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Forest Insects

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Title: Forest Insects


1
Forest Insects DisordersBy Doyle Floyd
May 2007
2
Conifer Bark Beetles
3
Ambrosia Beetle
  • (Platypus spp.)

4
IMPORTANCE
  • Attack most pine species hardwoods
  • Infest weakened dying trees, green logs
    unseasoned lumber
  • Degrade lumber reduce strength

5
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6
IDENTIFICATION
  • Dark reddish brown in color
  • About ¼ long
  • Usually have sharp spines at the rear

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8
Injury Identification
  • Large piles of fine white granular dust below
    entrance holes or at the base of standing trees
  • Darkly stained galleries

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10
Biology
  • Adults and larvae feed on fungus brought into the
    wood not the wood
  • Adults bore into sapwood or heartwood of logs and
    lumber
  • Females lay eggs in small clusters
  • Timber is not attacked unless moisture content of
    wood is at least 48
  • Seasoned lumber is never infested

11
Control
  • No chemical control recommended in the forest
  • Rapid utilization of cut timber
  • Fast drying of lumber helps prevent damage
  • Winter harvest storage

12
Black Turpentine Beetle
  • (Dendroctonus terebrans)

13
IMPORTANCE
  • Found from New Hampshire to Florida from West
    Virginia to East Texas
  • Attacks all pines native to the South
  • Most serious in pine naval stores

14
IDENTIFICATION
  • Adult insect is dark brown to black in color
  • 3/8 in length
  • Round rear end
  • Full grown larvae are white with a reddish brown
    head about 1/3 long
  • Pupae are about ¼ in length yellowish white

15
Black Turpentine Beetle
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18
Injury Identification
  • Attack fresh stumps
  • Attack lower trunks (0-15) of living pines
  • Initial attacks generally within 2 of the ground
  • Identified by white to reddish-brown pitch tubes,
    about the size of a half-dollar

19
Pitch tube
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21
Biology
  • Adult beetles bore into the cambium construct
    galleries
  • Galleries usually extend downward
  • Eggs laid in clusters hatch in 10-14 days
  • Life cycle takes from 2 ½ to 4 months, depending
    on the season
  • 2-4 generations a year

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23
Larvae
24
Control
  • Natural enemies good tree vigor keep
    populations at low levels
  • Preventive sprays effective for high value trees
  • Prompt removal of infested trees helps control
    outbreaks
  • Management practices that promote tree vigor
    minimize root trunk damage help prevent
    infestations

25
Ips Engraver Beetle
  • (Ips avulsus)
  • (Ips grandicollis)
  • (Ips calligraphus)

26
IMPORTANCE
  • Kill more pine timber in the south than any other
    forest insect, with the exception of the Southern
    Pine Beetle
  • Usually attack injured, dying or recently felled
    trees fresh logging debris
  • Common in trees weakened by drought or lightning
    strikes

27
IDENTIFICATION
  • Adult beetles dark red-brown to almost black
  • 1/8 to 1/5 of an inch long
  • Scooped out rear end with 4-6 spines on each side
  • Larvae have white bodies with orange-brown heads
    are legless
  • Pupae are waxy-white and similar in size to adults

28
Ips Engraver Beetle
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30
Injury Identification
  • First signs of attack are reddish-brown boring
    dust in bark crevices or reddish-brown pitch
    tubes about dime size on bark surfaces
  • Y H shaped egg galleries with short larval
    galleries extending perpendicular to them,
    usually free of boring dust

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33
Injury Identification
  • Pitch tubes found from the ground to the top of
    the trees
  • Blue-stain fungi introduced when the beetles
    attack the tree, visible in the sapwood hasten
    the death of the trees

34
Blue Stain Fungus
35
Biology
  • Female constructs an egg gallery lays eggs
    beneath the bark of attacked trees
  • Larvae make individual feeding galleries in the
    inner bark pupate at the end of their galleries
  • New adults emerge after 21-40 days during the
    summer or after several months during the winter

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Control
  • The best control is prompt removal utilization
    of actively infested trees
  • Destroying the bark and slabs of infested timber
  • Insect parasites predators, woodpeckers
    weather provide natural control
  • Chemical control is not feasible under forest
    conditions
  • Preventive practices include minimizing logging
    damage to remaining trees quick removal of
    felled trees

38
Southern Pine Beetle
  • (Dendroctonus frontalis)

39
IMPORTANCE
  • The most destructive pest of pines in the
    southern United States
  • Occurs from Pennsylvania to Texas from New
    Mexico Arizona to Honduras
  • Attacks can kill all species of pines but
    prefers loblolly, shortleaf, Virginia, pond
    pitch pines

40
IDENTIFICATION
  • Adult is short-legged, about 1/8 long
  • Dark reddish brown to black in color
  • Front of the head is notched and the hind end of
    its body is rounded
  • Larva is crescent-shaped and whitish, with an
    amber head
  • Larvae are approximately the same length as
    adults
  • Pupae are also the same size white.
  • Eggs are pearly-white and found in notches along
    either side of the adult egg galleries

41
Southern Pine Beetle
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45
Injury Identification
  • Adults bore directly through the outer bark into
    the living bark
  • Tree exudes resin which forms a small pitch tube
    about the size of a small piece of popcorn
  • Beetles construct winding, S-shaped galleries,
    which cut across on another and girdle the tree
  • Blue-stain fungus in the sapwood hasten the death
    of the tree
  • First indication of mortality is discoloration of
    the foliage
  • Trees may be killed singly or in groups ranging
    from a few trees to several hundred acres

