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Title: Principles of Occupational Safety and Health


1
Principles of Occupational Safety and Health
  • Part 2
  • Hazard Identification
  • Jeffrey S. Oakley, Ph.D., CSP

2
Goals for this Series
  • Follow a Book Occupational Safety and Health
  • Introduction to Collegiate Safety Courses
  • 4 Parts
  • Accidents and OSHA Standards
  • Hazard Identification
  • Hazard Analysis and Prevention
  • Ethics and Safety Management
  • Education and Training (Applied)
  • Trial for Other Series (Industrial Hygiene,
    Environmental, Etc.)

3
Chapter 6 Ergonomic Hazards
  • Greek Ergon work, Nomos laws
  • Ergonomics is a multidisciplinary science that
    seeks to conform the workplace and all of its
    physiological aspects to the worker…seeking to
    improve productivity and quality by reducing
    workplace stressors, reducing the risk of
    injuries and illnesses and increasing efficiency.
  • Fitting the JOB to the WORKER
  • What about Ergo Aids, wrists rests, etc?

4
Introduction to HF/Ergonomics
  • Traditional meanings/background
  • US - Human Factors
  • Europe - Ergonomics
  • other terms -- human engineering, and engineering
    psychology
  • Ergonomics - multidisciplinary activity that
    assembles info on peoples capacities and applies
    that info in designing jobs, products,
    workplaces, and equipment.
  • Ergo should enhance the effectiveness and
    efficiency with work.
  • 5 different approaches to HF
  • Equipment design
  • Task design
  • Environmental design
  • Training
  • Selection

5
Introduction to HF/Ergonomics
  • Philosophy of HF/E
  • Fit task to the person
  • systemic application of relevant info about human
    capabilities, limitations, characteristics,
    behavior, and motivation.
  • Gilbreths (1st ergo)
  • WWII started ergo
  • Space programs (50s and 60s)
  • Product and environmental focus (70s to present)
  • Productivity focus (70s to present)
  • Safety and health focus (80s to present)
  • Terms
  • user friendly - ergonomic designed
  • What is stopping HF/E
  • Negative attitude
  • Ownership conflicts
  • primary techniques/tools
  • methods analysis/task analysis
  • tool analysis/design
  • Secrets of HF/E design
  • adjustability
  • HF/E is not new.

6
Ergonomics 3 Areas
  • Anthropometry measurement of the human body
  • Biomechanics Movement of the body
  • Work Physiology Capacity of the body

7
Anthropometry
  • Measures taken
  • Mechanically
  • Photography - x-rays
  • Mock-ups
  • Computerized models
  • Use of Anthropometry data
  • Use the product (workplace)
  • Relevant dimensions
  • of population to be accommodated
  • What tile used
  • Modifications
  • Why important?
  • What is it?
  • Males vs. Females
  • Other Factors
  • Age
  • Gender
  • Ethnic Origin
  • Occupational
  • Generational
  • Transient Diurnal
  • Static vs Dynamic Dimensions

8
Biomechanics - WORK EFFICIENCY - MUSCLE STRENGTH
  • Organized movements to optimize strength
  • Most powerful at beginning of contraction
  • Maximal force depends upon
  • age
  • gender
  • constitution
  • state of training
  • momentary motivation

9
AGE AND GENDER
  • Muscle strength peaks for men and women between
    ages 2535.
  • 5060 have 75-85 muscular strength
  • On average, women have 2/3 strength of men.
  • Older women even less.

10
PHYSICAL STRESS FACTORS
  • Sit vs. Standing postures
  • Stationary vs. Mobile (Static Vs. Dynamic)
  • Demands for strength/power
  • Repetitive motions

11
PHYSICAL STRESS FACTORS
  • 6. Horizontal work (reach)
  • 7. Vertical work (height reach)
  • 8. Surface contact (contact stress/pressure)
  • 9. Environmental factors

12
STATIC AND DYNAMIC MUSCULAR EFFORTS
  • Static effort is characterized by prolonged state
    of contraction of the muscles, which usually
    maintains a postural stance. (muscle length does
    NOT change)
  • Dynamic effort is characterized by an alteration
    of contraction and extension, tension and
    relaxation muscle length changes often
    rhythmically.

13
How long can you hold your hands in the air?
  • Try it?
  • This is why we have to put our hands down when we
    change a light bulb, because our muscles are
    hurting. Feel the burn yea lactic acid!

14
STATIC AND DYNAMIC DIFFERENCES
  • Static - blood vessels are compressed by internal
    pressure of muscle tissue inhibiting blood
    circulation through the muscle, resulting in
    fatigue and pain because the muscle is getting
    oxygen starved.
  • Dynamic - muscle compresses and relaxes allowing
    blood to flow into the muscle, increasing
    stamina.

