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... of coverage: politics, economy, sports, culture, entertainment, health, science ... to control themselves; in a state of extreme excitement or anger ?????;????? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • I. Some basic notions
  • II. Cultural notes
  • III. Listening practice
  • IV. Discussion

I-1 What is News?
  • The definition of news may vary from person to
    person. Generally speaking, it is information or
    report that is published in newspapers and
    broadcast on radio and television about recent
    events in the country or world or in a particular
    area of activity.

I-2 Categories of News
  • Region/locality International/world news,
    domestic news and local news
  • Theme/the content of coverage politics, economy,
    sports, culture, entertainment, health, science
    and technology, disasters, social issues,
    religion, et.
  • Style (in broad sense) features (??), editorials
    (??) / comments, correspondence (??), news
    reports / briefing (????/??), etc.

I-3 Characteristic of News Facts
  • Its the objective reflection of events.
  • Recently happened events (??)
  • Constantly developing facts (??)
  • typical events that can arouse public interest
    and concerns (??)
  • Therefore, in order to stick to the
    ever-developing news facts, news is expected to
    be reported in a timely, concrete, comprehensive,
    fair, accurate and objective way.

I-4 Elements of News
  • News is to convey Influential recent events
    concerning social life to the public
  • It emphasizes objectivity (???),publicity (???)
    and popularity (???).
  • 5 W How
  • When and where who did what or what happened?
    Why (causeeffect)? How (detailed information
    about the process of the event)?

  • Sample-Disaster
  • Headline Plane Crash Kills 121 In Greece
  • Dateline GRAMMATIKO, Greece, Aug. 14, 2005
  • Lead paragraph
  • (CBS/AP) A Cypriot plane crashed into a hill
    north of Athens on Sunday, killing all 121 people
    aboard a third of them children in Greece's
    deadliest airline disaster. At least one of the
    pilots was unconscious when the plane went down,
    apparently from lack of oxygen. ATIKO, Greece,
    Aug. 14, 2005

  • Main Body More detailed description
  • The Helios Airways flight ZU522 was headed from
    Larnaca, Cyprus, to Athens International Airport
    when it crashed at 1205 p.m. near the town of
    Grammatiko, about 25 miles north of the Greek
    capital, leaving flaming debris and luggage
    strewn across a ravine and surrounding hills.
  • The Boeing 737, carrying 115 passengers and six
    crew, was to have flown onto Prague, Czech
    Republic, after stopping in Athens.
  • There were 48 children on board. CBS News
    Correspondent Larry Miller reports the children
    were Greeks returning from a vacation to Cyprus.

  • The cause of the crash was unclear, but it looked
    like a technical problem possibly decompression
    and not terrorism. The first indications, in
    Cyprus and in Greece, are that it was not caused
    by a terrorist act, said Marios Karoyian, a
    spokesman for Cypriot President Tassos
  • The reaction Family members wept in anguish as
    they waited at the Athens and Larnaca airports.
    When news of the crash emerged at Larnaca,
    relatives swarmed the airline counters, shouting
    murderers and you deserve lynching. One
    woman, Artemis Charalambous, said she was the
    mother of one of the pilots.

  • Attributes
  • A man whose cousin was a passenger on the plane
    told Greece's Alpha television he received a
    cell-phone text message minutes before the crash.
    He told me the pilots were unconscious. ... He
    said Farewell, cousin, here we're frozen,
    Sotiris Voutas said.
  • The head of the Greek airline safety committee,
    Akrivos Tsolakis, described the crash as the
    worst accident we've ever had. He said the
    plane's black boxes had been discovered at the
    scene, containing flight data and voice
    recordings valuable for determining the cause.
  • Possible cause There apparently was a lack of
    oxygen, which is usually the case when the cabin
    is depressurized, Tsolakis said

I-5 What is News Value?
  • Simply put, public interest is the touchstone
    (???) of news value.
  • To be more exactly put, news value refers to the
    importance of the facts and details in the news
    that can satisfy the public interest (the degree
    of attention the reader pay to the news reports)
    in news.

I-6 Controversial Newsworthiness
  • In order to satisfy public interest, news
    reporters always try their best to cover the
    happening at home and abroad in great details.
  • However, public interest tends to be challenged
    by some critics. The gossip column (????)is just
    a case in point. As we know, gossips and
    scandals always sell well in the public, but some
    doubt their news value.