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51
Blue Stain Fungus
52
Biology
  • Adults construct winding galleries in the inner
    bark, where eggs are deposited in individual
    niches on each side of the galleries
  • Eggs hatch in 4-9 days
  • Larvae bore into the outer bark where they pupate
  • One life cycle can be completed in 30 days under
    ideal conditions
  • 3-7 generations per year depending on latitude,
    elevation climate

53
Control
  • Natural enemies weather help maintain beetle
    populations levels bring cyclic outbreaks under
    control
  • Integrated pest management techniques such as
    rapid removal utilization of infested trees,
    piling burning of infested materials, chemical
    control in high value resources

54
Clerid Beetle
  • (Thanasimus dubius)
  • Bark Beetle Predator

55
Bark Beetle Predator
56
Southern Pine Sawyer
  • (Monochamus titillator)

57
IMPORTANCE
  • Occurs throughout the eastern southern United
    States
  • Destructive to pine logs held in storage pines
    killed by natural or man-made catastrophes

58
IDENTIFICATION
  • Adult beetles are mottled gray and brown
  • 1-1 ¼ long and have antennae which are 2-3 long
  • Full-grown larvae are legless whitish yellow in
    color and up to 2 ¼ long

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61
Injury Identification
  • First signs are funnel shaped pits or egg niches
    in the bark
  • Removal of bark will reveal coarse,
    excelsior-like wood shavings sculptured wood
  • Elliptical shaped holes tightly packed with frass
    indicate that the larvae have bored into the
    sapwood to construct the pupal cell
  • Round, pencil-sized holes in the wood are exit
    holes

62
Biology
  • Adult beetle deposits one to several eggs in the
    cambium area through the egg niches
  • Larva feed on the surface cambium then bore into
    the sapwood heartwood
  • After pupation, adult beetles chew through the
    wood making round exit holes
  • At least 3 generations per year in the southern
    United States

63
Control
  • Rapid utilization of dead dying trees and green
    logs will reduce infestations
  • Storage of large numbers of trees may be sprayed
    with insecticides or debarked
  • Logs stored under water sprays may also prevent
    serious damage

64
Conifer Defoliators
65
Bagworm
  • (Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis)

66
IMPORTANCE
  • One of the most important pests of evergreen
    ornamentals in the South
  • Arborvitae juniper are particularly susceptible
  • Heavy infestations will strip evergreens of their
    foliage cause branch dieback or death
  • Some hardwood species are attacked but rarely
    damaged as severely as conifers

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68
IDENTIFICATION
  • Larvae are rarely seen outside the bags they
    construct
  • Wingless female moth is grub-like and remains
    inside the tough, silken bag her entire life
  • Males are nimble fliers can be seen in the fall
    circling around infested trees in search of a mate

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72
Injury Identification
  • Bagworms consume the entire needle or leaf,
    leaving only the sheath or mid-rib
  • Usually feed on none branch at a time
  • Indication of damage is the presence of bags
    suspended from twigs branches

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74
Biology
  • Over-winter as eggs, inside the bags that
    contained the female
  • Eggs hatch in the spring and the larvae crawl out
    in search of food
  • Construct a bag around themselves using bits of
    needles, leaves silk
  • Bags are between 1 ½-2 ½ in length and the
    larvae permanently suspend their bags from twigs
    pupate

75
Biology continued
  • In the fall, the male moth emerges, flies to a
    females bag mates
  • Females lay between 500 1,000 eggs within her
    bag
  • One generation per year

76
Control
  • Outbreaks reduced by low winter temperatures a
    complex of several parasites
  • On ornamentals around the home, it is practical
    to use mechanical method of control, picking them
    off and burning them
  • Chemical control is also effective

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78
Conifer Sawflies
  • (Neodiprion spp.)

79
IMPORTANCE
  • Occurs in Southeastern Canada throughout the
    eastern southern United States
  • Attacks all species of pines
  • Heavy defoliation can lead to growth loss and
    tree mortality

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81
IDENTIFICATION
  • Larvae are about 1 in length
  • Larvae consume needles
  • One generation in the spring with defoliation in
    the spring
  • Three or more generations in the fall winter
    with defoliation occurring in the fall
  • Fall winter defoliators have greater impact and
    are considered more devastating

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83
Injury Identification
  • Larvae feed in colonies containing a few to over
    100 larvae
  • Feeding generally occurs on trees under 15 in
    height
  • Young larvae feed on the outer portion of the
    needles
  • Unconsumed portions of needles have a straw-like
    appearance
  • Older larvae strip branches of all foliage
    sometimes feed on tender bark when foliage is
    scarce.

84
Biology
  • Over-winters in the larval stage within cocoons
    located in the soil or duff
  • Adults emerge in the spring
  • Female lays approximately 120 eggs in rows on the
    needles of a single twig
  • Eggs hatch in 2-4 weeks larvae feed for about 4
    weeks
  • Larvae drop to the ground spin their cocoons
  • From 1 to 3 generations per year depending on
    species

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86
Control
  • Natural factors climatic conditions help
    control populations
  • Polyhedrosis virus are very effective at
    controlling outbreaks
  • Chemical insecticides may be used to control
    outbreaks

87
Pine Webworm
  • (Tetralopha robustella)

88
IMPORTANCE
  • Occurs in southern Canada and throughout most of
    the eastern half of the United States
  • Attacks the 3 major species of pine as well as
    Virginia, white shortleaf
  • Usually attacks one two year seedlings but will
    infest saplings large trees
  • Rarely kill the trees but does have impact on
    growth tree form