15
ERGONOMICS and OSHA
  • January 2001 OSHA promulgated an Ergonomics
    Standard which was approved by President Clinton
  • March 2001 Congress and President Bush overturned
    the OSHA Ergonomics Standard under the
    Congressional Review Act.
  • Currently no federal Ergonomic Standard.
  • Some states have Ergonomic Programs.
  • Specific industries have Ergonomic Guidelines.

16
NEED FOR ERGONOMICS
17
NEED FOR ERGONOMICS
  • Statistics support the need for Ergonomic
    Guidelines and Procedures
  • OSHA can cite ergonomic hazards under the General
    Duty Clause.
  • MSDs and CTDs account for more than 30 of
    occupational injuries and illnesses in the U.S.
  • Cost is 20 Billion annually

18
ELEMENTS OF ERGONOMIC PROGRAMS
  • Management support and employee involvement at
    ALL levels!
  • Ergonomic hazard recognition
  • Observations, incidence rates, employee feedback
    and interviews
  • Ergonomic data collection
  • Ergonomic surveys and job risk factor analyses

19
ELEMENTS OF ERGONOMIC PROGRAMS
  • Develop and implement controls
  • Engineering, administrative and PPE
  • Training
  • Building in-house expertise
  • Health care management
  • Work restrictions and MSD management
  • Evaluation of program effectiveness

20
RECOGNITION
  • Injury/illness and accident trends
  • Incidence of CTDs
  • Absenteeism and turnover rates
  • Employee complaints
  • Employee initiated changes to workstation
  • Poor quality of manual material handling

21
EVALUATION
  • General observation
  • Questionnaires and interviews
  • Videotaping or photography
  • Measurements of employee workstation
    dimensions, lighting, noise, vibration
  • Count repetitions per hour
  • Measure force in torque or weight

22
TYPES OF INJURY
  • Muscle and Tendon Disorders (Force, Repetition,
    Time - RM)
  • Tendinitis (inflammation of the tendon -
    shoulder, rotator cuff, forearm, tennis elbow,
    knee (MJ)
  • Muscle damage
  • Tenosynovitis
  • Trigger finger
  • DeQuervians disease (wrist and thumb)
  • Tunnel Syndromes (contact stress, repetition,
    bad posture)
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Radial tunnel syndrome
  • Many others
  • Nerve and Circulation Disorders
  • Thoracid outlet syndrome
  • Raynauds disease - Vibration
  • Cervical Radiculopathy

23
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24
CONTROL MEASURES
  • Redesign work station/job to
  • Minimize awkward posture
  • Neutral wrist/hand positions
  • Reduce lifting, bending, twisting, reaching
  • Reduce forces required
  • Improve handle grips on tools
  • Reduce static muscle loading
  • Avoid overhead reaching

25
CONTROL MEASURES
  • Educate and train workers
  • Warm up exercises and stretching
  • More frequent breaks
  • Rotate employees or redistribute workload
  • Provide mechanical assists
  • Limit overtime

26
CHAPTER 6 REVIEW and DISCUSSION
  • Why did the OSHA ERGO standard fail? Will there
    be another one?
  • Why is ergonomics falling off most companies
    radar screen?
  • What could help the ergonomics movement?
  • REVIEW
  • What is the simple definition of ergonomics?
  • What is the different between static vs. dynamic
    movement?
  • Name an ergonomic injury?
  • What would a safety professional do if there have
    been multiple back injuries in the facility?

27
Whats Wrong?
28
Subject Olny srmat poelpe can raed this
  • I cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty
    uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg. The phaonmneal
    pweor of the hmuan mnid, aoccdrnig to rscheearch
    at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in
    waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny
    iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer
    be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl
    mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a
    porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not
    raed ervey lteter byistlef, but the wrod as a
    wlohe. Amzanig huh? yaeh and I awlyas tghuhot
    slpeling was ipmorantt!

29
The Forces Involved
  • The amount of force you place on your back in
    lifting may surprise you!
  • Think of your back as a lever.
  • With the fulcrum
  • in the center, it only
  • takes ten pounds of
  • pressure to lift a ten
  • pound object.

30
The Forces Involved
  • If you shift the fulcrum to one side, it takes
    much more force to lift the same object. Your
    waist acts like the fulcrum in a lever system, on
    a 101 ratio.
  • Lifting a
  • ten pound
  • object puts
  • 100 pounds
  • of pressure
  • on your
  • lower back.

31
The Forces Involved
  • When you add in the
  • 105 pounds of the
  • average human upper
  • torso, you see that
  • lifting a ten pound
  • object actually puts
  • 1,150 pounds of
  • pressure on the
  • lower back.

