closest number to
    yours?
  • Order all the numbers. How did you go about
    putting these numbers in order?
  • What strategy did you use to make your
    number?
  • What is the greatest number you can create
    by moving the digits of your number?
  • What is the lowest number you can create by
    moving the digits of your number? What strategy
    would you try the next time you play this game?

11
Step1B Listen for
  • Does the student accurately read the six-digit
    numbers using patterns to name the numbers?
    (Caution Students should use and only to
    indicate a decimal point.)
  • Does the student clearly describe the strategy
    used to create large numbers?
  • Does the student clearly describe the strategy
    used to compare and order numbers?
  • Does the student use ideas of place value to
    explain and justify strategies and responses?

12
Step 1B Look for
  • Does the student use place value and patterns
    in number relationships to compare and order
    six-digit numbers?
  • Does the student demonstrate an understanding of
    place value in strategies for the game?
  • Can the student identify the different values of
    the different places in a number?
  • Does the student recognize the relative values of
    the places in a number?
  • Can the student write the number in words?

Clarifying Activities (n.d.) Retrieved June 2,
2006 from UT Dana Center http//www.utdanacenter.
org/mathtoolkit/instruction/3.php
13
Step 1C Understand the terminology of the Texas
Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS)
  • TEKS 4.8.C Use essential attributes to define
    two- and three-dimensional geometric figures.
  • Notice the word define. The students are expected
    to demonstrate their understanding as part of the
    assessment.
  • Notice the words used in each TAKS question
  • Refer to the script for a detailed description of
    Grade 4 Math, Obj. VIII.

14
Activity 1
  • Study the objectives and complete Form 1-A in
    your script for questions 3 (example shown), 6,
    11, 14, 17, and 36.

15
Step1.D TEKS Resources
  • Refined TEKS for 2006 2007
  • http//www.tea.state.tx.us/curriculum/math/index.
    html
  • Texas Education Agency http//www.tea.state.tx.u
    s
  • This site will allow you to browse through a
    multitude of websites, links, resources
    particularly the TAKS Blueprints. The TAKS
    blueprints establish the length of each test and
    the number of test items measuring each
    objective. These blueprints provide consistency
    from one test administration to the next. They
    have been developed to ensure that each
    subject-area/grade-level test includes a variety
    of the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills
    (TEKS) student expectations eligible for
    assessment. In addition, each subject-area
    blueprint reflects an appropriate distribution of
    the TEKS across objectives for that grade level.
    (refer to the script for examples of the
    blueprint)

16
Step 2 Sequence and organize the essential
content so that students have necessary time to
learn it.
  • A. Know the student expectations for your grade
    level.
  • B. Administer diagnostics (beginning, middle, and
    end of year) to determine the level of
    mathematical numeracy of each student.
  • C. Incorporate a data-driven instructional
    continuum diagnose, teach, assess diagnose,
    teach, assess diagnose, teach, assess.

17
Activity 2
  • Refer to the University of Texas Dana Center
    website
  • http//www.utdanacenter.org/mathtoolkit/teks
    /overview.php
  • Using Form 1-B in your script, answer the
    questions related to understanding the TEKS. (Use
    additional paper as necessary.)

18
Step 2.A Know the student expectations for your
grade level...
  • Developing a solid mathematical foundation is
    essential for every child. In the elementary
    grades students are building beliefs concerning
  • what mathematics is
  • what it means to know and do mathematics
  • what it means to be a mathematical learner.
  • These beliefs influence their thinking about
    performance in and attitudes toward mathematics.
  • These beliefs affect their attitudes and beliefs
    related to studying mathematics in later years.

19
Step 2.A Know the student expectations for your
grade level..
  • K-8 Mathematics has six strands
  • Number, operations, and quantitative reasoning
  • Patterns, relationships, and algebraic
    thinking
  • Geometry and spatial reasoning
  • Measurement
  • Probability and statistics
  • Underlying processes and mathematical tools
  • 9-12 Mathematics TEKS are defined by the
    specific course
  • http//www.tea.state.tx.us/curriculum/math/index.
    html

20
Step 2.A Know the student expectations for your
grade level
  • The Mathematics TEKS are designed to
    complement the mathematics standards of the
    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
    (NCTM). The standards of NCTM serve as an
    umbrella for the TEKS.