89
IDENTIFICATION
  • Adult moth is dark to medium gray, with dark gray
    to black forewings on the basal third and outer
    half
  • Wingspread is approximately 1
  • Larva are light gray with darker tan stripes
    along the body
  • Larva are approximately ¾ long when fully grown
  • Pupae are reddish in color approximately ½ long

90
Injury Identification
  • Most noticeable usually first sign of attack is
    a large mass of frass excrement pellets
    entangled in a network of silken webbing
  • Mass usually has one or more larvae

91
Biology
  • Eggs usually laid on seedlings occasionally on
    larger trees between May September
  • Caterpillars live in silken webs surrounded by
    masses of frass feed on needles
  • Caterpillars drop to the ground pupate in the
    soil
  • Usually two generations per year

92
Control
  • Hand picking webbings is effective method of
    control
  • High value nursery stock may require chemical
    control

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94
Meristem Feeders
95
Nantucket Pine Tip Moth
  • (Rhyacionia frustrana)

96
IMPORTANCE
  • Bud and shoot borer
  • Occurs throughout the East South
  • Attacks most species of pine
  • Greatest economic loss results from retarding the
    height growth deforming the main stems of trees
  • Kills female flowers and cone lets

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98
IDENTIFICATION
  • Young larvae are cream colored with black heads
  • Mature larvae are light brown to orange, about
    2/5 long
  • Head, body appendages of the moth are covered
    with gray scales, while forewings are covered
    with patches of brick-red and copper-colored
    scales

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100
Injury Identification
  • Injure the growing shoots of young pines
  • Larvae bore into and feed on inner tissues of
    buds and shoots
  • Shoot injury occurs primarily during the first 5
    years decreases as crowns close
  • Boring frass on the cone let surface dead stalk
    is the first indication of attack

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102
Biology
  • Over-winters as pupa adults emerge in late
    winter or early spring
  • Mating egg laying occur shortly after emergence
  • Early larvae feed on needles surfaces of new
    growth, while later larvae move to shoot tips
    begin boring into buds or stem tissues
  • Pupation occurs within damaged shoots
  • 2-5 generations per year

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104
Control
  • Control by insecticides is usually not
    recommended except for high value trees in seed
    orchard, nurseries, Christmas tree plantations or
    for ornamentals.

105
Pales Weevil
  • (Hylobius pales)

106
IMPORTANCE
  • Most serious insect threat to newly planted
    pines, particularly on recently cutover sites
  • More common along the Gulf coast
  • Feeds on most coniferous species and all species
    of southern pines
  • Seedling mortality has been recorded as high as
    90 30-60 mortality is not uncommon

107
IDENTIFICATION
  • Adult weevils are oblong, robust, black to
    reddish brown about ½ long
  • Wing covers have small, scattered patches of
    yellowish hair
  • Mouth parts have a trunk or snout appearance

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109
Injury Identification
  • Adults feed on the tender bark of seedlings,
    twigs or larger trees
  • Small, irregular feeding patches in the bark are
    characteristic of weevil damage
  • Heavy feeding may girdle the stem causing wilting
    or death
  • Feeding below the root collar and on the roots is
    common

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111
Biology
  • Adult weevils are attracted by the odor of fresh
    pine resin quickly invade recently logged areas
  • Eggs are laid in lateral roots of fresh pine
    stumps hatch in 5-10 days
  • Larvae feed on the inner bark tissue of dead
    roots
  • Full-grown larvae construct a chip cocoon in the
    wood pupate
  • Pupal stage lasts from a few weeks to several
    months depending on temperature
  • Adult weevils are found year round
  • Two generations per year

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113
Control
  • Can be controlled by delaying planting for one
    season in areas cut over after July
  • Treating seedlings with a registered insecticide
  • Reducing the size of clear-cuts

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115
Piercing Sucking Insects
116
Aphids
117
IMPORTANCE
  • Infest hardwoods and conifers throughout the
    United States
  • Can be found anywhere on the tree
  • Heavy infestations distort foliage, cause
    terminal die-back, reduce vitality, weaken the
    tree can cause branch crown die-back
  • Greatest concern in nurseries ornamentals

118
IDENTIFICATION
  • Vary in color body covering
  • Range in size from1/50 to ¼ long
  • All soft-bodied insects
  • Pear-shaped with a pair of cornicles at the
    posterior of the abdomen
  • May be transparent, yellow, green, pink, brown,
    almost black or spotted
  • Some may be covered with a white wooly wax
  • Some are winged while others are not

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120
Injury Identification
  • Leaf discoloration, dieback of newly formed
    terminals, branch ends new leaves
  • Early leaf drop, ring-like swelling or knots at
    nodes buds
  • Sooty mold ants are good indicators of an
    active or recent aphid attack

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122
Biology
  • Over-wintering can occur in any life stage but
    the most common is the adult or egg
  • Eggs hatch live births occur in the spring
  • Nymphs begin feeding on selected parts of the
    plant
  • Some migrate nymphs, others spend their live in
    one place
  • One to several generations per year
  • Some require alternate hosts in alternate
    generations

123
Control
  • Parasites predators are effective in
    controlling aphid outbreaks maintaining low
    populations
  • Insecticides are used to protect high value
    trees, most effective against the nymphs

124
Sooty Mold
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126
IDENTIFICATION
  • Superficial on leaf surfaces, a result of the
    honeydew excreted by aphids
  • Cause little damage to trees
  • Controlling the insects controls the disease

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128
Conifer Diseases
129
Needle Cast
  • ( Hypoderma sp.)
  • (Lophodermium sp.)

