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Instructor Orientation

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Behaviourist learning theory. Reductionist approach. ... ( Practice/feedback/test) Clearly define expectations and marking criteria. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Instructor Orientation


1
Instructor Orientation
  •  

2
Characteristics of Adult LearnersMalcolm Knowles
  • Independent self-concept.
  • Broad base of experience.
  • Immediate time orientation/relevancy.
  • Subsidiary social roleother responsibilities.
  • Physiological changesreaction time, vision,
    hearing.
  • Unique developmental tasks become important.
  • Inteligence Crystalized and Fluid

3
  • Crystallized Intelligence
  • Use in most problem solving activities as adults.
  • Increase as people age/stimulating environments.
  • Fluid Intelligence
  • Use to solve problems/spacial relations
    (patterning).
  • Declines a certain amount as we age.

4
Learning Outcomes
  • Separate subjects? Or deal with life outside the
    college classroom?
  • What do you want your students to display at end
    of educational experience?
  • What is worth knowing?
  • What is the purpose of a college education?
  • What knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes?

5
Three approaches to curriculum development
  • Content Approach (common to 1960).
  • Competency Approach (1965-1990).
  • Learning Outcome Approach (1985-present).

6
Content Approach
  • Emphasis on content.
  • Instructor centred.
  • Instructor as expert.
  • Liberal philosophy.
  • Assessment involved norm-referenced exams.

7
Competency Approach
  • Emphasis on competencies.
  • Student centred.
  • Behaviourist learning theory.
  • Reductionist approach.
  • Assessment by competency, criterion referenced.

8
Learning Outcome Approach
  • Systems theory thinking.
  • Emphasis on broad learning outcomes.
  • Constructivist learning theory.
  • Authentic assessment procedures.

9
So what is a learning outcome anyway?
  • Integrated learning of knowledge, skills and
    abilities, and attitudes (values and
    dispositions).

10
The learning outcomes approach
  • Basing program and curriculum design, content,
    and delivery on an explicit identification of the
    integrated knowledge, skills, and values needed
    by both students and society.

11
Why the learning outcomes approach?
  • More emphasis on teaching.
  • Better access for students.
  • More student-centred learning.
  • More wholistic education. (practicums,
    work-study integration, co-op, work experience,
    authentic assessment, relevant curriculum)

12
Your ideal graduate?
  • What knowledge, skills, and attitudes would
    that person have?

13
Typology of Learning Outcomes
Generic Intellectual skills
Generic Process Skills
General Knowledge
Generic Occupational Skills
Specific Occupational Skills
Program Learning Outcomes
Rounding Requirements/ Service Courses
Generation of New Knowledge
Mastery of a Discipline
14
Curriculum Development
15
Dacum Chart

Communicate assertively with difficult
staff Learning Tasks Describe assertive
behaviour. Describe passive behaviour. Describe
aggressive behaviour. Apply Im OK youre OK
model.
Supervise Staff
Create Assessments
16
Observation of performance
  • Actual
  • Work samples, supervisor ratings, peer ratings,
    self-assessment.
  • Simulations
  • Written simulations, management exercises,
    simulation machines, projects.
  • Oral
  • Oral exam, interview, prepared presentation.

17
Observation of performance
  • Assessment methods
  • Checklists
  • Rating scales
  • Anecdotal records
  • Completed products/projects

18
Written examination
  • Constructed Response
  • Short answer
  • Essay
  • Design problem
  • reports
  • Selected Response
  • Multiple choice
  • Alternate response T/F
  • Matching

19
Authentic Assessment
  • Evaluation that reflects applied skill
    performance.
  • More wholistic.
  • Real world situations.

20
Assessment of Soft Skills
  • Describe the skill
  • What does it look like?
  • What does it sound like?
  • How does it make us feel?
  • Reduce list to about 10 descriptors.
  • Design scales to identify development.
  • Use role play or similar activity and rate
    abilities.

21
  • When should we create an evaluation strategy?

22
Domains of Learning
  • Psychomotor
  • Physical
  • Cognitive
  • Thinking/knowledge
  • Affective
  • Emotions/attitudes/values

23
Verb Choices for Complexity of Learning
  • Simple (identify, recite, name)
  • Intermediate (assemble, explain, justify)
  • Complex (combine, analyse, solve)

24
Sequencing Learning Events
  • Simple to complex.
  • General to specific.
  • Concrete to abstract.
  • Chronological.

25
The Training and Development ProcessChapter 1
  • Understand the meaning of the terms performance
    management, training and development.
  • Describe the organizational, employee, and
    societal benefits of training and development.
  • Discuss training and development in Canada.
  • Understand and explain the role of the
    environmental and organizational context of
    training and development.
  • Understand the meaning of strategic human
    resources management (SHRM) and what makes
    training and development strategic
  • Discuss the instructional systems design (ISD)
    model of training and development.

26
Chapter 14
  • Challenges and Best Practices
  • Describe how the role of the trainer has changed
    and evolved.
  • Discuss the role of ethics in training and
    development.
  • Describe the challenges faced by organizations
    and the implications and trends for training and
    development.
  • Discuss the main reasons why training programs
    fail and the best practices to make them
    effective.