32
The Forces Involved
  • If you were 25 pounds
  • overweight, it would add
  • an additional 250 pounds
  • of pressure on your back
  • every time you bend over.


33
CHAPTER 7 - STRESS AND SAFETY
  • Why is stress a health and safety concern?
  • Influences performance, productivity safety
  • Economic impact costs 150 billion per year
  • 15 of occupational disease claims
  • Increased accident and injuries resulting from
    stress increases insurance claims
  • Relationship between stress, job attitudes and WC
    claims

34
STRESS DEFINED
  • Stress is a combination of adverse emotional and
    physical reactions people have to stressors
    (pressure, demands and changes) in their
    environment.
  • Relationship between job demands and workers
    ability to meet those demands further influence
    workplace stress.
  • Individual tolerance is highly variable
  • INTERNAL FACTORS personality, age, development,
    education and cultural training
  • EXTERNAL FACTORS support systems, political,
    social and economic environment

35
SOURCES OF STRESS
  • Physical working conditions
  • Interpersonal relationships
  • Role ambiguity or conflict
  • Lack of feedback
  • Task complexity
  • Responsibility without authority
  • Job security and changes
  • Work load demands
  • Quantitative overload
  • Under load or monotony
  • Poor communications
  • No opportunity for advancement
  • CHANGE, CHANGE, CHANGE….

36
REACTION TO STRESS
  • Emotional
  • Anxiety, anger, aggression, guilt, depression
  • Behavioral
  • Prone to accidents, substance abuse
  • Inability to concentrate or make decisions
  • Physiological
  • Increased heart rate, blood pressure, digestive
    problems
  • Organizational
  • Reduced productivity and absenteeism

37
TYPES OF STRESS
  • POSITIVE STRESS
  • Positive stress is associated with happy events
    which produce similar physiological response ie.
    Marriage, graduation
  • POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS
  • Results from any event which is powerful enough
    to overwhelm someones normal
  • coping mechanisms

38
TYPES OF STRESS
  • BURNOUT (Acute Chronic)
  • When work stress is extreme and continuous,
    resulting in a sharp decline in motivation and
    performance.
  • Three components to burnout
  • Depersonalization
  • Emotional exhaustion
  • reduced sense of personal accomplishment

39
STRESS MANAGEMENT
  • Controlling stress is an INDIVIDUAL
    responsibility
  • Controlling job-stress is a MANAGEMENT
    responsibility.
  • Successful Stress Management Program requires an
    understanding of the work force (employees) and
    the work environment.

40
STRESS MANAGEMENT
  • Train all levels of employees to recognize and
    deal with stress
  • Encourage use of Employee Assistance Programs
  • Establish job autonomy
  • Design job to reduce physical stress
  • Match work load and job pace to avoid overload or
    underload

41
STRESS MANAGEMENT
  • Provide employees with necessary resources and
    tools to perform the work.
  • Involve employees in decision making processes
    which effect them.
  • Communicate changes in a timely manner
  • Clearly define work roles.
  • Encourage teamwork and support.
  • Provide formal communications program.

42
STRESS IN SAFETY MANAGERS
  • Role overload
  • Coping with regulatory issues
  • Communication breakdown
  • Competing loyalties ethics
  • Liability issues
  • Prioritization and decision making
  • Post-traumatic stress from incidents

43
CHAPTER 7 REVIEW and DISCUSSION
  • How can safety professionals reduce stress?
  • Is stress really a legitimate workplace hazard?
  • Some people can handle stress, and some cannot.
    There is nothing managers can do. Right or
    Wrong?
  • REVIEW
  • What are some sources of stress?
  • What are some sources of stress for safety
    professionals?
  • What is burnout?

44
STRESS RELIEF
  • Dont Forget about the TEST at the end of
    class!!!!!!

45
Real Stress Relief
46
Chapter 8 - MECHANICAL HAZARDS
  • Mechanical hazards are associated with automated
    and manually operated power-driven machines.
  • Industrial Revolution new energy sources
    introduced new hazards
  • New technology i.e. Robots and computer
    controlled machines present new safety concerns.