130
IMPORTANCE
  • Needle cast fungi are common diseases of conifers
    throughout the South
  • Forest stand trees usually recover
  • In non-forest conifers, such as Christmas trees,
    losses can be substantial
  • Loblolly, slash, shortleaf, Virginia eastern
    white pine are susceptible

131
IDENTIFICATION
  • Over 25 needle cast fungi known in the South
  • Only identified microscopically
  • Yellow-brown color of needles
  • Scorched appearance in later stages of infestation

132
Injury Identification
  • Needles begin to turn yellow-brown by winter or
    early spring
  • Browning progresses fungal fruiting bodies are
    produced
  • Small, black fruiting bodies may be bordered by
    brown or yellow margins or both
  • Scorched appearance in more advanced stages

133
Biology
  • New needles infected in spring or summer
  • Fungi colonize the needle tissue, turning it
    yellow later brown
  • Fruiting bodies are formed in these brown areas,
    which produce spores that are spread during wet
    weather to re-infect new needles on other trees

134
Control
  • No practical control in forest stands
  • Fungicide sprays may be applied in Christmas tree
    plantings nurseries

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137
Brown Spot Needle Blight
  • (Scirrhia acicola)

138
IMPORTANCE
  • Longleaf pine is the only species damaged by this
    disease
  • Seedlings heavily infected while in the grass
    stage
  • Seedlings often die after repeated defoliations

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140
IDENTIFICATION
  • Boat shaped spores are produced in the yellow
    bands on the needles
  • Positive identification can be made by examining
    spores under a microscope
  • Needles develop grey-green spots which later turn
    brown
  • Yellow band develops on the needle
  • Affected area increases in size, resulting in
    death of the needle

141
Biology
  • Spores released from the fruiting bodies on the
    needles throughout the year
  • Spores splashed short distances by rain
  • Longer distance spread of the fungus is done by
    perithecia which are produced on the dead needles

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143
Control
  • Plant resistant or high quality seedlings on
    intensively prepared sites
  • When using seed trees, burn in the fall to
    destroy diseased needles
  • When seedlings are established, burn during the
    dormant season
  • Fungicide sprays are effective for controlling
    this disease in nurseries

144
Pine Needle Rust
  • (Coleosporium sp.)

145
IMPORTANCE
  • Most prevalent on young trees
  • Usually does not seriously damage trees
  • Most concern in Christmas tree plantings and
    nurseries
  • Most yellow pines throughout the south are
    susceptible
  • Goldenrod, asters other plants serve as
    alternate hosts

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147
IDENTIFICATION
  • Fungus has four stages
  • Infected pines have white-orange blisters on the
    needles
  • Fruiting structures are an obvious feature of
    infection

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149
Biology
  • Four stages of fungal development
  • Two stages on the pine needles with the other two
    stages on alternate hosts

150
Control
  • No control necessary in forest stands
  • Alternate hosts can be reduced by mowing or
    herbicide applications
  • Chemical applications are justified in high value
    areas such as nurseries

151
Cedar Apple Rust
  • (Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae)

152
IMPORTANCE
  • Golf ball-size galls that form on eastern red
    cedar (alternate hosts) are unsightly
  • Cause little harm to the tree
  • The primary host-apples, crabapples- experience
    foliage loss, growth loss, reduced quantity
    quality of fruit and in some cases death

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154
IDENTIFICATION
  • Fungus forms galls on the branches of eastern red
    cedar
  • In the spring, the galls produce long, orange
    tendrils or horns
  • Leaf spots form on the apple host in the spring
  • The spots produce yellow spores on the lower
    surface

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156
Injury Identification
  • Brown, round galls form on the branches of red
    cedar
  • Apple leaves have yellow spots that later turn
    brown result in cupping and curling of the
    leaves

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158
Biology
  • Red cedar needles are infected in the summer by
    spores from the apple host
  • Brown galls begin to appear on the needle
  • Larger brown galls, with small round depressions,
    forms on the twigs
  • Orange, jellylike horns protrude from these galls
  • Spores produced in these horns infect the apple
    which results in leaf spot

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160
Control
  • Picking and disposing of the galls can improve
    the appearance of the red cedar
  • The stage on the apple is generally controlled
    with fungicides
  • Reducing the number of eastern red cedars my
    reduce the occurrence of the disease

161
Fusiform Rust
  • (Cronartium quercuum)

162
IMPORTANCE
  • Infections that occur on the main stem within the
    first 5 years of a trees life normally cause
    death
  • Infections that occur later in the life cycle
    weaken the stem resulting in wind breakage at the
    canker or quality loss at rotation
  • Losses in nurseries can exceed 80
  • Loblolly slash pine are the most susceptible
    species
  • Longleaf is fairly resistant while shortleaf is
    highly resistant
  • Oak is the alternate host

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164
IDENTIFICATION
  • Fungus produces orange spores on the surface of
    fusiform-shaped pine galls in the spring
  • Orange spores are produced on the lower surface
    of the oak leaves
  • Hair-like structures are also produced on the leaf

165
Injury Identification
  • Spindle shaped swellings or galls develop on the
    branches or main stem
  • Main stem infections on older trees are somewhat
    depressed on one side
  • Trees commonly break at he canker
  • In the spring, galls turn orange
  • Infection on the oak host produces orange leaf
    spots and hair-like telia, which can cause
    cupping and curling of the leaf

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167
Control
  • Reducing oak populations in pine stands help
    reduce outbreaks
  • Using resistant species of pines or genetically
    improved species