I-7 Elements of News Value
  • Timeliness (??) Is it a recent development or
    old news? Freshness strengthens a news story.
  • Proximity (??) Is the story relevant to local
    readers? Close-to-home events naturally are of
    interest to media outlets.
  • Eminence (??) or prominence (??) Are noteworthy
    people involved? Some happenings simply are more
    newsworthy when well-known people/celebrities
    (??) are involved.

  • Consequence (??) or impact (??) What effect will
    the story have on readers? For example, the news
    named Crude Oil Price Hit Record High will have
    a immense impact on our daily life economically
    and emotionally as private cars are so widespread
    at present.
  • Human interest (??) Even though it might not be
    an earthshaking event, does it contain unique,
    interesting elements? Human interest stories
    often appeal to the emotions of readers, pulling
    them into the lives of others or into subjects of
    broad concern.

I-8 Major News Agencies
  • In Britain
  • Reuters (???), founded in 1851
  • In the US
  • AP the Associated Press (???), founded in 1848,
    managing 6 papers- Sun (???), Herald (???),
    Journal of Commerce (??????), Tribune (???),
    Express (??), Courier and Enquirer (????)
  • UPI United Press (???), founded in 1907, merging
    another agency and named United Press
    International (?????)

  • Around the world
  • AFP ???
  • Kyodo ?????
  • Itar-Tass???
  • Xinhua Xinhua News Agency

  • Politics involves several aspects, such as
    policies, parties, election, government
    management, diplomacy, ect.

I. Knowledge Contest
  • 1. When and how often does U.S. launch the
    presidential campaign?
  • 2. What are presidential qualifications in US?
  • The Constitution requires presidents to be
    _____________ citizens of the United States who
    are at least ___ years of age and have resided in
    the United States for ___ years.
  • 3. Who might be the first woman to make a bid for
    the White House in 2008?

  • Election to the Presidency
  • The power of the presidency makes it the most
    __________ (???) position in American politics.
    The Constitution originally provided for the
    election of the president and ____________ by the
    electoral college (?????). Voters do not elect
    the president directly, they, however to vote for
    the electors who support a particular
    _________________ (?????). The number of electors
    in each state is equal to the number of each
    state's representatives in both houses of

vice president
presidential candidate
  • The District of Columbia, although having no
    representative in Congress, has three electors.
    Altogether there are ____electoral votes. All of
    each state's electoral votes go to the candidate
    winning the most votes in that state no matter
    how slim the margin.
  • 50????????????(the District of Columbia,???????,??
    ??????)?3 ?????_______??????(the Electoral

  • Primary Elections (??)
  • Political parties choose their presidential
    nominees through primary elections and party
    caucuses (meetings???????). In these state
    contests, the major political partiesthe
    ______________________ select delegates to
    attend their party conventions. Primary voters
    and caucus participants choose delegates who will
    support their favored candidate at the
    convention. The party conventions, held in the
    summer before the November general election,
    formally nominate the winner of the primaries and

Democrats and Republicans
  • Election Campaign The campaign for the
    presidency traditionally begins in early
    September and ends on Election Daythe first
    Tuesday after the first Monday in November.
    Candidates often complain about the length of the
    campaign period, which can require grueling
    20-hour days of speechmaking and traveling. Even
    as they spread campaign themes through national
    television and radio campaigns, the candidates
    also make hundreds of speeches in cities and
    towns across the country to appeal to specific
    groups of voters.

  • Election Day and Inauguration
  • The formal balloting (??) of the electoral
    college, however, does not take place until the
    first Monday after the second Wednesday of
    December, when the electors meet in each state.
    These results are transmitted to the secretary of
    the Senate and are counted publicly before a
    joint session of Congress on January 6. Under the
    original provisions of the Constitution, the
    president and vice president were inaugurated on
    March 4 of the year following their election.

  • In 1933 the 20th Amendment went into effect,
    moving the inauguration date up to ____________.
    At the inaugural ceremony, the new president
    recites an oath I do solemnly swear (or affirm)
    that I will faithfully execute the Office of
    President of the United States, and will to the
    best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend
    the Constitution of the United States.