21
Activity 3
  • Access Clarifying Activities with Assessment
    Connections, Grade 4 at
  • http//www.utdanacenter.org/mathtoolkit/instructi
    on/activities/4.php
  • Locate the clarifying activity concerning the
    following student expectation
  • Understand the place-value structure of the
    base-ten number system and be able to represent
    and compare whole numbers and decimals.
  • Complete forms 2-A and 2-B in your script for
    this activity.

22
Step 2.B Administer diagnostics (beginning,
middle and end of year) to determine students
levels of mathematical numeracy.
  • Administering mathematical diagnostics is a
    conventional and smart way to determine the
    mathematical abilities of your students.
  • Diagnostics will inform the teacher as to the
    specific needs of each student as well as the
    strengths of each student.
  • The results of diagnostic assessments should
    guide lesson plans, scope and sequence, and long
    range goals.

23
Step 2.B Administer diagnostics (beginning,
middle and end of year) to determine students
levels of mathematical numeracy.
  • Grades K-2 mClass Wireless Generation Assessment
    is supported by the Texas Education Agency
  • Grades 3-12 Texas Mathematics Diagnostic System
    (TMDS) is a product of the Governors Mathematics
    Initiative and is free to all school districts.

24
Activity 4
  • Access the Texas Education Agency website
    http//www.tea.state.tx.us/
  • Locate The Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills
    (TEKS)
  • Locate TEKS by grade level
  • Locate Grade 4
  • Use Grade 4 Mathematics TEKS and Fourth Grade
    Math Diagnostic Instrument (1-15 only) to
    complete form 2-C. This instrument is found in
    your accompanying script.

25
Step 3 Ensure teachers can articulate proven and
effective Bilingual and English Language Learners
(ELL) instructional strategies that will impact
student achievement for all students.
  • 3.A Understand that not all students are the
    same and that differentiated strategies must be
    a part of our daily instruction.
  • 3.B Identify students different multiple
    intelligences as described by Howard Gardner
  • 3.C Employ proven and effective bilingual and
    mathematical instructional strategies.

26
Step 3.A Understand that not all students are
the same and that differentiated strategies must
be a part of our daily instruction.
  • Research has shown nine categories of strategies
    that have a strong effect on student achievement
    for all students in mathematics at all grade
    levels (Marzano, Pickering, Pollock, 2001). The
    following reflect the articulated strategies
  • Identifying similarities and differences
  • Summarizing and note taking
  • Reinforcing effort and providing recognition
  • Homework and practice
  • Nonlinguistic representations
  • Cooperative learning
  • Setting objectives and providing feedback
  • Generating and testing hypotheses
  • Question, cues, and advanced organizers