168
Pitch Canker
  • (Fusarium moniliforme)

169
IMPORTANCE
  • Damage all of the commercially important southern
    pine species
  • In forest stands, slash occasionally loblolly
    are seriously infected
  • Mortality can result from abundant cankering,
    losses from growth suppression are more common

170
Identification
  • Trees exhibit shoot dieback of the current years
    growth
  • Abundant resin flow from the affected area
  • Wood beneath the cankers are resin-soaked
  • The main terminal and upper laterals are most
    often affected

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172
Control
  • No specific control procedures are available
  • Maintain stand vigor to minimize disease hazard
  • Salvage harvesting of heavily diseased stands
  • Genetic resistance to the disease should be
    included in management strategies

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174
Annosus Root Rot
  • (Heterobasidion annosum)

175
IMPORTANCE
  • Annosus root butt rot is a commercially
    important disease of conifers
  • All southern pines are susceptible
  • Loblolly slash pine are most severely affected

176
IDENTIFICATION
  • Conks are often present in the litter at the base
    of dead or dying trees or tree stumps or under
    root masses of wind thrown trees
  • Conks, when fresh, are tan to brownish on the
    upper surface and white with tiny pores on the
    lower surface
  • Rubbery tough to tear
  • Conks most common in the southern U.S. from
    December to March

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178
Biology
  • Enters the stand when fungal spores land on fresh
    cut stump surfaces
  • Grows through the remaining root system into
    nearby live trees via root grafts or contact
  • Mortality usually begins 2-3 years after thinning
    and often ceases 5-7 years later
  • Damage increases with sand content of the soil
  • Sand or sandy loam above a clay subsoil with good
    internal drainage is considered a high hazard site

179
Control
  • Prevention control strategies include
  • stump treatment
  • timing of thinnings
  • prescribed burns
  • manipulation of planting density

180
Other Diseases
181
Air Pollution
182
IMPORTANCE
  • Chemical discharges into the atmosphere have
    increased during the century but the total effect
    on the forest crop trees is virtually unknown
  • Pollutants can cause death and losses in growth
    of forest trees
  • All species of deciduous and coniferous trees are
    sensitive to some pollutants

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Identification
  • Generally appears as leaf injuries
  • Spots between veins, lea margin discoloration
    tip burns are common
  • Symptoms are similar to nutrient deficiencies

185
Biology
  • Many materials enter the leaves through the
    stomata form acids
  • Some enter the leaf tissue directly

186
Control
  • Best control is limiting atmospheric pollutants
  • Use of resistant plants
  • Maintaining healthy trees will provide some
    protection

187
Herbicide Damage
188
IMPORTANCE
  • Drift misapplication of herbicides can often
    damage non-target trees
  • All tree species can be damaged by herbicides

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Identification
  • Symptoms are variable due to chemical mode of
    action, dosage, duration of exposure, tree
    species and environmental conditions
  • Cupping or twisting of foliage, yellowing or
    browning, defoliation or death
  • Witches broom is a symptom of herbicide damage
  • Temperature and humidity affect the degree of
    symptom expression

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Control
  • Best control is to protect trees from unwanted or
    misapplied herbicides.

193
Hardwood Defoliators
194
Eastern Tent Caterpillar
  • (Malscosoma americanum)

195
IMPORTANCE
  • Primarily an aesthetic problem and has little
    adverse effect on the host trees
  • Species of the genus Prunus are preferred hosts
    with black cherry being the primary uncultivated
    host but also attacks apple and plum trees

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IDENTIFICATION
  • Full grown larvae are between 2 to 2 ½ long
  • Have black heads with long, light brown body
    hairs
  • Back has a light stripe, bordered on each side
    with yellowish-brown and black wavy lines
  • Sides marked with blue black spots
  • Moths have wingspread of about 2-2 ½ and are
    yellowish-brown with two narrow, light lines
    across the front wings

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Injury Identification
  • Larvae construct a white web or tent in the
    crotch of a small branch
  • Larvae consume the entire leaf with the exception
    of the midrib

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Biology
  • Over-wintering eggs hatch about the time black
    cherry buds open in the spring
  • Young larvae begin to construct a tent and
    enlarge the structure as they grow
  • Full-grown larvae construct tough, silken cocoons
  • Moths emerge in early summer and lay eggs in
    shiny, dark brown masses around small twigs or
    branches of host trees

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Control
  • Control is not normally necessary
  • Defoliated trees usually re-foliate after being
    attacked
  • Chemicals can be used to protect fruit trees or
    tents containing the caterpillars may be picked
    off destroyed

206
Fall Webworm
  • (Hyphantria cunea)

207
IMPORTANCE
  • Not considered an important forest pest
  • Webs can distract from aesthetic values
  • Preferred host in the south are persimmon, pecan
    sourwood

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IDENTIFICATION
  • Adult moth has a wingspan of 1-1 ¼ and is snowy
    white, usually with dark spots on the wings
  • Larvae are 1-1 ¼ long and covered with silky
    hairs.
  • Color varies from pale yellow to green with a
    black stripe on the back a yellow stripe on
    each side
  • Pupae are found inside a gray cocoon constructed
    of silk, frass and debris
  • Eggs are small, yellow or light green and turn
    gray before hatching

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Injury Identification
  • First signs of attack are the large silken web
    and skeletonized leaves
  • The web usually contains large numbers of
    caterpillars