47
Common Mechanical Injuries
  • Cutting and tearing
  • Shearing
  • Crushing
  • Breaking
  • Overexertion (strains and sprains)
  • Puncturing

48
Safeguarding
  • 29 CFR 1910 Subpart O contains OSHA standards for
    machine guarding.
  • Safeguarding is any means of preventing personnel
    from coming into contact with the moving parts of
    machinery or equipment that would potentially
    cause physical harm.
  • Point of Operation
  • Power Transmission

49
Requirements for Safeguards
  • Prevent contact
  • Be secure and durable
  • Protect against falling objects
  • Create no new hazards
  • Create no interference
  • Allow safe maintenance

50
Point-of-Operation Guards
  • Guards are MOST effective when used at the
    point-of-operation.
  • Point-of-Operation is the area on a machine where
    the material is positioned for processing or
    where the work is being performed on the
    material.
  • Guarding device shall be designed to prevent
    operator from having any part of body in danger
    zone during operating cycle

51
3 Types of Guards
  • Fixed guards -provide permanent barrier between
    worker and point-of-operation.
  • Interlocked guards- shutdown the machine if guard
    is not securely in place.
  • Adjustable guards provide a barrier against
    several types of hazards (often multi-purpose)

52
Types of Devices
  • A device is a mechanism or control designed for
    safeguarding at the point-of-operation.
  • Photoelectric devices
  • Radio-frequency devices
  • Electromechanical devices
  • Pullback devices
  • Restraint devices
  • Safety trip devices
  • Two-hand controls
  • Gates

53
Mechanical Power Transmission
  • Flywheels Over 7 Must Be Guarded
  • Guards Required for
  • Cranks and Connecting Rods
  • Shafting
  • Pulleys, Belts, Gears, Sprockets, Chains
  • Keys, Setscrews, Collars, Couplings, Etc.
  • When periphery of blades of fan is less than 7
    feet above the floor or working level, blades
    shall be guarded
  • Guard shall have openings no larger than 1/2 inch

54
Machine Guarding
55
Machine Guarding
1/4 inch Guard 1/8 inch Tool Rest Power cut-off
switch Secured from Movement
56
Machine Guarding
  • Transmission sources should be guarded to keep
    hands and arms out of them

57
Machine Guarding
  • Fixed Guards
  • A permanent part of the machine
  • Not dependent on any other part to perform the
    function
  • Usually made of sheet metal, screen, bars or
    other material which will withstand the
    anticipated impact
  • The preferred type of guard
  • Simple and durable

58
Machine Guarding
59
Machine Guarding
  • This shows a pulley system which has correct
    guards to keep fingers and tools away from pinch
    points

60
Machine Guarding
  • Interlocked Guard
  • Usually connected to a mechanism that will cut
    off the power automatically
  • Could use electrical, mechanical or hydraulic
    systems
  • Should rely on a manual reset system

61
Machine Guarding
  • Gate system to keep hands out of the point of
    operation area
  • Interlocked guard

62
Machine Guarding
  • Adjustable Guard
  • Very flexible to accommodate various types of
    stock
  • Manually adjusted by the operator

63
Machine Guarding
  • This wood working device has an adjustable guard
    that moves as the wood is fed into it

64
Machine Guarding
  • A shield of safety glass prevents sparks and
    particles from striking the worker
  • Rotating shafts are required to have guards on
    them

65
Machine Guarding
Guard on a drill press Covers rotating shaft
66
Machine Guarding
  • This safety bar will stop the machine if the
    worker gets too close to the operation area

67
Machine Guarding
  • This operate has wrist cuffs attached to her arms
    to keep her from putting them in harms way
  • Versions will automatically pull the operators
    hands back when the press cycles

68
Machine Guarding
  • In order to operate this press both buttons at
    the top of the machine must be pressed at the
    same time
  • This insures that his hands are not in the point
    of operation area when the press activates

69
Machine Guarding
  • The operator must press both of the control
    buttons at the same time to operate this press
  • Buttons are recessed to keep them from being hit
    by accident
  • Recessed buttons also keep workers from putting a
    2x4 across them to defeat the safeguard!

70
Machine Guarding
71
Lockout/Tagout Systems
  • OSHA Standards 29 CFR 1910.147 and 1910.331
    (Electrical)
  • One of the most effective safeguarding approaches
    today.
  • Compliance with Lockout Tagout Standard will
    prevent 120 accidental deaths and 29,000 serious
    injuries each year.

72
Lockout/Tagout Systems
  • The term zero mechanical energy or zero energy
    state refers to machines with all energy sources
    neutralized.
  • Energy isolation indicates a machine at total
    rest.
  • Energy isolating devices include locks and tags
    which meet specific requirements.