January 20
II. Introductory Remark
  • In this unit, we just intend to focus on the
    topic about election, the key political issue in
    America in 2004. Actually, to clarify the process
    of presidential election (????) is no easy task,
    youre expected to get familiarized with the
    chief 2 parties in the U.S. first, that is, the
    Republican Party (???), also named GOP (Grand Old
    Party ???) and the Democratic Party (???),

II-1 The Democratic Party
  • Thomas Jefferson, in the late 1700's, started the
    first political party with the conviction that
    the federal government was assuming too much
    power over domestic policy and should be stopped.
    His party became known as the "Democratic" party
    when candidate Andrew Jackson became President in
  • Andrew Jackson was known as a man of the people.
    He took the Democratic party that Jefferson and
    his elite collegues had formed and turned it over
    to the citizens of the United States.

II-2 The Democratic Party vs. The Republican Party
  • The Democratic Party held its first convention in
    1832 to re-elect Andrew Jackson to a second term.
    Its convention began the Democratic National
    Committee in 1848. It has become the longest
    running political organization in the world.
  • The Republican Party held its first convention in
    1854, with supporters then including anti-slavery
    activists and advocates of the idea that the
    government should grant western lands to settlers
    free of charge.

  • Story of Party Animals
  • Party animals involved statues of donkeys and
    elephants. _________ is the official animal of
    the Democratic Party. __________ represents the
    Republican Party. The status of an elephant as
    Republican Partys symbol appears to be safe. Win
    or lose, both symbols have endured.
  • The elephant - symbol of the Republican Party
    since 1874 - remembers that GOP stands for Grand
    Old Party, but increasingly, the elephant is
    standing alone.

The donkey
The elephant
  • When Andrew Jackson ran for president in 1828,
    his opponents tried to label him a jackass
    (????)for his populist views and his slogan,
    Let the people rule. Jackson, however, picked
    up on their name calling and turned it to his own
    advantage by using the donkey on his campaign
    posters. During his presidency, the donkey was
    used to represent Jacksons stubbornness (??).
  • Thomas Nast, a famous political cartoonist, used
    the donkey first in an 1874 editorial cartoon to
    depict the Democrats as a donkey trying to scare
    a Republican elephant.

(No Transcript)
II-3 TV commercials for presidential election
  • The idea that you can merchandise candidates for
    high office like breakfast cereal is the ultimate
    indignity to the democratic process."
    -Democratic candidate Adlai Stevenson, 1956
  • Television is no gimmick(??,??), and nobody will
    ever be elected to major office again without
    presenting themselves well on it."
    -Television producer and Nixon campaign
    consultant Roger Ailes, 1968

  • When television emerged as a mass medium in the
    early 1950s, TV advertising became an essential
    campaign tool.
  • Television commercials distill (??)a candidate's
    major campaign themes into a few powerful images.
    These ads elicit emotional reactions, inspiring
    support for a candidate or raising doubts about
    his opponent.

  • The major parties will spend hundreds of millions
    of dollars on TV commercials. Ads on TV and the
    Internet have become the dominant form of
    communication in the modern presidential

III. Translation
  • ????
  • direct election
  • ???
  • general election system
  • ????
  • single-candidate election
  • ????
  • competitive election
  • ????
  • by-election
  • ????
  • roll-call vote
  • ???
  • seek a vote
  • ?????
  • secret ballot
  • ????
  • electoral vote
  • ????
  • electoral system

  • ?????
  • make the final vote
  • ?????
  • vote of non-confidence
  • ????
  • election at expiration of office terms
  • ????????
  • the right to vote and the right to be elected

Part A Snap Judgments
  • I. Vocabulary Preparation
  • snap / ???? / made quickly, without careful
    thought ??????
  • make a decision / make a search of
  • (Am. slang) Its a job. ( very easy job)
  • slick / ???? / done in a skilful and attractive
    way very good or attractive ???????
  • a show / a time / a TV presenter

  • ad / ?? / an advertisement a public notice
    offering or asking for goods, services, etc. ??
  • an campaign / a classified/want ??/????
  • commercial / ???????? / an advertisement on
    television or radio (??????)??
  • run s ??????
  • candidate / ????????? / someone who is competing
    in an election ???
  • endorse a ??(??)????
  • a leading for the presidency ????????

  • glimpse / ?????? / a quick look at someone or
    something that does not allow you to see them
    clearly ????
  • get/catch a brief of the city
  • demonstrate / ???????????? / to show or describe
    how to do something or how something works ????
  • sth. to sb. / how to do sth.
  • clip / ???? / a short part of a film or
    television program that is shown by itself,
    especially as an advertisement ????
  • go through all the s on an event / a televised

  • rate / ???? / to think that someone or something
    has a particular quality, value, or standard
  • sb.s English at a B ???????B?
  • We your services highly. ????????????
  • weird / ???? / very strange and unusual, and
    difficult to understand or explain ???????????
  • a story ????? a idea ?????

VERB glance at, down, over, round, through
  • glance / ?????? / a quick or brief look??????
  • take a at the newspaper headlines
  • steal es at sb.
  • prehistoric / ?????????????? / relating to the
    time in history before anything was written down
  • in times ?????
  • man/remains/animals ????/??/??

II. Notes
  • Lets pay tribute to the renowned anchor - late
  • Peter Jennings (1938-2005, born in Canada) the
    lead anchor and senior editor of ABCNEWS World
    News Tonight, where he has established a
    reputation for independence and excellence in
    broadcast journalism. He became an American
    citizen in 2004. He died of lung cancer at the
    age of 67 on August 8, 2005 ?????

  • ABC the American Broadcasting Company, a
    television and radio network in the United
    States, today owned by the Walt Disney Company
  • Robert Krulwich a New York-based ABCNEWS
    correspondent who appears regularly on Nightline.
    He also reports for World News Tonight With Peter
    Jennings, and Good Morning America. ????????

III. Spot Dictation
  • Peter Jennings Thank you for joining us this
    evening Snap Judgments. Candidates in the
    political campaign are going to spend hundreds of
    millions of dollars this year trying to 1
    with slick 30-second commercials. But maybe
    all they need are five-second ads, even two
    seconds! ABCs Robert Krulwich tonight on how
    important 2
  • (People yelling in background)

influence voters
that very first impression
  • Robert Krulwich Now its getting interesting,
    and as these candidates flash by on TV for a
    second or two, even 3 makes
    an impression. A bigger impression than you know.
  • Nalini Ambady Yeah, I think you are making an

the briefest glimpse
  • Robert Krulwich Psychology professor Nalini
    Ambady knows this, because a few years ago she
    did an experiment. She asked 4 students
    like these to come to a classroom here at Harvard
    and she showed them short videos of teachers 5
    . Let me demonstrate. She showed a guy like
    me, lecturing in a lecture hall, except you
    (talking to professor) turned off the sound. So
    they watched something like this, a teacher
    teaching 6 for how long?
    (asking the professor)
  • Nalini Ambady These clips are 10 seconds long.

a bunch of
they never met
with no sounds
  • Robert Krulwich Ten seconds?
  • Nalini Ambady Uh huh.
  • Robert Krulwich Thats all?
  • Nalini Ambady Yeah.
  • Robert Krulwich Thenwere re-creating this here
    (showing chart), the students were asked to rate
    the teacher in a number of categories. And
    7 were then compared to a course
    evaluation filled out by students whod have the
    teacher three days a week for a whole semester.
    And what happened?
  • Nalini Ambady Uhmthere was 8
    in their evaluations. It was

those ratings
very little difference
  • Robert Krulwich So students who saw the
    professor for ten seconds gave the exact same
    ratings as the students who knew him for months!
  • Nalini Ambady Precisely! Thats exactly what we
  • Robert Krulwich Ok, now just for the fun of it,
    you get 9 students and you show
    them clips of professors that last two
    secondstwo seconds and no sound! Which islike,
  • Nalini Ambady Yeah. laughing It passes by
  • Robert Krulwich And after a two-second look,
    student ratings were 10 to
    the full semester evaluation. That is so weird!

a new set of
almost identical
  • Robert Krulwich Ah, well, we had the same
  • Robert Krulwich But if a two-second glimpse can
    tell you that much about a teacher, just possibly
    a two-second glance on the TV can tell you
    something important about a candidate for
    president. From prehistoric times we have evolved
    to look at faces and make snap judgments is he
    going to hurt me, is he going to help me? Brains,
    says professor Ambady, can decide a lot in two
    seconds. So quick impressions matter! Robert
    Krulwich, ABC News.