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Biology
  • Moths emerge in the spring
  • After mating, females lay eggs in masses
    (400-500) on the underside of host leaves
  • Eggs hatch in approximately 2 weeks larvae
    begin to feed construct webs
  • They enlarge the web as they continue to feed for
    4-8 weeks
  • Spin a pupal cocoon in a sheltered place or in
    the duff or soil
  • At least two generations per year in the south

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Control
  • Biotic agents and unfavorable weather take their
    toll on these insects
  • Chemical control may be necessary

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Gypsy Moth
  • (Lymantria dispar)

218
IMPORTANCE
  • Originated in France
  • Most important pest of oaks in Northeast
  • Favored hosts are oak, basswood, birch, poplar,
    sweetgum, willow hawthorn but will attack
    hickory, maple, cherry, cottonwood, elm,
    blackgum, sassafras hornbeam
  • Causes widespread defoliation, resulting in
    reduced growth, loss of vigor, mortality
  • Reduces aesthetic, recreational wildlife values

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IDENTIFICATION
  • Older larvae are brownish-gray, with tufts of
    hair on each segment and a double row of five
    pairs of blue spots followed by six pairs of red
    spots and the back
  • Mature larvae are 1 ½ to 2 ½ long
  • Adult male moths are dark brown with wavy dark
    bands across the forewings
  • Females are white cannot fly

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Injury Identification
  • Young larvae chew small holes in leaves
  • Older larvae feed on leaf edges, consuming the
    entire leaves except for the larger veins and the
    midribs
  • The entire tree is often defoliated.

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Biology
  • Larvae emerge in late April or early May from
    over-wintering eggs and feed through June and
    into early July
  • Pupation occurs in sheltered places and lasts 2
    weeks
  • Adults emerge in July August
  • Females deposit egg masses, 100 to 800 eggs,
    covered with buff-colored hairs
  • Eggs deposited under rocks on tree trunks,
    limbs, houses, picnic tables, trailers, campers,
    mobile homes, cars other sheltered places

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Control
  • Natural controls include introduced pest
    parasites predators, virus diseases, and
    adverse weather conditions
  • Chemical microbial insecticides have been used,
    primarily in urban recreational areas to
    prevent defoliation and the nuisance effects of
    the pest

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Orange- striped Oakworm
  • (Anisota senatoria)

231
IMPORTANCE
  • Occur throughout the eastern United States
  • Voracious feeders and quickly strip trees of
    their foliage
  • Defoliation takes place in late summer to fall
  • Red white oaks are generally able to survive
    with only minimal growth loss or crown dieback
  • Greatest damage is the aesthetic impact and
    nuisance the caterpillars create in urban areas

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IDENTIFICATION
  • Larvae are black with eight narrow yellow stripes
  • Larvae are about 2 inches long and have a pair of
    long, curved horns
  • The adult moths are a similar yellowish red, with
    a single white dot on each of the forewings

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Injury Identification
  • Young larvae feed in groups, skeletonizing the
    leaf
  • Consume all but the main veins and usually
    defoliate one branch before moving onto another
  • Older larvae are less gregarious and can be found
    crawling on lawns sides of houses

235
Biology
  • Adult moths appear in June July and deposit
    clusters of several hundred eggs on the underside
    of leaves
  • Eggs hatch within a week
  • Larvae feed during July to September for 5-6
    weeks
  • The pupae over-winter in the soil
  • Only one generation per year

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Control
  • Natural enemies generally prevent widespread
    defoliation.
  • Chemical control may be needed for high value
    trees.

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Bark Beetles Borers
239
Locust Borer
  • (Megacyllene robiniae)

240
IMPORTANCE
  • Most serious insect pest of black locust
  • Infects the trees with Formes rimosus which
    causes substantial defects, growth loss some
    mortality
  • Black locust is the only host

241
IDENTIFICATION
  • Adult is an attractive, long-horned beetle, often
    seen feeding on goldenrod in late summer and
    early fall
  • Has bright yellow bands expanding across a jet
    black thorax and wing covers
  • The third band on the wings forms a W design
  • Legs are yellow-orange and long
  • Full-grown larvae are full-bodied, pale and bout
    1 inch long

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Injury Identification
  • First sign occurs in the spring around the time
    of bud burst
  • Oozing sap at he point where the larva bores into
    the tree causes a wet spot on the bark
  • Larvae tunnels into the wood pushing granular
    frass out of the entry hole
  • Wood infested by borers can be honeycombed by
    the larvae

245
Biology
  • Eggs deposited in rough bark surfaces and around
    wounds of living trees
  • Newly hatched larvae excavate a small hibernating
    cell in the inner bark and over-winter.
  • In spring, they bore into the wood, enlarging the
    tunnel to the exterior
  • About mid-July, they emerge a the original attack
    point
  • One generation annually

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Control
  • Most preventive recommendations are designed to
    encourage or maintain health vigor
  • Planting superior trees, avoiding pure locust
    stands removing low vigor over-mature trees
  • Excluding damaging livestock from locust stands
    can reduce beetle attacks

248
Piercing Sucking Insects
249
Scale
250
IMPORTANCE
  • Many different types effect hardwoods conifers
  • Can reduce growth, weaken the tree cause branch
    or crown dieback
  • Greatest concern in nurseries, seed orchards,
    shade ornamental trees
  • Honeydew sooty mold associated with scales
    usually mar the beauty of ornamentals

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IDENTIFICATION
  • Vary in shape form
  • Soft-bodied, hard bodied armored scales
  • May resemble a small turtle, oyster, barnacle or
    even part of the bark of the tree
  • Some are white obvious while others match the
    host color
  • Can be found on any part of the tree