73
8 Step LOTO Procedure
  • Know the equipment and procedures
  • Notify others affected
  • Shutdown equipment at switch or valve
  • Disconnect and lockout all energy sources
  • Dissipate stored or secondary energy
  • Verify the lockout
  • Keep lockout in force
  • Finish safely

74
Lockout/Tagout Devices
75
Locking/Tagging of Circuits 1926.417
  • Written Procedures
  • Application of Lock and Tag
  • Verification of Deenergized Condition
  • Reenergizing Equipment
  • Lock and Tag Removed by Employee Who Applied It

76
General Precautions for Safeguarding
  • Training in operation and maintenance
  • Training in emergency shutdown and response
    procedures
  • Inspection, maintenance repair of all
    safeguards and devices
  • Supervise to ensure proper placement and use of
    safeguards
  • No loose clothing, long hair or jewelry

77
CHAPTER 8 REVIEW and DISCUSSION
  • How many times have you seen someone operating a
    piece of equipment that is not guarded? Why are
    there still problems with machine guarding?
  • Why are there so many electrical injuries from
    failing to lock out, when it is such a simple
    standard?
  • REVIEW
  • What is the difference in point of operation and
    power transmission?
  • What is two hand controls?
  • What is the purpose of lockout/tagout?
  • List some types of mechanical injury hazards?

78
Machine Guarding
79
Machine Guarding
80
Machine Guarding
81
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82
Chapter 9 - Falling, Impact, Acceleration and
Vision Hazards
  • Causes and types of falls
  • Fall prevention programs
  • OSHA Fall Protection Standard
  • Ladder safety
  • Impact and acceleration hazards
  • Lifting and standing hazards
  • Personal Protective Equipment

83
CAUSES OF FALLS
  • gt 16 disabling injuries result from falls!
  • Primary causes of falls include
  • Object on walking surface
  • Design flaw in walking surface
  • Slippery surfaces
  • Individuals physical condition
  • Footwear

84
TYPES OF FALLS
  • Trip and fall - object
  • Stump and fall sticktion
  • Step and fall - hole
  • Slip and fall water/oil

85
WALKING AND SLIPPING
  • Water, oil, soap, coolant, cleaning solvents etc.
    on floor decreases traction significantly.
  • Choose right material from the outset
  • Retrofit existing slippery surfaces
  • Provide good housekeeping
  • Require non-skid footwear
  • Inspect and maintain surfaces frequently

86
OSHA Fall Protection
  • Requires fall protection system for employees
    working at heights gt 6 ft.
  • Regulations apply to scaffolding work
  • Provides requirements and specifications for
    personal fall arrest harness, lanyards, anchorage
    points.
  • Work Plan Fall Protection Plan (HOW) (hand
    rails, harness/lanyard/anchorage, net, etc.)
  • Training
  • Fall Protection (Harness/lanyard/anchorage)
  • Inspection of Fall Protection (Harness/lanyard/anc
    horage)

87
Personal Fall Arrest Systems
  • A system including but not limited to an
    anchorage, connectors and a body harness used to
    arrest an employee in a fall from a working
    level.
  • 1926.451 (d) (16) states
  • Anchorage point 5000 lbs.

88
Put your other arm through the second shoulder
strap and secure the chest strap.
Hold the harness by the D ring and untangle it if
necessary
Put one arm through the shoulder strap.
89
Run the second leg strap between your legs and
attach at the front of the harness on the other
side.
Run the first leg strap between your legs and
attach at the front of the harness.
Pull all adjustable straps snug and verify that
they are secure.
Attach your shock absorbing lanyard and your
ready to go.
90
Fall Protection
  • Subpart M
  • 29 CFR 1926.500-503

91
Duty To Have Fall Protection 1926.501
  • Protection at or Above Six (6) Foot Level
  • Walking/working Surfaces Inspected Before Work
    Begins
  • Employees Can Only Work on Surfaces Strong
    Enough to Support Them

92
Protection Required For 1926.501
  • Unprotected Sides Edges
  • Leading Edges
  • Hoist Areas
  • Holes
  • Formwork Reinforcing Steel
  • Ramps, Runways, Other Walkways
  • Excavations, Wells, Pits Shafts
  • Dangerous Equipment
  • Overhand Bricklaying Related Work
  • Roofing work on Low-Slope Roofs
  • Steep Roofs
  • Precast Concrete Erection
  • Residential Construction
  • Wall Openings
  • Walking Working Surfaces
  • Not Otherwise Addressed

93
Fall Protection Systems 1926.502
  • Guardrails
  • Safety Nets
  • Personal Fall Arrest Systems
  • Positioning Devices
  • Other Systems
  • Hole Covers

94
Guardrails
TOP RAIL
42/- 3
MID RAIL
21
TOEBOARD
3 1/2
8
95
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96
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97
Personal Fall Arrest Systems 1926.502(d)
  • ? D-RINGS AND SNAPHOOKS
  • 5000 Tensile Strength
  • Proof Tested to 3600
  • Only locking type as of 1/1/98

98
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99
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100
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101
LADDER SAFETY
  • INSPECT FOR
  • Manufacturers labels
  • Strength and weight capacity
  • Cracks, loose rungs, rails or braces or damaged
    connections between rungs and rails
  • Damage from heat, moisture, corrosion, burrs, and
    sharp edges or other types of deterioration.

102
GENERAL LADDER SAFETY
  • Secure at top and bottom
  • Set ladder base on firm, level surface
  • Distance of ladder base from wall ¼ the
    working length of ladder
  • Always face ladder when climbing
  • Barricade ladder if near an entrance
  • NEVER stand on the top rung or the second!

103
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104
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105
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106
  • Non-self-supporting ladders shall be used at
    angle such that horizontal distance from top
    support to foot of ladder is approx. 1/4 of
    working length of ladder

107
  • Top or top step of stepladder must not be used as
    a step
  • Cross-bracing on rear section of stepladder must
    not be used for climbing

108
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109
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110
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111
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112
HEAD PROTECTION
  • Approximately 120,000 workers sustain head
    injuries on the job each year.
  • Head injuries occur in spite many are wearing
    hard hats.
  • OSHA standard 29 CF 1910.135 incorporates ANSI
    Z89-1986

113
HEAD PROTECTION
  • Requires testing of hard hats for
  • Impact attenuation
  • Penetration resistance
  • Electrical insulation
  • Hard hats are tested to withstand a 40 ft.lb.
    impact (2 lb. hammer dropped _at_ 20 ft.)
  • Sharp object that may hit the top and some
    lateral protection.

114
LATERAL PROTECTION
  • Conventional hard hats are designed to deflect a
    downward vertical blow.
  • 70 of head injuries occur from blows to
    unprotected areas of the head or LATERAL
  • ANSI has added a new type of headgear
  • Conventional hard hats - TYPE I
  • Lateral protection hard hats - TYPE II

115
EYE PROTECTION
  • 29 CFR 1910.133 Eye and Face Protection
  • Protective eye and face devices purchased after
    July 5, 1994 shall comply with ANSI
  • Z87.1-1989 which is incorporated into the OSHA
    standard .

116
EYE PROTECTION
  • Eye and face protection must pass TWO impact
    tests
  • High mass, low speed test heavy pointed objects
    traveling at low speed
  • Low mass, high speed test smaller pointed
    objects traveling at high speed
  • Workplace assessment is required to determine
    appropriate eye face protection

117
TYPES OF EYE PROTECTION
  • FACE SHIELDS
  • Flying particles, chips, sand face
  • Hot sparks and heat
  • Molten metal
  • Chemical splash
  • UV or IR from welding requires welding helmet
    with shaded lens

118
SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS
  • Must meet standards of ANSI Z87.1-1989
  • Protect against specific hazards identified
  • Comfortable to wear
  • Do not restrict vision
  • Durable, easy to clean and disinfect
  • Do not interfere with other PPE

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FOOT PROTECTION
  • OSHA 29 CFR 1910.132 AND .126
  • Foot injuries account for nearly 20 of disabling
    injuries in U.S.
  • Over 180,000 foot/toe injuries each year

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TYPES OF FOOT INJURIES
  • Falling objects (sharp or heavy)
  • Compression
  • Punctures to sole
  • Conductivity
  • Slips
  • Hot liquid splashes
  • Temperature extremes
  • Chemical exposures

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FOOTWEAR SELECTION
  • Hazard assessment to identify types of hazards.
  • Types of footwear available for protection
  • Establish footwear requirements
  • Steel toe
  • Rubber or vinyl
  • Slip resistance
  • Heals
  • Electricity resistant
  • Provide training in proper selection, use
    limitations.

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STANDING HAZARDS
  • Anti-fatigue mats
  • Proper type shoes
  • Shoe inserts
  • Foot rests or rails
  • Workstation design to relieve prolonged standing
  • Sit/stand chairs

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CHAPTER 9 REVIEW and DISCUSSION
  • Why do falls cause so many major injuries and
    deaths?
  • How can we prevent falls in residential
    construction?
  • Why are there so many PPE still not worn?
  • Are the 1 piece stylish glasses as safe as
    regular glasses with side shields?
  • REVIEW
  • How do you prevent slips and falls?
  • Which steps on a ladder cant be used?
  • What is the four basic tenets for fall
    protection?
  • TERMS
  • Anchorage, Lanyard

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Ch. 10 Temperature Extremes - COLD STRESS
  • Bodys physiological response to cold environment
    including the constriction of blood circulation
    and shivering to increase metabolism.
  • Systemic effects hypothermia
  • Local effects frostbite tissue damage
  • Behavioral responses to cold stress?

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HYPOTHERMIA
  • SYMPTOMS Chills, pain in extremities, fatigue
    or drowsiness.
  • SIGNS Euphoria, weak pulse, slurred speech,
    shivering, collapse, temp lt 95 F
  • CAUSES Excess exposure, dehydration, exhaustion,
    genetics, drug/alcohol abuse
  • FIRST AID Warm area, heat packs, warm fluids,
    medical attention.