27
Step 3.A Understand that not all students are
the same and that differentiated strategies
must be a part of our daily instruction
(continued)
This section of the module will focus on proven
and effective strategies focused on enhancing
academic achievement for all students.
Teachers should recognize that for any strategy
to be effective, the students learning styles
must be identified. Teachers should utilize that
knowledge as the catalyst between the student and
the strategy.
28
Step 3.B Identify students different multiple
intelligences as described by Howard Gardner
Examining how to identify the bilingual students
most developed intelligences and learning styles
is critical. As a result, more of their learning
in school can take place through their preferred
intelligences while other intelligences are being
further developed. Applying the appropriate
instructional strategy that best matches that
childs way of learning ensures an enhanced level
of academic achievement (Gardner, 2002). Since
no single instructional strategy works best for
everyone, identifying the differences and
similarities in our students learning styles and
multiple intelligences can provide us with
excellent data that can be used to help guide our
instruction.
29
Describing Intelligences in Students
Arnstrong(2000) Eight Ways of Learning
Children who are highly  Think  Love  Need 
Linguistic   in words  reading, writing, telling stories, playing word games  books, tapes, writing tools, paper, diaries, dialogue, discussion, debate, stories 
Logical-Mathematical   by reasoning  experimenting, questioning, figuring out logical puzzles, calculating  materials to experiment with, science materials, manipulatives, trips to the planetarium and science museum 
Spatial   in images and pictures  designing, drawing, visualizing, doodling  art, LEGOs, video, movies, slides, imagination games, mazes, puzzles, illustrated books, trips to art museums 
Bodily-Kinesthetic   through somatic sensations  dancing, running, jumping, building, touching, gesturing  role play, drama, movement, things to build, sports and physical games, tactile experiences, hands-on learning 
Musical   via rhythms and melodies  singing, whistling, humming, tapping feet and hands, listening  sing-along time, trips to concerts, music playing at home and school, musical instruments 
Interpersonal   by bouncing ideas off other people  leading, organizing, relating, manipulating, mediating, partying  friends, group games, social gatherings, community events, clubs, mentors/apprenticeships 
Intrapersonal   in relation to their needs, feelings, and goals  setting goals, meditating, dreaming, planning, reflecting  secret places, time alone, self-paced projects, choices 
Naturalist   through nature and natural forms  playing with pets, gardening, investigating nature, raising animals, caring for planet earth  access to nature, opportunities for interacting with animals, tools for investigating nature (e.g., magnifying glass, binoculars) 
Describing Intelligences in Students
30
Step 3.B How to identify Students' Multiple
Intelligences or learning styles
To organize observations of a student's multiple
intelligences, the bilingual teacher may employ a
checklist like the one in Script Figure 3.1.
This checklist has not been subjected to any
protocols necessary to establish reliability and
validity and should only be used informally in
combination or conjunction with other sources of
assessment information when describing students'
multiple intelligences (Armstrong, 2000).
31
Step 3.B How to identify Students' Multiple
Intelligences or learning styles
  • In addition to Howard Gardners Multiple
    Intelligences, determining the English Language
    Learners level of listening skills is also
    critical. Making this assessment will allow the
    bilingual teacher to better address the students
    academic needs.
  • The Proficiency Level Descriptors (PLDs) (Figure
    3.4 on next slide) should be used to help
    determine students English Language Proficiency
    Level (Texas Observation Protocols TOP-Texas
    Education Agency TEA, 2005)

32
TOP Proficiency Level Descriptors Grades K-12
Listening
Figure 3.4
33
ACTIVITY 5
  • Complete The Checklist for Assessing Students'
    Multiple Intelligences with one of your current
    or former students (script FIGURE 3.1). Note
    that some items on the checklist may not be
    applicable or able to be answered during
    assessment period.
  • 2.With the results of the checklist, determine
    what strategies and resources are suggested to
    best suit that particular student using Howard
    Gardners Multiple Intelligences (script Figure
    3.2).
  • 3. Identify and support which instructional
    strategies, provided in this module, you would
    employ to meet the needs of the student (script
    Figure 3.3)

34
Step 3.C Employ proven and effective bilingual
and mathematical instructional strategies
  • The following slides will illustrate specific
    Bilingual Education strategies as well as
    additional mathematics strategies
  • The slides will demonstrate a brief description
    while the accompanying script will convey each
    strategy with more depth and detail.

35
Instructional Integrated Graphic Organizers
Instructional Practice Graphic
Organizers Graphic organizers are maps that
represent relationships and encourage organizing
knowledge. Ideal as a primary mode of intake for
visual learners and especially helpful for the
ELL student, graphic organizers can be used
effectively to make abstract ideas concrete and
visible. Example Lesson Objective The teacher
will use a graphic organizer (see Figure 3.5) to
help students map out and share characteristics
of two languages integrating Mathematics and
Language Arts.
36
The organizer will help the students increase
their awareness of the relationships between, Ex.
the English and Spanish Languages

.
Figure 3.5
Communication tool
Not always phonetic
Phonetic
Spoken world wide
SPANISH
Spanish and Mexican Origins
ENGLISH
GermanLatin, Greek origins
cognates

Can be acquired through consistent practice
37
Instructional Integrated Graphic Organizers
(continued)
  • The lesson is a way of getting students to talk
    about their language and what they know, thought
    they knew, and would like to know about both
    their own native language and a second language.
  • Once the students complete the graphic organizers
    within their pre-selected groups, the bilingual
    teacher asks the students to collectively decide
    who will conduct each part of the research. The
    teacher explains that each bubble in the graphic
    organizer can be assigned to one of them, and
    that they will be expected to write a short
    research paper on each topic.

38

Instructional Integrated Graphic Organizers
(continued)
  • Activity
  • The following week, the groups reconvene and
    share each others findings. The graphic
    organizer will now become more comprehensive and
    detailed. Each student will insert their paper
    in the appropriate bubble. Note The teacher
    allows the students to elaborate the graphic
    organizers as they wish. They are allowed to
    blow up the organizer and use colored paper and
    card stock to define each bubble.
  • The bilingual teacher realizes the necessity for
    students to share within a small group before
    presenting to larger groups, thereby allowing the
    groups to dialogue and discuss their research
    among themselves. To facilitate the group
    discussions, each group is given the following
    self-assessment questions
  • Are the isolated attributes described correctly?
  • Are the similar or shared attributes described
    correctly?

39
Instructional Integrated Graphic Organizers
(continued)
  • Assessment
  • Once the students have discussed the information
    and have decided who will speak on behalf of each
    component, they are asked to present their
    findings to the entire class. The students are
    allowed to ask questions about the information
    and contribute to the research with personal
    data, etc.
  • Employing graphic organizers allows the students
    to organize their thoughts and to visualize
    concepts, ideas and processes that are often
    times too abstract making it difficult for
    mastery learning to take place. In particular,
    using a graphic organizer to help determine the
    similarities and differences between two
    languages can help the students lower their
    inhibitions about an unknown language as well
    as enhance their own knowledge about their native
    idioma.
  • Finally, using graphic organizers to help
    illustrate the characteristics of a language is a
    fantastic way to springboard into the acquisition
    of a second language or to continue to foster
    that acquisition. A deeper and more concrete
    knowledge base of any particular concept, idea,
    language, etc. can only serve to support its
    development and mastery.

40
Instructional Practice Multiple Intelligence
Strategies Integrated into Instruction
  • Objective To utilize Multiple Intelligence
    strategies in a fifth grade class to study the
    use of figurative language in poetry.
  • The bilingual teacher begins by showing the CD,
    "The New Kid on the Block."  She shows the poem
    for which the CD is named. 
  • Before showing the last frame, allow the kids
    take out paper and pencil and draw a picture of
    what they imagine the new kid to be or look
    like. 
  • Next, move to the unit of study by asking the
    students to reflect for an extended period of
    time on a poem that they most remember and
    enjoyed as children.
  • Once the students have identified the poem in
    their minds, they are encouraged to write or
    transcribe the poem, and list a few reasons why
    they think that particular poem stood out among
    the rest and caused them to remember it.

41
Instructional Practice Multiple Intelligence
Strategies Integrated into Instruction (continued)
  • Ask the students to form groups of four and share
    their thoughts through dialogue and discussion.
  • Share a favorite poem of your own and tell the
    students that instead of reciting the poem, you
    will reenact it through movement.
  • The students may become intrigued and anxious to
    see the performance.
  • Ask the students to interpret your motions into
    words to try and put the poem to lyrics.
  • After the performance, the students are allowed
    the opportunity to discuss their results and the
    teacher solicits volunteers to reenact their poem
    as well.
  • Refer back to the students reflections and
    facilitate a discussion in the classroom. Pull
    information from the students by asking
  • What did you like best about your poem?
  • Did you find it fairly easy or complicated to
    understand?
  • Why do you think the poem appealed to you while
    other poems do not or did not?

42
Instructional Practice Multiple Intelligence
Strategies Integrated into Instruction (continued)
  • The Bilingual Teacher explains that some poets
    write their poetry using what we term as
    figurative language, which helps us understand
    and visualize what the author of the poem is
    trying to say through the use of similes and
    metaphors
  • Ask, You have all expressed today that one of
    the major reasons you enjoyed your poems so much
    is because you understood them and you could
    almost visualize them and make sense of them
    that was perhaps one of the authors objectives.
  • Next, the instructor writes the words simile and
    metaphor on the board and clearly defines each
    one incorporating student feedback and input.