  • Do you agree with the conclusion?
  • How do you understand the proverb You cant
    judge a person by appearance?
  • Do you trust TV commercials in the political
    campaigns? How important do you think they are ?

Part B Hillary Clintons Journey
  • I. Vocabulary Preparation
  • exclusively / ????????????? / only not shared
    with others ??????
  • e.g. The article was written (????) for
  • memoir / ??????? / a book by someone important
    and famous in which they write about their life
    and experiences ?????
  • scandal / ??????? / action, attitude, etc. that
    is disgraceful or shameful ??????
  • e.g. spread/uncover/cover up about sb.

  • wring someones neck to kill someone by twisting
    their neck or pressing their throat with your
    hands, a rope, etc. used when you are very angry
    with someone ??????
  • aftermath / ????????? / the period of time after
    something such as a war, storm, or accident when
    people are still dealing with the results
  • e.g. in the of war (election) / endure an
  • run for to be a candidate in an election (for a
    political position) ??(??????)

  • senate / ?????? / the smaller and more important
    of the two parts of the government with the power
    to make laws, in countries such as the US,
    Australia, and France ???
  • confess / ??????? / to admit, especially to the
    police, that you have done something wrong or
    illegal ????
  • e.g. He ed his crime honestly to the police.
  • He ed having killed / that he had killed his
  • due / ???? / scheduled expected ??????
  • e.g. His next book is out shortly.
  • He is about for a promotion.

  • headline / ???????? / a line of words printed in
    large letters as the title of a story in a
    newspaper, or the main points of the news that
    are broadcast on television or radio ??????
  • e.g. a figure ??????
  • a -making incident ?????????
  • be in the national s ?????????????
  • break / ????? / to disclose to make known
    ???? e.g. the bad news gently to somebody
  • rumor / ?????? / (instance of) information spread
    by being talked about but not certainly true
  • e.g. spread/confirm a that /about ??/????

  • intern / ??????? / someone, especially a student,
    who works for a short time in a particular job in
    order to gain experience ??????
  • e.g. work as s
  • log / ??? / a record of events ????
  • e.g. write up/keep a ????/????
  • cross-examine / ????? ???????? / to question
    someone closely, especially with regard to
    answers or information given previously ????
  • testify / ????????? / to give evidence declare
    as a witness, especially in court ??????
  • e.g. on behalf of the accused man ?????

  • oath / ??? / (words used in making a) solemn
    promise to do something or solemn declaration
    that something is true ??????
  • e.g. swear/take an to do sth. ????
  • break/violate an that ????
  • level with someone to speak honestly to someone,
    after hiding some unpleasant facts from them
  • e.g. I dont think youre ing with me.
  • ??????????
  • furious / ????????? / full of violent anger
  • e.g. be about/at/over sth. at/with sb.
  • ??????????

  • dumbfounded / ??????????? / extremely surprised
    or astonished ???????? Im by the news.
  • beside oneself to be feeling so angry, excited,
    etc. that one finds it difficult to control
    themselves in a state of extreme excitement or
    anger ??????????
  • e.g. beside oneself with joy/rage ??/??
  • jury / ??????? / group of people in a law court
    who have been chosen to listen to the facts in a
    case and to decide whether the accused person is
    guilty or not guilty ???????? sit/serve on the
  • air / ?? / to broadcast something on radio or
    television (???????)???? the show/course

II. Notes
  • Elizabeth Vargas (1962-) a correspondent for ABC
    News 20/20 since June 1997 and an anchor for
    World News Tonight Saturday ???????
  • Barbara Walters (1929-) an American television
    commentator known for her many years as a network
    anchor on news programs, on the Today show, for
    her years on the newsmagazine 20/20 and on the
    estrogen-chat program The View ??????

  • Eastern Time the standard time in the 5th time
    zone west of Greenwich, used in the eastern
    United States (??)????
  • ???????????,???????????????,???????
  • ?????????????????,????????????????????????????????
  • ????(EST)????????????19????????,???????????????(CS

  • Monica Lewinsky (1973-) an American businesswoman
    who was caught up in a sex scandal investigation
    when she was an intern working at the White
    House. While at the White House she had a
    short-term sexual relationship with the
    President. The news of this affair, and the
    resulting investigation, and impeachment, became
    known as the Lewinsky scandal. ???????