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FROSTBITE
  • SYMPTOMS Burning sensation at first, coldness
    numbness, tingling
  • SIGNS Skin color white or grayish-yellow to
    reddish-violet to black, blisters
  • CAUSES Exposure to cold and vascular disease
  • FIRST AID Same as hypothermia and treat as a
    burn. Do not rub.

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RECOGNITION OF COLD STRESS
  • Seeking warm shelter or adding clothing
  • Increasing work rate
  • Loss of manual dexterity
  • Shivering
  • Accidents and unsafe behavior
  • Patterns of cold related disorders in first-aid
    logs.

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ENGINEERING CONTROLS
  • Provide warm shelters, spot heating and hand
    warming area.
  • Minimize air movement with shields or adjusting
    ventilation
  • Insulate cold metal surfaces.

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ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS
  • Work rest cycles
  • Schedule work at warmest times
  • Move work into a warmer area
  • Assign additional workers
  • Encourage self-pacing and extra breaks
  • Buddy system with mutual observation

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PERSONAL PROTECTION
  • Properly selected insulated clothing (layering)
  • Wind barriers
  • Special attention to feet, fingers, ears, nose
    and face.

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Chapter 10 Temperature Extremes HEAT STRESS
  • Thermal comfort is function of a number of
    different factors
  • Temperature
  • Humidity
  • Air movement
  • Personal preference
  • Acclimatization

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Thermal Balance
  • Three factors influence degree of thermal stress
  • 1. Climatic conditions
  • 2. Work demands
  • 3. Clothing - heat gain

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FACTORS AFFECTING THERMAL BALANCE
  • Metabolic rate can add 10 to 100 times more heat
    to the body than radiation and convection
    combined.
  • Environment - humidity, temperature, air movement
    and windchill
  • Clothing - permeability, insulation and
    ventilation properties.

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HEAT STRESS
  • Heat stress is the net heat load to which a
    worker may be exposed from the combined
    contributions of metabolic cost of work,
    environmental factors, and clothing requirements.
  • Heat strain is the overall physiological response
    resulting from heat stress ie. increase of body
    temperature, heart rate and sweating.
  • Acclimatization is a gradual physiological
    adaptation that improves an individuals ability
    to tolerate heat stress.

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HEAT EXHAUSTION
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Headache
  • Light-headedness
  • Clammy moist skin
  • Pale or flushed complexion
  • Fainting
  • Rapid pulse

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HEAT STRAIN HEAT STROKE
  • Sustained rapid heart rate
  • Core body temp. gt 100 F (102.2 F MAX)
  • Sudden and severe fatigue, nausea,
    light-headedness
  • Absence of perspiration

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SUMMARY OF RECOGNITION
  • How hot is the environment?
  • Is work load heavy, moderate or light?
  • Are workers acclimatized to the heat and work
    load?
  • Is personal protective clothing required?
  • Does PPE interfere with evaporation of sweat from
    the skin?
  • Are workers making mistakes, getting hurt, sick,
    absences etc?
  • Are there symptoms of fatigue, weakness,
    headaches, rashes or high temperatures?
  • Is body temperature, heart rate or sweat loss
    high?

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ENGINEERING CONTROLS
  • Reduce physical demands of the work
  • Reduce air temperature
  • Reduce humidity
  • Reduce radiant heat
  • Increase air movement
  • Change clothing

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ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS
  • Acclimation to the heat
  • Pacing of the work
  • Sharing work
  • Scheduling work
  • Self-determination and personal monitoring

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PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
  • Circulating cool air systems
  • Circulating water systems
  • Ice pack garments
  • Reflective clothing
  • Hot surface protection
  • Monitor temperature of air supply to respirators.

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CHAPTER 10 REVIEW and DISCUSSION
  • What is worse cold weather or hot weather?
  • REVIEW
  • Why do you not rub frostbite?
  • What is shivering?
  • What is the best way to reduce thermal balance
    for heat injuries?
  • What is the main indicator of heat stroke?

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CH 12 - ELECTRICAL HAZARDS
  • ELECTRICITY is the flow of negatively charged
    particles called electrons through a conductive
    material.
  • ELECTRONS negative
  • PROTONS positive
  • NEUTRONS neutral ( neither)
  • CONDUCTORS are a substances that have many free
    electrons at room temperature and can pass
    electricity
  • INSULATORS do NOT have a large number of free
    electrons at room temperature and do NOT conduct
    electricity.
  • STATIC ELECTRICITY is produced when a surplus or
    deficiency of electrons on the surface of
    material exists and no positive material to
    attract electrons.

