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Reaching All Students: RtI

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Title: Reaching All Students: RtI


1
Reaching All Students RtI SWPBS
  • Lucille Eber George Sugai
  • OSEP Center on PBIS
  • February 26, 2009
  • www.pbis.org www.cber.org
  • Lewrapil_at_aol.com George.sugai_at_uconn.edu

2
PURPOSE Describe how responsiveness-to-interventio
n logic relates to positive behavioral
interventions supports for EVERYONE in school.
  • RtI Context
  • SWPBS Basics
  • Secondary/Tertiary Tier Systems
  • Applications Examples

3
www.pbis.org
4
Responsiveness-to-Intervention
5
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6
Response to Intervention
RtI
7
RtI Good IDEiA Policy
  • Approach or framework for redesigning
    establishing teaching learning environments
    that are effective, efficient, relevant,
    durable for all students, families educators
  • NOT program, curriculum, strategy, intervention
  • NOT limited to special education
  • NOT new

8
Quotable Fixsen
  • Policy is allocation of limited resources for
    unlimited needs
  • Opportunity, not guarantee, for good action
  • Training does not predict action
  • Manualized treatments have created overly rigid
    rapid applications

9
Responsiveness to Intervention
10
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12
Tertiary Prevention Specialized
Individualized Systems for Students with
High-Risk Behavior
CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL
POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT
FEW
5
Secondary Prevention Specialized Group Systems
for Students with At-Risk Behavior
15
SOME
Primary Prevention School-/Classroom- Wide
Systems for All Students, Staff, Settings
ALL
80 of Students
13
Responsiveness to Intervention
Academic Systems
Behavioral Systems
1-5
1-5
5-10
5-10
80-90
80-90
Circa 1996
14
Whered triangle come from.a PBIS perspective?
15
Public Health Disease PreventionKutash et al.,
2006 Larson, 1994
  • Tertiary (FEW)
  • Reduce complications, intensity, severity of
    current cases
  • Secondary (SOME)
  • Reduce current cases of problem behavior
  • Primary (ALL)
  • Reduce new cases of problem behavior

16
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17
RtI Application Examples
EARLY READING/LITERACY SOCIAL BEHAVIOR
TEAM General educator, special educator, reading specialist, Title I, school psychologist, etc. General educator, special educator, behavior specialist, Title I, school psychologist, etc.
UNIVERSAL SCREENING Curriculum based measurement SSBD, record review, gating
PROGRESS MONITORING Curriculum based measurement ODR, suspensions, behavior incidents, precision teaching
EFFECTIVE INTERVENTIONS 5-specific reading skills phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension Direct social skills instruction, positive reinforcement, token economy, active supervision, behavioral contracting, group contingency management, function-based support, self-management
DECISION MAKING RULES Core, strategic, intensive Primary, secondary, tertiary tiers
18
RTI Continuum of Support for ALL
Few
Some
All
Dec 7, 2007
19
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Questions to Ponder
  • What is scientifically/evidence-based
    intervention/practice?
  • How do we measure ensure fidelity of
    implementation?
  • How do we determine non-responsiveness?
  • Can we affect teacher practice?
  • Do we have motivation to increase efficiency of
    systems organization?
  • ???

21
Possible RtI OutcomesGresham, 2005
Responder Non-Responder
High Risk False Adequate response True Inadequate response
No Risk True Adequate response False Inadequate response
22
Avoiding False /-
23
School-wide Positive Behavior Support RtI
24
Need for.
25
159 Days!
  • Intermediate/senior high school with 880
    students reported over 5,100 office discipline
    referrals in one academic year. Nearly 2/3 of
    students have received at least one office
    discipline referral.

26
  • 5,100 referrals
  • 76,500 min _at_15 min
  • 1,275 hrs
  • 159 days _at_ 8 hrs

MESSAGE Context Matters
27
Pre
Post
28
BIG IDEA
  • Successful individual student behavior support
    is linked to host environments or school
    climates that are effective, efficient, relevant,
    durable, scalable
  • (Zins Ponti, 1990)

29
Evaluation Criteria
30
What is School-wide Positive Behavior Support
(PBIS)?
31
Integrated Elements
Supporting Social Competence Academic
Achievement
OUTCOMES
Supporting Decision Making
DATA
Supporting Staff Behavior
SYSTEMS
PRACTICES
Supporting Student Behavior
32
  • SWPBS Conceptual Foundations

Behaviorism
Laws of Behavior
ABA
Applied Behavioral Technology
PBS
Social Validity
SWPBS
All Students
33
Tertiary Prevention Specialized
Individualized Systems for Students with
High-Risk Behavior
CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL
POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT
FEW
5
Secondary Prevention Specialized Group Systems
for Students with At-Risk Behavior
15
SOME
Primary Prevention School-/Classroom- Wide
Systems for All Students, Staff, Settings
ALL
80 of Students
34
GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS
Team
Agreements
  • School-wide agreements
  • District investment
  • 3-4 year training commitment
  • Local coordination, coaching, evaluation

Data-based Action Plan
Implementation
Evaluation
35
Working Smarter
Initiative, Project, Committee Purpose Outcome Target Group Staff Involved SIP/SID/etc
Attendance Committee
Character Education
Safety Committee
School Spirit Committee
Discipline Committee
DARE Committee
EBS Work Group
36
Sample Teaming Matrix
Initiative, Committee Purpose Outcome Target Group Staff Involved SIP/SID
Attendance Committee Increase attendance Increase of students attending daily All students Eric, Ellen, Marlee Goal 2
Character Education Improve character Improve character All students Marlee, J.S., Ellen Goal 3
Safety Committee Improve safety Predictable response to threat/crisis Dangerous students Has not met Goal 3
School Spirit Committee Enhance school spirit Improve morale All students Has not met
Discipline Committee Improve behavior Decrease office referrals Bullies, antisocial students, repeat offenders Ellen, Eric, Marlee, Otis Goal 3
DARE Committee Prevent drug use High/at-risk drug users Don
EBS Work Group Implement 3-tier model Decrease office referrals, increase attendance, enhance academic engagement, improve grades All students Eric, Ellen, Marlee, Otis, Emma Goal 2 Goal 3
Are outcomes measurable?
37
WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT PREVENTING VIOLENCE?
  • Surgeon Generals Report on Youth Violence (2001)
  • Coordinated Social Emotional Learning
    (Greenberg et al., 2003)
  • Center for Study Prevention of Violence (2006)
  • White House Conference on School Violence (2006)
  • Positive, predictable school-wide climate
  • High rates of academic social success
  • Formal social skills instruction
  • Positive active supervision reinforcement
  • Positive adult role models
  • Multi-component, multi-year school-family-communit
    y effort

38
SWPBS Practices
School-wide
Classroom
Family
Non-classroom
  • Smallest
  • Evidence-based
  • Biggest, durable effect

Student
39
School-wide
  1. Leadership team
  2. Behavior purpose statement
  3. Set of positive expectations behaviors
  4. Procedures for teaching SW classroom-wide
    expected behavior
  5. Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected
    behavior
  6. Continuum of procedures for discouraging rule
    violations
  7. Procedures for on-going data-based monitoring
    evaluation

40
Teaching Matrix Teaching Matrix SETTING SETTING SETTING SETTING SETTING SETTING SETTING
Teaching Matrix Teaching Matrix All Settings Hallways Playgrounds Cafeteria Library/ Computer Lab Assembly Bus
Respect Ourselves Be on task. Give your best effort. Be prepared. Walk. Have a plan. Eat all your food. Select healthy foods. Study, read, compute. Sit in one spot. Watch for your stop.
Respect Others Be kind. Hands/feet to self. Help/share with others. Use normal voice volume. Walk to right. Play safe. Include others. Share equipment. Practice good table manners Whisper. Return books. Listen/watch. Use appropriate applause. Use a quiet voice. Stay in your seat.
Respect Property Recycle. Clean up after self. Pick up litter. Maintain physical space. Use equipment properly. Put litter in garbage can. Replace trays utensils. Clean up eating area. Push in chairs. Treat books carefully. Pick up. Treat chairs appropriately. Wipe your feet. Sit appropriately.
2. NATURAL CONTEXT
1. SOCIAL SKILL
Expectations
3. BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES

41
Expectations behavioral skills are taught
recognized in natural context
SETTING SETTING SETTING SETTING SETTING SETTING SETTING
All Settings Hallways Playgrounds Cafeteria Library/ Computer Lab Assembly Bus
Respect Ourselves Be on task. Give your best effort. Be prepared. Walk. Have a plan. Eat all your food. Select healthy foods. Study, read, compute. Sit in one spot. Watch for your stop.
Respect Others Be kind. Hands/feet to self. Help/share with others. Use normal voice volume. Walk to right. Play safe. Include others. Share equipment. Practice good table manners Whisper. Return books. Listen/watch. Use appropriate applause. Use a quiet voice. Stay in your seat.
Respect Property Recycle. Clean up after self. Pick up litter. Maintain physical space. Use equipment properly. Put litter in garbage can. Replace trays utensils. Clean up eating area. Push in chairs. Treat books carefully. Pick up. Treat chairs appropriately. Wipe your feet. Sit appropriately.
TEACHING MATRIX
Expectations

42
Pre
Post
43
Non-classroom
  • Positive expectations routines taught
    encouraged
  • Active supervision by all staff
  • Scan, move, interact
  • Precorrections reminders
  • Positive reinforcement

44
Classroom
  • Classroom-wide positive expectations taught
    encouraged
  • Teaching classroom routines cues taught
    encouraged
  • Ratio of 6-8 positive to 1 negative adult-student
    interaction
  • Active supervision
  • Redirections for minor, infrequent behavior
    errors
  • Frequent precorrections for chronic errors
  • Effective academic instruction curriculum

45
Typical Contexts/ Routines Classroom-Wide Rules/Expectations Classroom-Wide Rules/Expectations Classroom-Wide Rules/Expectations
Typical Contexts/ Routines Respect Others Respect Property Respect Self
All Use inside voice. Raise hand to answer/talk. Recycle paper. Put writing tools inside desk. Do your best. Ask.
Morning Meeting Eyes on speaker. Give brief answers. Put announcements in desk. Keep feet on floor. Put check by my announcements.
Homework Do own work. Turn in before lesson. Put homework neatly in box. Touch your work only. Turn in lesson on time. Do homework night/day before.
Transition Use inside voice. Keep hands to self. Put/get materials first. Keep hands to self. Have plan. Go directly.
I Need Assistance Raise hand or show Assistance Card. Wait 2 minutes try again. Have materials ready. Have plan. Ask if unclear.
Teacher Directed Eyes on speaker. Keep hands to self. Use materials as intended. Have plan. Ask.
Independent Work Use inside voice. Keep hands to self. Use materials as intended. Return with done. Use time as planned. Ask.
Problem to Solve Stop, Step Back, Think, Act Stop, Step Back, Think, Act Stop, Step Back, Think, Act
1. SOCIAL SKILL
2. NATURAL CONTEXT
3. BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES
46
Family
  • Continuum of positive behavior support for all
    families
  • Frequent, regular positive contacts,
    communications, acknowledgements
  • Formal active participation involvement as
    equal partner
  • Access to system of integrated school community
    resources

47
Family Teaching Matrix Family Teaching Matrix SETTING SETTING SETTING SETTING SETTING SETTING SETTING
Family Teaching Matrix Family Teaching Matrix At home Morning Routine Homework Meal Times In Car Play Bedtime
Respect Ourselves
Respect Others
Respect Property
1. SOCIAL SKILL
2. NATURAL CONTEXT
Expectations
3. BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES

48
Individual Student
  • Behavioral competence at school district levels
  • Function-based behavior support planning
  • Team- data-based decision making
  • Comprehensive person-centered planning
    wraparound processes
  • Targeted social skills self-management
    instruction
  • Individualized instructional curricular
    accommodations

49
Class B Results
Fairbanks, Sugai, Gardino, Lathrop, 2007.
Percent of Intervals Engaged in Problem Behavior

School Days
50
Check In/Out Pt Card
Name________________ Date ________
GOALS 830 930 1030 1130 1230 130
1. RESPECT OTHERS 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0
2. MANAGE SELF 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0
3. SOLVE PROBLEMS RESPONSIBLY 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0
Goal _____ Pts Possible _____ Pts Received_____
of Pts _____ Goal Met? Y N
Rating Scale 2 Great 1 Ok 0 Goal Not Met
51
Class B Results Composite Peers
Peer
Percent of Intervals Engaged in Problem Behavior
Peer
Peer
School Days
52
Study 2 Results
Percent of Intervals Engaged in Problem Behavior
School Days
53
Study 2 Results Composite Peer
Peer
Percent of Intervals Engaged in Problem Behavior
Peer
Peer
Peer
School Days
54
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55
ESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBS
  • TERTIARY PREVENTION
  • Function-based support
  • Wraparound
  • Person-centered planning
  • TERTIARY PREVENTION

5
15
  • SECONDARY PREVENTION
  • Check in/out
  • Targeted social skills instruction
  • Peer-based supports
  • Social skills club
  • SECONDARY PREVENTION
  • PRIMARY PREVENTION
  • Teach SW expectations
  • Proactive SW discipline
  • Positive reinforcement
  • Effective instruction
  • Parent engagement
  • PRIMARY PREVENTION

80 of Students
56
CONTINUUM of SWPBS
  • TERTIARY PREVENTION
  • Function-based support
  • Wraparound/PCP
  • Special Education
  • Audit
  • Identify existing practices by tier
  • Specify outcome for each effort
  • Evaluate implementation accuracy outcome
    effectiveness
  • Eliminate/integrate based on outcomes
  • Establish decision rules (RtI)

5
15
  • SECONDARY PREVENTION
  • Check in/out
  • Targeted social skills instruction
  • Peer-based supports
  • Social skills club
  • PRIMARY PREVENTION
  • Teach encourage positive SW expectations
  • Proactive SW discipline
  • Effective instruction
  • Parent engagement

80 of Students
57
  • George.sugai_at_uconn.edu
  • Robh_at_uoregon.edu
  • www.pbis.org
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