  • Bill Clinton (1946-) the 42nd President of the
    US, from 1993 to 2001. Clinton was a popular
    President for most of his period in office,
    because the US economy was strong. He is also
    known for a sex scandal with Monica Lewinsky that
    happened near the end of the time he was
    president. ?????

IV. Exercises on Ps 6-7
  • Exercise Listen to the interview and answer the
    following questions or complete the unfinished
  • Listening skills
  • Step 1 Look through all the multiple choices and
    have the anticipation (??) of the possible key
    based on your cultural knowledge.
  • Step 2 Listen to it for the first time and catch
    the main idea by grasping the frequent words.
  • Step 3 Focus on W elements How and make

  • 1. What did Mrs. Clinton talk about in the
    exclusive interview by ABCs Barbara Walters?
  • A. Why she wrote her memoir Living History.
  • B. Why and when Mr. Clinton had an affair with
    the White House intern Monica Lewinsky.
  • C. The book Living History and how she came to
    learn the details surrounding the Monica Lewinsky
  • D. Her memoir the Living History and how she
    cross-examined Mr. Clinton on the Monica Lewinsky

  • 2. According to Hillary Clinton, what were the
    most difficult decisions she had made in her
  • A. To marry Bill Clinton and to help him run for
    the Presidency.
  • B. To stay married to Bill Clinton and to run for
    the Senate from New York.
  • C. To forget the dark days of 1998 and to stay
    out of the 2004 presidential campaign.
  • D. To forgive Bill Clinton and to run for the
    2008 Presidency.

  • 3. When did Bill Clinton confess to Hillary
    Clinton that he did have an affair with the White
    House intern Monica Lewinsky?
  • A. Not until just two days before he was to
    testify under oath about the affair.
  • B. Not until just two weeks before he was to
    testify under oath about the affair.
  • C. Immediately after the media started making
    headlines of the affair.
  • D. Long before the media started making headlines
    of the affair.

  • 4. How did Hillary Clinton respond upon hearing
    Bill Clintons confession of the affair?
  • A. She sat beside Bill Clinton and became
  • B. She cried, cursed Monica Lewinsky, and
    slapped Bill Clinton in the face.
  • C. She went to sleep again and pretended to be
  • D. She felt betrayed and became furious.

  • 5. Deeply hurt by her husband disloyalty and
    dishonesty, Mrs Clinton .
  • A. continued her duties as the First Lady as
  • B. decided to leave for New York and to run for
    the Senate there.
  • C. scolded her husband for the affair, sought
    divorce, and failed.
  • D. devoted all herself to writing the memoir.

Spot dictation
  • That was probably the worst moment uh, that I can
    even imagine anyone _________ because what he
    told me that morning was that _________________
    or anyone else, he had not told me the whole
    truth about what the relationship was and I was,
    I was _______, I was _________, I was, you know,
    just ___________ with anger and disappointment.

going through
he had not leveled with me
beside myself
  • Part A
  • snap judgment
  • slick commercials
  • flash by
  • Just for the fun of it.
  • That is so weird.
  • Quick impressions matter.
  • Student ratings were almost identical to the full
    semester evaluation.

Part B
  • give an account of
  • exclusive interview
  • memoir
  • due
  • in the aftermath
  • air

Oral PracticePair-work Activity Now you are
Hillary Clinton, you are telling your story to a
friend about the scandal. Use the words below to
help you.
  • Monica Lewinsky scandal
  • intern
  • Logs of gifts
  • confess
  • testify under oath
  • loyal defender
  • headline
  • reveal
  • false rumor
  • wring Bills neck
  • level with
  • furious
  • dumfounded
  • Beside oneself

Questions for further discussion
  • Do you trust Hillary Clinton? Do you think she is
    telling the truth?
  • Whats her purpose of writing the book revealing
    her private life?
  • What do you think of her as a woman?

Projects Choose a project
  • 1. Find more information about Hillary Clinton
    and Laura Bush. Write a comparison of the two
    First Ladies.
  • 2. Prepare an in-depth report on the US
    presidential election and make a presentation in
  • 3. How much do you know about Chinas village
    elections? Make a case study and prepare a report
    on your findings and reflections?
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