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TERMS DEFINITIONS
  • VOLTAGE the potential difference between two
    points in a circuit (pressure) measured in VOLTS
  • CURRENT is the total volume of electricity
    flowing past a certain point in a given length of
    time measured in amperes or AMPS.
  • RESISTANCE is the force the voltage is trying to
    overcome - the strength of the electron
    attraction to the center of the atom- measured
    in OHMS
  • WATT Power is measured in wattage or watts and
    can be determined from OHMs LAW

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OHMS LAW
  • Represents the flow of electric current through
    the body and is
  • Stated as V IR
  • Where
  • V potential difference in volts
  • I current flow AMPS
  • R resistance to current OHMS

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OHMS LAW
  • Power can be determined from Ohms Law as
    follows
  • W VI
  • Where W power in watts

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Electrical Terms
  • Ground an object that connects a piece of
    electrical equipment to earth (or some conducting
    body that serves as earth) to prevent hazard of
    electrical shock.
  • Bonding joining of metallic parts to form an
    electrical path. This assures electrical
    continuity.

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MAJOR CAUSES OF ELECTRICAL SHOCK
  • Contacting bare wire with current
  • Equipment lacking UL label for safety inspection
  • Equipment that has not been grounded
  • Wet or damp areas
  • Static electricity discharge
  • Metal Ladders working on electrical equipment

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ELECTRICAL HAZARDS
  • Electrostatic sources
  • Arcs and sparks
  • Combustible and explosive materials
  • Lightening
  • Improper wiring
  • Insulation Failure
  • Equipment failure
  • Improper NEC hazard location

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Electrostatic Hazards
  • Friction from rubbing a nonconductive material
    over stationary surface.
  • Moving large sheets of plastic
  • Organic or metallic dusts ie. Grain elevators
    mine shafts
  • Conveyor belts
  • Vehicle tires on road surface
  • Flowing liquids and solid surface

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Electrical Hazards to Humans
  • Current flow and time are the factors that cause
    injuries in electrical shock.
  • Number of electrons that pass through body.
  • Human resistance to electrical current.
  • 70 200 mA can be fatal.
  • Each year there are approx. 1,100 electric shock
    deaths.

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Electrical Injuries
  • Internal injuries
  • Skin and eye injuries
  • Injuries from falls
  • Burns to skin
  • What is the different between injuries from high
    current vs. low current ?

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OSHAs Electrical Standards
  • Adopted from the National Electric Code NFPA 70
  • General Industry
  • 29 CFR 1910 SUBPART S or
  • 29 CFR 1910.302 .399
  • Construction Industry
  • 29 CFR 1926.402-408

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General Requirements
  • Splices - splicing devices designed for use
  • Marking - equipment must have plate
  • Disconnecting means circuits - must be marked
    unless purpose is evident

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Flexible Cords Cables
  • Prohibited Uses
  • Substitute for Fixed Wiring
  • Run Through Holes in Walls, Ceilings, or Floors
  • Run Through Doorways, Windows, Etc.
  • Concealed Behind Building Walls, Ceilings, or
    Floors
  • Marking - Type Designation, Size and Number of
    Conductors
  • Splices - Used in Continuous Lengths - No. 12 or
    Larger May Be Spliced
  • Strain Relief - Prevent Pull on Joints
  • Cords Protected When Passing Through Holes

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Typical 120V Branch Circuit
  • Typical wiring configuration will allow switch
    to open circuit prior to screw-shell of lamp base

166
Incorrect Wiring
  • Reversed wiring will cause screw-shell of
    lampholder to be energized
  • Grasping screw-shell will produce shock

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Grounds
  • Normal current carrying loop
  • Ground not used

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Effective Grounding
  • Prevents voltage flow to surroundings
  • Provides path for fault or overload current

Black
Fault
White
Green
Bare Wire or Conduit
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Missing Prong?
  • Body may provide path back to source
  • Ground fault current low - no breaker tripped

Black
Fault
White
Green
Bare Wire or Conduit
Missing prong
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GFCI
  • GFCI senses imbalance in current and opens
    circuit

GFCI
Black
Fault
5 mA
White
0 mA
Green
?
Bare Wire or Conduit
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CHAPTER 12 REVIEW and DISCUSSION
  • Can a regular outlet kill you?
  • Can you ever put your arm in a bathtub and pull
    out a energized hair dryer?
  • REVIEW
  • What is the amount of electricity that is
    hazardous to the body?
  • What are some prohibited uses for flexible cords
    and cables?
  • Can you use a plug with the ground plug removed
    in the workplace?
  • TERMS
  • GFCI, grounding, bonding, Amps

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Questions - Summary - TEST
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