43
Instructional Practice Multiple Intelligence
Strategies Integrated into Instruction (continued)
  • Activity
  • The students are asked to work in groups and use
    a T-chart to demonstrate the characteristics of
    each as well as give examples of poets utilizing
    this method using the set of poems the teacher
    has previously provided them. The poems are in
    both English and Spanish and the students have
    the option of utilizing either idiom.
  • Assessment
  • As part of the final assessment, students will
    submit an original poem representing similes and
    metaphors. The poem (English or Spanish) will be
    presented to the class, and students will have
    the option of either orally presenting the poem
    or acting it out.

44
Instructional Practice Manipulatives/Hands-On
Math Instruction
  • Objective Use hands-on learning at math
    stations to introduce the concept of area.
  • Students use geoboards and potholder loops to
    create shapes with a predefined area. They can
    use these loops to experiment and design their
    own answers to the questions provided by the
    bilingual teacher. They are encouraged to devise
    many different answers to one question.
  • Generally, students will have previous practice
    working in small groups and will understand their
    respective roles. Students are given the
    opportunity to learn from each other through
    dialogue and inquiry about their different
    shapes. The teacher walks around the room
    observing and commenting with questions such as
    How did you do that? How is your shape
    different/similar to Emilios shape? Could you
    explain how you can find the area of your shape
    using your geoboard? etc. The students may
    respond in either their home language or English.
    The discourse between the students is also done
    in either languages

45
Instructional Practice Manipulatives/Hands-On
Math Instruction (continued)
  • Finally, the teacher passes out colorful cards
    with each of the following words and an
    illustration of the word on each card
  • Area
  • Geoboards
  • Loops
  • Square
  • Triangle
  • Hexagon
  • Octagon
  • Pentagon

46
Instructional Practice Manipulatives/Hands-On
Math Instruction (continued)
  • The students form groups of two to discuss and
    demonstrate how each of these words can be
    manifested using the geoboards.
  • The bilingual teacher asks, Would anyone like to
    volunteer and demonstrate to the class how their
    design corresponds with one of our mathematics
    words today?
  • The students are eager to demonstrate after
    having explored, questioned, dialogued and
    created the shapes both together and
    individually.
  • Praising each response and reinforcing the word
    to the hands-on shape is critical to all
    learners, especially an English Language
    Learners.
  • The students go from the concrete geoboards to
    the more abstract by explaining and supporting
    that their particular shape corresponded with one
    of the math vocabulary words.
  • This lesson encourages the development of
    discourse around topics in math, an important
    part of student learning. The use of geoboards
    enables the students to experience a hands-on
    approach to understanding area.

47
Instructional Practice Multicultural Education
Cultural Activities Integrated into the
Curriculum
Objective To utilize the use of a VIRTUAL FIELD
TRIP titled Untold Stories, Baseball and the
Multicultural Experience to teach multicultural
mathematics. Begin by talking to the students
about the importance of celebrating all ethnic
groups contributions to society. In this lesson,
the focus is on the Untold Stories, Baseball and
the Multicultural Experience. A virtual field
trip will be the classroom for the day.
48
Instructional Practice Multicultural Education
Cultural Activities Integrated into the
Curriculum
The following short story could introduce the
lesson We tend to focus on segregation as a
major part of history, and although it definitely
was, we should also study the integration process
as well. In baseball, integration became
necessary since everyone wanted the best players
to playing the sport. This field trip will take
us through the celebration of baseball players in
ethnic groups including the Japanese players, the
African American players and the Latino baseball
players.
49
Instructional Practice Multicultural Education
Cultural Activities Integrated into the
Curriculum (continued)
  • Many students are familiar with the legendary
    feats of Babe Ruth, Hank Aaron, and Mickey
    Mantle but what about the accomplishments of
    baseball stars, such as Minnie Minoso, Sam
    Jethroe, and Masanori Murakami?
  • Their courage as Latino, African-American and
    Asian athletes helped make baseball one of the
    first great melting pots in professional sports.
    As a result, diversity and athleticism remain
    time-tested teammates on the field of excellence.