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Injury Identification
  • Cause poor vigor, branch crown dieback
  • Scale feeding may cause abnormal plant growth at
    the point of attack, such as stunting of leaf or
    shoot growth
  • Leaves turning yellow or red branch swelling
  • Early leaf drop or dieback of newly formed
    terminals, branch ends new leaves
  • Ring-like swelling or pits cause rough
    appearance
  • Sooty mold ants frequenting a tree are good
    indicators of scale infestations

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Biology
  • Eggs usually produced underneath the female in
    the spring
  • After hatching, nymphs seek feeding sites
  • Some nymphs migrate to different sites to
    over-winter, others spend their entire life in
    one place
  • One to numerous generations per year

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Control
  • Parasites predators are effective in
    controlling infestations
  • Insecticides are used to protect high value trees
    most effective against immature scales

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Cicada
260
INFORMATION
  • Belong to the sub-order Homoptera
  • Generally called either annual or periodical
  • Annual cicadas are present each year
  • Periodical cicadas emerge in mass either on a 13
    or 17 year cycle
  • Three species with 13 year cycles 3 species
    with 17 year cycles
  • Generally the 17 year broods are northern 13
    year broods are southern
  • Last 13 year brood in Georgia was in 1998

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INFORMATION
  • Females damage trees by laying eggs on twigs
    smaller branches
  • Eggs are laid in Y-shaped pits in living twigs
    with each pit containing 20 eggs
  • A female may lay up to 600 eggs
  • Eggs hatch in about 1 month and nymphs drop to
    the ground , burrow underneath to begin their 13
    or 17 year development
  • Nymphs pierce suck juices from roots
  • Brood emerges between May June

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INFORMATION
  • Annual cicada are found throughout the United
    States
  • Appear in late summer to early fall every year
    although their life cycle requires 4-5 years for
    development
  • Twigs branches can be severely damaged by
    cicadas but trees appear to recover

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Hardwood Diseases Insects
267
Black Knot
  • (Dibotryon morbosum)

268
IMPORTANCE
  • Important disease of cherry because it degrades
    this valuable veneer lumber species
  • Found throughout the southeast except for
    southern Florida southern Louisiana
  • Many species of cherry are effected but black
    cherry is the only commercially important species
  • Effects plum trees as well
  • Rarely fatal

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IDENTIFICATION
  • Swellings on the branch of the host plant are
    covered with an irregular, rough, fruiting layer
    of fungal tissue
  • Spore bearing fruiting bodies form within this
    fruiting layer
  • Causes irregular black swellings on the stems,
    branches twigs
  • Often has a white fungus is found growing over
    the swellings

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Biology
  • Infection occurs in the spring
  • Swellings develop the following spring
  • Swellings are overgrown by a black irregular mass
    of fungal fruiting bodies

273
Control
  • Generally achieved by pruning out diseased tissue
    along with at least 12 inches of uninfected wood
  • In forest stands, trees with disease should be
    removed during improvement thinnings

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Nectria Canker
  • (Nectria galligena)

275
IMPORTANCE
  • Most common canker disease of hardwood trees
  • Seriously reduces the quantity and quality of
    forest products
  • Usually does not kill the tree but causes serious
    volume losses
  • Common on black walnut sassafras
  • Also occurs on red oak, maple, beech, poplar
    birch

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IDENTIFICATION
  • Fungus identified by the creamy-white fruiting
    structures that appear on cankers soon after
    infection
  • Well-defined localized areas of bark, cambium
    underlying wood are killed by the fungus
  • Concentric, annual callus ridges develop around
    the expanding canker
  • Bark sloughs off the older parts of the canker
  • Canker resembles a target

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Biology Control
  • Fungus survives through the winter in cankers
    produces spores during the spring
  • Windblown water splashed spores infect tree
    wounds branch stubs
  • Cankering may be minimized in high value areas by
    avoiding wounds pruning out branch cankers
  • Sterilize pruning tools before pruning conduct
    pruning operations during dry periods when spores
    are less abundant

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Hypoxylon Canker
  • (Hypoxylon spp.)

281
IMPORTANCE
  • Generally cause a white rot of hardwood slash
  • Known to cause severe cankering of stressed
    hardwoods
  • Contributes to premature death of trees stressed
    by drought, construction damage or other problems
  • Rapidly rotting tissue leads to structural
    weakening which causes serious hazard to people
    or property in high-use areas

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Identification
  • Fungus visible as a definite fruiting layer that
    has dislodged the bark
  • Fruiting layers vary in color
  • Invades the cambium and fruiting layer exerts
    pressure to dislodge bark
  • Fruiting layer may resemble bark of some trees

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Biology
  • Weakened trees most often attacked
  • Spores enter wounds, germinate grow into the
    cambium, severely cankering often girdling the
    tree very quickly
  • White rot of the sapwood under the canker begins.
  • Fruiting structures eventually cover the cankered
    area rupture the bark
  • Spores are produced at a rapid rate are wind
    borne to new hosts

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Control
  • Prevention can be achieved in high value trees by
    keeping trees vigorous unwounded
  • Fertilize water trees during droughts
  • Remove infected limbs trees to remove source of
    spores

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Slime Flux
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IMPORTANCE
  • Disease results in persistent, bad smelling,
    bleeding cankers on the stem or at the base of
    many species of hardwoods
  • Oaks are the most seriously affected species
  • Severe quality loss occurs to the infected tree

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IDENTIFICATION
  • Prime wounding agents are insect borers,
    mechanical injuries natural cracks and splits
  • Clear sap flowing from the wound becomes
    colonized with bacteria, darkens develops an
    unpleasant odor
  • Patches of wet bark with a sour smell are first
    symptom
  • Insects are attracted to the wet area
  • Bark separates from the tree

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Biology Control
  • Wounding causes sap to flow allowing bacteria to
    colonize causing typical odor
  • Fluid is toxic to the bark enlarges the wound
    in time
  • Minimize wounding of trees in the forest
  • Maintaining vigorous tree growth in urban areas
  • Removing bark will reduce damage to an individual
    tree

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INFORMATION
  • Condition in trees characterized by the bleeding
    of sap through a wound in the bark
  • May occur in the spring or fall
  • Generally confined to trees of 12 in diameter
  • Some type of wound happens prior to slime flux
    appearing
  • Oaks, elms maples most often affected but
    certain softwoods are susceptible

294
INFORMATION
  • Oozing of sap is a result of bacterial activity
    in the wound
  • Sap may be clear and alcoholic in odor or thick,
    odorous variously colored
  • Cannot be cured
  • Some believe that it is not life threatening
  • Drainage pipes installed below the fluxing point
    are a means of relieving internal pressure

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INFORMATION
  • Sap becomes an attractant for yellow-jackets
    wasps
  • Fluxing usually diminishes after several years
    and is considered non-life threatening

297
Insect Gall
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INFORMATION
  • Abnormal vegetative growths on trees resulting
    from the feeding and egg laying activities of
    various insects and mites
  • Chemical secretions from the adults while laying
    eggs as well as the saliva from the feeding
    larvae cause the plant to react abnormally

300
INFORMATION
  • Aphids, beetles, jumping plant lice, midges,
    mites wasps are insects that produce galls on
    plants
  • Swelling of plant tissue that is characteristic
    on specific plant parts such as stem, twig, leaf
    or petiole
  • Generally not life threatening
  • Premature leaf fall dieback of several branches
    are the most drastic effects

301
INFORMATION
  • Control by pruning and destroying galls
  • Removing and disposing of leaf twig litter at
    the base of the tree are methods of controlling

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Mistletoe
  • (Phoradendron sp)

303
IMPORTANCE
  • Affects many species of hardwoods
  • Oaks hickories are most commonly attacked
  • Found throughout the south
  • Impact is not normally severe but may lower
    branch vigor
  • Severe infestations reduce tree vigor where
    insects fungus combine to kill trees

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IDENTIFICATION
  • Perennial, broad-leafed, evergreen plants appear
    in crown
  • Easier in winter when host tree leaves are absent
  • Has inconspicuous flowers that produce white to
    red berries in the fall
  • Presence of plant is the only reliable sign of
    infestation

306
Biology
  • Seeds are animal bird dispersed between and
    within tree crowns
  • Sticky substance on the seeds helps them stick to
    young branches
  • A peg-like root penetrates to the trees vascular
    system extracting water nutrients

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Control
  • Control is usually not necessary
  • If desired, tree branches may be pruned at least
    one foot back from the plants attachment point
    then discarded.

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Forest Hazards
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Fire Ants
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INFORMATION
  • Major nuisance throughout the south
  • Red black species imported from South America
    (Brazil Uruguay)
  • Southern fire ant is a native species
  • Mounds are common in pastures, lawns along
    roadsides
  • Stings always cause intense burning produce
    necrotic pustules that itch for days

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INFORMATION
  • Can be distinguished from most other ants by
    having two nodes on the pedicel
  • Venom contains a potent alkaloid only a trace
    of protein

315
SPIDERS
  • Can cause a number of symptoms from minor to
    severe swelling, itching, nausea, blistering
    pain but are not generally serious.
  • Two notable exceptions are the Black Widow,
    considered to be the most venomous spider in the
    U.S. the Brown Recluse also called the
    Fiddleback spider.

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Black Widow Spider
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BLACK WIDOW
  • Possess a neurotoxin that effects the central
    nervous system
  • Bites are extremely dangerous and should seek
    medical attention immediately

319
INFORMATION
  • Considered an extremely poisonous species
  • Mature female easily identified by red hourglass
    mark on the underside of the abdomen
  • Younger females variously marked with red and
    white on the upper abdomen
  • Kill males after mating, hence the name

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INFORMATION
  • Build webs close to the ground, under houses,
    stones, wood, blocks trash piles
  • Venom is classified as a neurotoxin
  • The bite is seldom felt but immediate pain
    follows
  • Victims suffer with sever muscular pain,
    stiffening of abdominal muscles, weakness,
    tremor, sweating salivation

321
INFORMATION
  • Convulsions may occur in small children
  • Death is rare but does occur more frequently in
    children and older persons
  • Local treatment of the bite site is not usually
    effective
  • Seek immediate medical attention if bitten
  • Taking the insect may aid in treatment

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Brown Recluse Spider
324
BROWN RECLUSE
  • Poison is a necrotoxin which causes the
    surrounding area to decay
  • Bites are extremely dangerous and should seek
    medical attention immediately
  • Also known as the fiddleback spider

325
INFORMATION
  • Easily recognized by a violin or fiddle shaped
    mark on the top of its body
  • Shy, prefer quiet, undisturbed places
  • Shoes clothing in storage often infested
  • Reactions to venom may be mild to severe
  • Venom is classified as a necrotoxin
  • Bitten area becomes painful swollen in a short
    period

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Saddleback Caterpillar
328
INFORMATION
  • One of several stinging caterpillars
  • