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Improving Performance: The Five Step Process

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Title: Improving Performance: The Five Step Process


1
Improving Performance The Five Step Process
  • Mimi Lufkin Chief Executive Officer
  • National Alliance for Partnerships in Equity
  • California December 2-3, 2008

2
The Five Step Process
3
Perkins Act Accountability
  • Core Indicators on Nontraditional CTE
  • Participation in CTE programs preparing students
    for nontraditional fields
  • Completion of CTE programs preparing students for
    nontraditional fields

4
Nontraditional Fields
  • Occupations or fields of work, including careers
    in computer science, technology, and other
    current and emerging high skill occupations, for
    which individuals from one gender comprise less
    than 25 percent of the individuals employed in
    each such occupation or field of work.

5
Document Performance Results
  • GOAL Understand the problem completely before
    you seek solutions

How do you analyze performance data? What
questions should be addressed? What tools and
methods can be used to present and analyze
data? How should data quality problems be
considered in analyzing data?
6
Perkins Accountability Measure
  • Participation Rate
  • underrepresented students participating in NT
    CTE
  • all students participating in NT CTE
  • OR
  • of females enrolled in pre-engineering
  • All students (males and females)
  • enrolled in pre-engineering

7
Perkins Accountability Measure
  • Completion Rate
  • underrepresented students completing NT CTE
  • all students completing NT CTE
  • OR
  • of females completing pre-engineering
  • All students (males and females)
  • completing pre-engineering

8
Data Collection Disaggregation required in
Perkins IV
  • Gender
  • Male
  • Female
  • Special Population
  • Underrepresented gender students in a
    nontraditional CTE program
  • Single Parent
  • Displaced Homemaker
  • Limited English Proficiency
  • Individuals with a Disability
  • Economically Disadvantaged
  • Race/Ethnicity
  • American Indian or Alaskan Native
  • Asian or Pacific Islander
  • Black, non-Hispanic
  • Hispanic
  • White- non-Hispanic

9
Recommended Analyses
  • Trends
  • At least 2 years
  • Prefer 3-5 years
  • Site specific
  • Statewide
  • District
  • School/College
  • Programs

10
Benchmarking
  • State performance level
  • Best performer in state
  • National program benchmark
  • Selected peer benchmark
  • Set your own benchmark

11
Perkins Accountability Resources
  • Peer Collaborative Resource Network
  • www.edcountability.net
  • National Alliance for Partnerships in Equity
  • Growing Pains
  • Nontraditional SOC/CIP Crosswalk for Males and
    Females
  • www.napequity.org

12
National Program Evaluations
  • Project Lead the Way
  • Annual Assessment Report for 2006-07
  • Report 17 female enrollment nationally
  • Cisco Networking Academy Gender Initiative
  • Set a benchmark for programs at 30 female
    enrollment
  • National Center for Women in Information
    Technology
  • Report on the Status of Women in IT

13
California Online Data Sources
  • Postsecondary
  • CCCCO Perkins III IV Data
  • Secondary
  • CDE Perkins Website
  • Data Quest
  • Cal PASS (future)

14
Other Data Sources
  • National Center for Educational Achievement
    Just 4 the Kids
  • National Center for Educational Statistics
  • Southern Regional Education Board Data Library
  • NCLB State and Local Report Cards
  • State and Local Participation and Achievement
    Data

15
Perkins Consolidated Annual Report Data
  • State
  • District or College
  • Program
  • Level Analysis

16
State Level Perkins Nontraditional Data Analysis
17
Statewide Secondary and Postsecondary
Participation Data
Sec Part Postsec Part
00-01 15.10 19.04
01-02 20.99 38.27
02-03 48.81 36.98
03-04 50.11 36.80
04-05 50.42 36.71
05-06 49.49 37.53
06-07 49.21 36.25
18
Statewide Secondary and Postsecondary
Participation Data
19
Statewide Secondary and Postsecondary
Participation and Completion Data
Sec Comp Postsec Comp
00-01 25.66 34.38
01-02 50.79 24.37
02-03 51.24 24.42
03-04 49.05 24.21
04-05 51.74 23.52
05-06 54.23 25.79
06-07 55.06 24.71
20
Statewide Secondary and Postsecondary Completion
Data
21
Statewide Secondary and Postsecondary Data
  • What does the data say or suggest?
  • How has state performed in each measure?
  • What happened to the results over time?
  • What questions arise from this data?