50
Instructional Practice Multicultural Education
Cultural Activities Integrated into the
Curriculum (continued)
  • From the archives of the National Baseball Hall
    of Fame and Museum in Cooperstown, NY, we learn
    untold stories about Jackie Robinson, Larry Doby,
    Hank Greenberg, and Roberto Clemente men who
    defied prejudice to challenge racial and ethnic
    barriers with a pride and passion that continues
    to inspire.
  • This electronic field trip will take you through
    the gallery and exhibits of America's greatest
    baseball shrine and reveals surprising lessons in
    math and science.
  • http//ali.apple.com/ali_sites/ali/exhibits/100035
    3/

51
Instructional Practice Problem-based
Learning/Inquiry Strategies for Math and Science
Integration (continued)
  • Objective To apply problem-based inquiry to the
    concepts of electromagnetism and the principles
    of ratios and proportions by incorporating a
    three-phased approach to a problem-based learning
    lesson
  • Phase 1 involves an initial discussion of a
    project topic, including children's firsthand
    experiences related to the topic. (Students are
    asked to reflect on a memory or memories
    involving a kite.)
  • Phase 2 involves fieldwork, sessions with
    experts, and various aspects of gathering
    information, reading, writing, drawing, and
    computing (internet and encyclopedia references).
  • Phase 3 is the presentation of the project to an
    audience (kite presentations).

52
Instructional Practice Problem-based
Learning/Inquiry Strategies for Math and Science
Integration (continued)
  • Activity
  • The teacher models how the use of an internet
    site, http//www.inquiry.net/outdoor/spring/kites/
    25kites.htm, can help students design a kite on
    the computer using ratios and proportions.
  • The students explore the many different ways of
    making a kite and interact with one another
    discussing similarities and differences.

53
Instructional Practice Problem-based
Learning/Inquiry Strategies for Math and Science
Integration (continued)
  • Provide the students with an array of kite
    making materials such as
  • string
  • tape (scotch and masking)
  • construction paper
  • tag board
  • cardboard boxes
  • scissors
  • rulers
  • markers
  • glitter

54
  • Activity (continued)
  • The students are asked to form groups of four and
    begin constructing a simple kite. They are
    encouraged to use the following websites for
    assistance
  • http//www.kitesonaroll.com/index2.asp
  • http//web.stclair.k12.il.us/splashd/kiteexp.htmT
    raveling20Kite
  • As a causal effect of kite making, the students
    learn about electromagnetism and the principles
    of ratios and proportions. The Bilingual Teacher
    writes the words electromagnetism and principles
    of ratios and proportions on the board. The
    students have already come across both concepts
    through their exploration. As the students are
    building the kites, model how these concepts are
    part of kite making.

55
  • Activity (continued)
  • The teacher probes the students with questions
    such as
  • How would adding a tail to the kite affect the
    stability?
  • If the tail is lengthened how will it affect the
    stability?
  • If the kite is a different shape, how will it
    affect the stability?
  • If the kite is a different size, how will it
    affect the stability?
  • Encourage the students to create the kites
    similarly to adults trying to solve a problem,
    she does not restrict them to one type rather she
    suggest they construct a kite reflective of
    culture or cultural celebrations. Realizing the
    importance of allowing the students, especially
    her ELLs to express themselves through means
    other than language is a critical component to
    ensuring academic achievement for all students.

56
Instructional Practice Problem-based
Learning/Inquiry Strategies for Math and Science
Integration (continued)
  • Assessment
  • The students present the finished product to the
    class and demonstrate why they believe their kite
    will fly. They are encouraged to employ the
    concepts being studied in their presentation and
    incorporate the mathematical vocabulary
    corresponding with the concept. Their peers may
    be invited to ask questions.
  • Through sharing with their classmates on the
    rationale of their kite construction, the
    students are more likely to retain what they
    learned and apply it to a wide array of subjects

57
Instructional Practice Total Physical Response
(TPR)
  • Objective To use The Total Physical Response
    (TPR) strategy in a mathematics lesson to
    introduce students to the concept of patterns and
    vocabulary building.
  • Begin by engaging the students in the lesson
    using their bodies as a vehicle of learning. The
    Bilingual Teacher may say, We are going to be
    creating patterns using your bodies as part of
    our mathematics lesson. This kind of activity
    encourages the kinesthetic learner to participate
    actively in the lesson.

58
  • Activity
  • Ask students to stand and form a circle. Once
    the students are in a circle, suggest that the
    pattern they will be working on today is going to
    be fun and exciting. Build the suspense so that
    the children become excited to see the pattern
    develop and guess the solution.
  • Ask the students to come up one at a time, Josh,
    please come here, Tabitha, please come here,
    Jake, please come here, Allison, please come
    here, Jennifer, oops, I mean Manuel please come
    here.
  • Encourage risk taking by letting the students
    know that they are in a safe and secure learning
    environment where it is acceptable to make
    mistakes from which we learn even teachers make
    them.

59
  • Activity
  • Ask the students if they know who comes next in
    the pattern. The students raise their hands to
    respond.
  • Why do you think a girl should come next?
  • What does it mean to create or make a pattern?
  • The students are asked to return to the circle.
    The bilingual teacher says, Now, Im going to
    clap and snap my hands and fingers, and you are
    going to try and figure out what the pattern is.
    Begin the sequence of clapping and snapping and
    the students may begin to follow along. Ask the
    students to verbalize the pattern along with the
    action.

60
  • Assessment
  • Tell the students you will be giving a command,
    and they should demonstrate it using their
    bodies. Engage the students in another pattern
    involving their bodies and several patterns
    involving clapping and snapping. However, this
    time do not perform the motion with them simply
    call out the command and the students respond
    with their actions.
  • The students are also given a list of vocabulary
    words (on cut up sentence strips). The words are
    pattern, yourself, stand, come, clap, snap, and
    return. Model a game that will reinforce the
    students knowledge of the vocabulary and
    patterns. The students form pairs and hold up
    one card at a time (choose cardholder and take
    turns). The partner demonstrates the word through
    action.

61
  • Assessment
  • The use of movement learning and auditory cues
    addresses all learning styles and keeps the young
    students focused.
  • Asking the students to name the pattern
    encourages the use of words to describe a
    pattern.
  • Vocabulary comprehension can be assessed through
    the use of teacher commands and paired student
    games.

62
References
  • Armstrong, Thomas. (2004). Multiple intelligences
    in the classroom, 2nd edition. Alexandria, VA
    Association for Supervision and Curriculum
    Development.
  • Coleman, J.S., Campbell, E., Hobson, C.,
    Mcpartland, J., Mood, A., Weinfeld, F., York,
    R. (1966). Equality of educational opportunity.
    Washington, DC U.S. Government Printing Office.
  • Marzano, R.J., Pickering, Debra J., Pollock,
    Jane E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works.
    Alexandria, VA Association for Supervision and
    Curriculum.
  • National Clearing House for Bilingual Education
    (1999). K-12 and LEP enrollment trends.

63
References
  • Public Schools of North Carolina, (2003). Fourth
    grade observation profile for on-going assessment
    and end of the year evaluation. North Carolina
    State Board of Education Department of
    Instruction.
  • TESOL.(1997). ESL Standards for pre-K-12
    students. Alexandria, VA Association for
    Supervision and Curriculum
  • Texas Education Agency. (2006). Texas essential
    knowledge and skills. Retrieved May 20, 2006,
    from Texas Education http//www.tea.state.tx.us.
  • University of Texas Dana Center (UTOPIA), 2006.
    Mathematics toolkit. Retrieved May 20, 2006 from
    Charles A. Dana Center at the University of
    Texas
  • http//www.utdanacenter.org/mathtoolkit/

64
Introductory Training Course for Bilingual
Teacher Certification
Institute for Second Language Achievement Texas
AM University Corpus Christi Dr. Frank Lucido,
Director
Prepared by Carmen Tejeda-Delgado, Ed.D. Texas
AM University Corpus Christi Carmen.delgado_at_tam
ucc.edu
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