27
Hospitality Operations Program
  • Learning tasks
  • Describe assertive behaviour.
  • Describe passive behaviour.
  • Describe aggressive behaviour.
  • Describe passive/aggressive behaviour.
  • Explain the relationship between these behaviours
    and the Im OK, Youre OK feelings.

28
Gagnes Taxonomy
  • Verbal information (knowing what).
  • Intellectual skills (knowing how/problem
    setting).
  • Cognitive strategy (problem solving).
  • Motor skills (Blooms psychomotor).
  • Attitudes (Blooms affective).

29
Blooms Domains of Learning
30
Curriculum Alignment
  • All parts are congruentlearning objectives,
    instructional techniques, and assessment.
  • Example
  • Objective develop critical thinking skills
  • Technique lecture
  • Assessment test of simple recall

31
Blooms Taxonomy
32
Examples of Activities
  • Cut out a pattern using a band saw.
  • Name the Premier of BC.
  • Cooperate with members of a group.
  • Develop a computer program to teach driver
    training.
  • Explain the difference between fighting fairly
    and fighting unfairly.

33
Another way of looking at competency
  • Novice (following the rules).
  • Advanced beginner (rules and experience guide
    behaviour).
  • Competent (judgement and choice).
  • Proficient (experiences drive analysis, rules no
    longer consciously used).
  • Expert (fluid, reflection responses to entire
    situations).

34
Implications for teaching
  • Didactic/sermonic instructioncannot raise above
    Advanced Beginner stage.
  • Widely varied repetitive practice and reflection
    required to reach competent stage.
  • Learners can have varying competencies in
    performance and knowledge areas.

35
Why classify into domains?
  • More easily choose appropriate techniques.
  • Helps instructors consider the level that they
    want students to learn.
  • Often instructors only test recall.

36
Learning Styles
  • Concrete experience Learn from others, group
    work and discussion.
  • Reflective Observation Learn by watching and
    listening.
  • Abstract conceptualisation Learn by logical
    analysis, reading textbooks.
  • Active experimentation Learn by doing, taking
    risks.

37
Learning Styles
  • Visual (see)
  • Auditory (hear)
  • Kinesthetic tactile (do feel)

38
Multiple Intelligences
  • Linguistic intelligence
  • Logical-mathematical intelligence
  • Musical intelligence
  • Spatial intelligence
  • Bodily kinesthetic intelligence
  • Interpersonal intelligence
  • Intrapersonal intelligence
  • Naturalist intelligence
  • Frames of Mind (Gardner, 1983)

39
Multiple Intelligences
  • Build in opportunities for learners to
    demonstrate their abilities.

40
Elements of a Lesson
  • Transition
  • Stating objectives
  • Motivation
  • Pre-assessment
  • Learning tasks
  • Instructor/learner activities/learning styles
  • Resources
  • Summary and assessment
  • Bridging to next lesson
  • Notes

41
Your first class
  • Meet the needs of the four learning styles
  • watch the big picture of the course.
  • read hand out the course outline.
  • feel give them something to discuss in groups.
  • Do give them something hands on to do.
  • Give homework.

42
Class lectures/digesting
  • deliver a lecture covering key points, using
    examples and diagrams.
  • use expert groups to report on sections of the
    chapter.
  • give a practical assignment/case study.
  • ask students to present aspects of the chapter.
  • Supplement the text with your experiences and
    knowledge.
  • ask questions at the beginning of the class
    Joe, what did you find interesting about the
    chapter reading?
  • avoid reading to the students.

43
We retain,
  • 20 of what we hear
  • 50 of what we hear and see
  • 80 of what we hear, see, and do.

44
Dales Cone of Experience
ABSTRACT
20 hear
Verbal symbols Visual symbols
50 hear see
Recording, Radio, Still pictures, Motion
Pictures, Television
ICONIC

Exhibits, Field Trips Demonstrations Dramatized
Experience Contrived Experience Direct Purposeful
Experience
80 hear, see, do
ENACTIVE
45
Lettering Standards for Transparencies
  • Evenly drawn, medium strokes.
  • Avoid script.
  • Maximum two type styles per visual.
  • Limit use of capitals (short lines/labels).
  • Use title case for headings (lowercase).
  • One idea/six words per line
  • six to seven lines per visual.

46
Lettering Standards
  • Use white space/uncluttered look.
  • Space letters optically (kerning).
  • Use moderate bold lines (avoid too thick/thin).
  • Space between words 1.5 letters.
  • Space between sentences 3 letters.
  • Use good contrast between lettering and
    background.

47
Presentation skills
  • Prepare well.
  • Face your audience when speaking.
  • Cover transparencies/lines until required.
  • Create clear photocopies/handouts.

48
General tips for instruction
  • Allow ample time for feedback before testing.
    (Practice/feedback/test)
  • Clearly define expectations and marking criteria.
  • Provide timely feedback.
  • Do formative evaluation
  • Listen to what students have to say.
  • Create a balance in rigor.
  • Assist learners with study and test taking
    skills.
  • Learners must self-disclose disabilities.
  • Be aware of diversity of learners.
  • Ensure that comprehensive tests are equitable.

49
Enjoy your teaching,
  • Become a student of your own practice.
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