22
District or College Level Perkins III Analysis
23
College Participation and Completion Data
Year Nontrad Participation Nontrad Completion
01-02 20.39 23.53
02-03 32.61 12.99
03-04 30.72 14.86
04-05 29.38 14.46
05-06 28.52 13.16
06-07 35.06 24.56
24
College Perkins III Nontraditional Participation
Data
25
College Perkins III Nontraditional Completion Data
26
College Level Data
  • How has the college performed on each measure?
  • How has the college performed as compared to the
    state average on each measure?
  • What happened to the results over time?
  • What questions arise from this data?

27
Program Level Perkins III Analysis
28
State Program Participation and Completion
Data 09 TOP Code- Engineering and Industrial Tech
Year Nontrad Participation Nontrad Completion
01-02 9.36 12.76
02-03 13.5 12.5
03-04 13.9 10.9
04-05 13.9 11.5
05-06 12.7 9.8
29
State Perkins III Nontraditional Participation
and Completion Data 09 TOP Code Engineering and
Industrial Tech
30
Program Level Data
  • What does the data say or suggest?
  • How has the state performed in each measure?
  • What happened to the results over time?
  • What questions arise from this data?

31
College Program Participation and Completion 09
TOP Code- Engineering and Industrial Tech
Year Nontrad Participation Nontrad Completion
01-02 9.46 9.09
02-03 8.77 N/R
03-04 9.67 0.00
04-05 8.86 0.00
05-06 6.81 0.00
06-07 6.04 0.00
32
College Perkins III Nontraditional Participation
Data 09 TOP Code Engineering and Industrial Tech
33
College Perkins III Nontraditional Completion
Data 09 TOP Code Engineering and Industrial Tech
34
Program Level Data
  • What does the data say or suggest?
  • How has the college performed in each measure?
  • What happened to the results over time?
  • What questions arise from this data?

35
Other Analyses with Perkins Data
  • You can do disaggregated analyses by
  • Ethnicity
  • Special population
  • Suggested comparisons and analyses
  • Look statewide (secondary postsecondary) and at
    specific sites and in specific programs
  • Compare to see if certain groups choose NTO CTE
    programs at higher/lower rates than their
    representation in CTE programs in general
  • Look at total numbers as well as percents. Be
    aware of the effect of small sample size

36
Skill Attainment in Engineering and Industrial
Technology
37
Completions in Engineering and Industrial
Technology
38
Completion Caveats
  • Completions are tracked for concentrators -
    those students who are seriously committed to the
    program.
  • There may be many dropouts before students become
    concentrators.

39
Placement for Engineering and Industrial
Technology
40
Employment Retention for Engineering and
Industrial Tech
41
Nontraditional Participation Special Population
Analysis Engineering and Industrial Tech (09) -
Region 6 data
42
Data Worksheet Activity
43
Case Study
44
The Five Step Process
45
STEP TWO
  • Identify
  • Root
  • Causes

46
Why Search for Root Causes?
  • Keep from fixating on the silver bullet
    strategy
  • Identify the conditions or factors that cause or
    permit a performance gap to occur
  • Two types of causes
  • Direct cause (i.e. instructional practice)
  • Indirect cause (i.e. teacher training)

47
Review Research Summary
  • Root Causes Tables
  • Chapter 6 Tables 16, 17, 19, and 20 from,
    Improving Performance on Perkins III Core
    Indicators Summary of Research on Causes and
    Improvement Strategies
  • Authors Robert Sheets, Mimi Lufkin, and David
    Stevens for the National Centers for Career
    Technical Education
  • Available at www.stemequitypipeline.org

48
Review Research Summary
  • Bias Literacy
  • A review of concepts in research on
    discrimination
  • By Ruta Sevo, Ph.D. and
  • Daryl E. Chubin, Ph.D.
  • Available at www.stemequitypipeline.org

49
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50
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51
Root Causes
  • Career Guidance Materials and Practices
  • Access to and Participation in STEM
  • Instructional Strategies
  • Classroom Climate
  • Role Models

52
Root Causes
  • Early Exposure
  • Curriculum Materials
  • Occupational Choice/Segregation
  • School Climate
  • Student Attitudes

53
Root Causes
  • Support Services
  • Student Isolation Based on Gender
  • Self-efficacy
  • Attribution Theory
  • Locus of Control

54
Root Causes
  • Bias and Discrimination
  • Gender schema
  • Accumulative Advantage
  • Stereotype threat
  • Implicit bias

55
How to Identify Root Causes
  • Search for most direct highest impact causes
  • Employ a systematic evidence-based process
  • Draw on current research and evaluation
  • Formulate and test theories or hypotheses
  • Use multiple methods and data sources
  • Note, youre likely to find multiple causes

56
Phase 1 Identify Potential Causes
  • Review Research Literature
  • Review Program/Institutional Evaluations and
    Effectiveness Reviews
  • Conduct Focus Groups
  • Peer Benchmarking
  • Interviews Surveys
  • Brainstorm

57
Resources on CD
  • Survey Instruments
  • Destination Success
  • How to Conduct Interviews
  • How to Conduct Focus Groups

58
Resources available at www.stemequitypipeline.org
  • Survey Instruments
  • How to Conduct Interviews
  • How to Conduct Focus Groups

59
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60
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61
Other Resources
  • The New Look
  • Self-Study
  • Illinois Center for Specialized Professional
    Support

62
Phase 2 Analyze and Evaluate Potential Causes
  • Group Causes Into Two Categories
  • Group 1 Causes Within Your Control
  • School scheduling
  • Classroom climate
  • Faculty awareness and capacity
  • Group 2 Causes Outside Your Control
  • Media representation
  • Family demographics

63
Phase 3 Test and Evaluate Potential Causes
Within Your Control
  • Select root causes that
  • Have the strongest theory and evidence to support
    them
  • Focus on direct causes of performance gaps
  • Address the most critical needs
  • Provide the best opportunity to have high impact
    on performance
  • Are supported by stakeholders who will help
    develop and implement solutions
  • (See page 17 of the OVAE Guidebook)

64
Group Root Causes Activity
  • In groups
  • Review the root causes cards
  • Arrange the root causes by your groups sense of
    their impact and relationship to students in
    programs nontraditional by gender
  • Post the cards on the wall in whatever
    arrangement best fits your groups thinking

65
Individual Root Causes Activity
  • Place stickers on the posters for the four root
    causes that most significantly impact students
    who are in, or considering entering,
    nontraditional programs for their gender
  • On the other root causes poster
  • Write any additional root causes that have not
    been identified

66
Case Study
67
Implementation Planning
68
The Five Step Process
69
STEP THREE
  • Choose
  • Best
  • Solutions

70
Choose Best Solutions
  • Dont be too quick to adopt best practices before
    getting the facts straight
  • How do you identify possible strategies and model
    practices?
  • How do you evaluate strategies and models?
  • How do you compare and assess alternative
    solutions and make a decision?

71
Assessing and Comparing Alternative Strategies
  • Sound Theory
  • Strong Evidence
  • Costs/Time of Further Testing
  • Resources
  • Stakeholder Support
  • Failure is Expensive
  • Select a Full Range of Choices

72
Identify Potential Strategies and Models
  • Review What Others Propose
  • NSF- New Formulas for Americas Workforce
  • Benchmark Peers and Leading Performers
  • Programs and Practices That Work
  • Best Practices in STEM Education
  • EEES Best Practices
  • Develop Your Own Solutions

73
Review Research Summary
  • Strategies
  • Chapter 6 Tables 18 and 21
  • Improving Performance on Perkins III Core
    Indicators Summary of Research on Causes and
    Improvement Strategies
  • Authors Robert Sheets, Mimi Lufkin, and David
    Stevens for the National Centers for Career
    Technical Education
  • Available at www.napequity.org

74
Root Causes and Strategies Matching Exercise
75
Strategies for Recruitment
76
Strategies for Recruitment
  • Review career guidance materials and practices
    for gender bias and nontraditional exposure and
    support
  • Guidelines for Identifying Bias in Curriculum and
    Materials
  • Safe Schools Coalition
  • EEES-NAPE-PLTW Guidance Counselor Presentation
  • Am I a Fair Counselor
  • Destination Success, MAVCC
  • Could This Be Your Life?
  • Illinois Center for Specialized Professional
    Support

77
Strategies for Recruitment
  • Invite, involve and educate parents
  • Talented Girls Bright Futures
  • Publication by Project Lead the Way
  • American Careers Magazine
  • Expanding Career Options Issue
  • Career Communications, Inc.

