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Ancient Rome Regents Review

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Rome: 'The First Romans' The Etruscans -Northern Italy -Urbanized Rome: ... Rome experienced economic depression and grain shortages ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ancient Rome Regents Review


1
Ancient Rome
2
The Geography of Rome
3
The History of Ancient Italy
4
The Mythical Founding of Rome Romulus Remus
5
PEOPLE The Latins -Rome The First
Romans The Etruscans -Northern Italy -Urbanized
Rome Building Programs (the
Forum) -Influence on Romans the arch,
alphabet The Greeks -Southern Italy and
Sicily -Influence on Romans art,
architecture, literature, ..government,
engineering GEOGRAPHY -Tiber River
Mediterranean Sea -Fertile Soil Strategic
Location
Ancient Italy (c. 6th century B.C.)
6
Italy in 750 BCE
7
Etruscans Conquer Rome ca.600 BCE
  • The Romans adopt Etruscan culture
  • The Etruscan Alphabet
  • Art (sculpture, pottery, frescoes, etc)
  • Gods / Goddesses (polytheistic religion)
  • building techniques (including the arch)

8
Influence of the Etruscans
  • Writing
  • Religion
  • The Arch

9
The Roman Republic 509 BCE - 27 BCE
10
The Roman Republic (509 B.C. 27 B.C.)
  • 509 B.C., Romans rejected Etruscan king
    (monarchy) and established a republic.
  • Power rests with the citizens who have the right
    to vote for their leaders.
  • In Rome, citizenship with voting rights was
    granted only to free-born male citizens.

11
Consequences of Freedom
  • The Romans lost trade with the Etruscans and with
    Greek colonies in southern Italy.
  • What little there had been in imports ended.
  • Rome's plebeian merchants and craftsmen suffered.
  • Rome experienced economic depression and grain
    shortages

12
The Roman Republic A Republican form of
Government (509 B.C. 27 B.C.)
A Balanced Government Rome elects two consuls
one to lead army, one to direct
government Senate- chosen from patricians (Roman
upper class), make foreign and domestic
policy Popular assemblies elect tribunes, make
laws for plebeians (commoners) Dictators- leaders
appointed briefly in times of crisis (appt. by
consuls and senate)
13
The Roman Republic (509 B.C. 27 B.C.)
  • STRUGGLE FOR POWER CLASS CONFLICT
  • Patricians- wealthy landowners who held most of
    the power inherited power and social status
  • Plebeians- (Plebs) common farmers, artisans and
    merchants who made up the majority of the
    population can vote, but cant rule
  • Tribunes- elected representatives who protect
    plebeians political rights.

14
The Roman Republic (509 B.C. 27 B.C.)
  • THE TWELVE TABLES
  • 451 B.C., officials carve Roman laws on twelve
    tablets and hung in Forum.
  • Laws confirm right of all free citizens to
    protection of the law
  • Become the basis for later Roman law

15
The Twelve Tables, 451 BCE
  • Providing political and social rights for the
    plebeians.

16
The Roman Forum
17
Roman Roads The Appian Way
18
Roman Roads
As they expanded their control, the Romans built
an excellent network of roads.
Why was this significant?
19
Roman Roads
How they were built
20
Roman Roads
  • Their road system is one of the Romans greatest
    achievements

21
The Roman road system
  • allowed easy military transport
  • enabled trade and commerce
  • helped unify expanding Roman territories

22
Military Organization The Roman Army
23
The Roman Army
  • All citizens were required to serve
  • Army was powerful
  • Organization fighting skill
  • Legion- military unit of 5,000 infantry (foot
    soldiers) supported by cavalry (horseback)

24
Rome Spreads its Power
  • Romans defeat Etruscans in north and Greek
    city-states in south
  • Treatment of Conquered
  • Forge alliances
  • Offer citizenship
  • By 265 B.C., Rome controls Italian peninsula

25
Romes Commercial Network
  • Rome establishes a large trading network
  • Access to Mediterranean Sea provides many trade
    routes
  • Carthage, powerful city-state in North Africa,
    soon rivals Rome

26
Military Organization The Punic Wars
27
Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.)
  • Three Wars between Rome and Carthage
  • 1st Punic War- Rome gains control of Sicily
    western Mediterranean Sea.

The destruction of Carthage during the Punic
Wars. New York Public Library Picture Collection

28
Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.)
  • 2nd Punic War- Carthaginian General Hannibals
    surprise attack through Spain France
  • 60,000 soldiers and 60 elephants
  • Romans experience severe losses, but eventually
    ward off attacks invade North Africa

The destruction of Carthage during the Punic
Wars. New York Public Library Picture Collection

29
Hannibal's troops crossing the Rhone River on
their way to attack northern Italy.
30
Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.)
  • 3rd Punic War- Rome seizes Carthage
  • Scipio- Roman Strategist
  • Conquered people sold into slavery

The destruction of Carthage during the Punic
Wars. New York Public Library Picture Collection

31
Do you think the Roman Republic owed its success
more to its form of government, or its army?
Why? How does Romes rise to power relate to
modern efforts to gain power and authority?
Why were the Romans able to conquer Italy the
Mediterranean World? (Give a few reasons and
explain)
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