78
Strategies for Recruitment
  • Conduct middle school programs
  • Minot Public Schools
  • Minot, North Dakota
  • Programs and Practices That Work
  • 2005 Award Winner

79
Strategies for Recruitment
  • Provide role models and mentors
  • Girls E-Mentoring in Science, Engineering and
    Technology GEM-SET
  • USDOL, Womens Bureau
  • Engineer Girl
  • National Academy of Engineering

80
Strategies for Recruitment
  • Conduct targeted recruitment activities
  • Summer Camps
  • Cisco Gender Initiative Strategies
  • I am an Engineer
  • Cisco Systems, Inc.

81
Strategies for Recruitment
  • Conduct pre-technical training programs
  • Rosies Girls
  • Northern New England Tradeswomen
  • TechBridge
  • Chabot Space and Science Center

82
Strategies for Recruitment
  • Collaborate with community-based organizations
  • Operation SMART, Girls, Inc.
  • Expanding Your Horizons
  • Girl Scouts
  • National Girls Collaborative Project

83
Strategies for Recruitment
  • Conduct professional development with teachers at
    all levels
  • Generating Expectations for Student Achievement,
    Graymill
  • STEM Equity Pipeline
  • Career Technical Education Equity Council

84
Strategies for Recruitment
  • Implement and model gender-fair institutional
    strategies
  • Checking Your School for Sexism
  • Destination Success, MAVCC
  • Gender Equity Item Bank
  • Midwest Equity Assistance Center

85
Strategies for Retention
86
Strategies for Retention
  • Evaluate all school and curriculum materials for
    gender bias and positive nontraditional images
  • Gender Equity Tip Sheets
  • Bias Evaluation Instrument
  • Nova Scotia Department of Education
  • Curricular Bias, David Sadker

87
Strategies for Retention
  • Increase teacher and administrator quality and
    equity-capacity through professional development
  • The Equity Principal
  • Graymill
  • NAPE Professional Development Institute
  • Washington, DC

88
Strategies for Retention
  • Increase competence in diversity and sexual
    harassment prevention
  • Gender Equity Tip Sheets
  • Tolerance.org
  • Southern Poverty Law Center
  • Project Implicit, Harvard University

89
Strategies for Retention
  • Conduct nontraditional student support groups and
    peer counseling
  • Computer Clubhouse
  • Bostons Museum of Science
  • NASA Harriett G. Jenkins Pre-Doctoral Fellowship
    Program
  • (Facebook Group)

90
Strategies for Retention
  • Provide nontraditional role models, mentors, and
    job shadowing
  • IGNITE, Seattle Public School System
  • MentorNet
  • How to Plan and Facilitate a Job Shadowing
    Experience
  • Destination Success, MAVCC

91
Strategies for Retention
  • Invite, involve and educate parents
  • Trailblazers
  • VA Department of Education
  • Ways for Parents to Support Expanded Occupational
    Options
  • Destination Success, MAVCC

92
Strategies for Retention
  • Provide a continuum of support services
  • Tutoring
  • Child care
  • Transportation
  • Financial Aid
  • Books, Equipment, Tools, Clothing
  • Tuition
  • Modification of Curriculum, Equipment
  • Student/Teacher Aides
  • More

93
Strategies for Retention
  • Invite, involve, and educate business
  • Cisco Systems, Inc. Gender Initiative
  • Cisco Systems, Inc.
  • Society of Women Engineers

94
Resources on www.stemequitypipeline.org
Dont Forget These Additional Teacher Focused
Resources!
  • Gender Equity Tip Sheets
  • Teacher Resources Folder

95
Case Study
96
The Five Step Process
97
Questions?
National Alliance for Partnerships in Equity
  • Mimi Lufkin
  • Executive Director
  • P.O. Box 369
  • Cochranville, PA 19330
  • 610-593-8038 phone
  • 610-593-7283 fax
  • mimilufkin_at_napequity.org
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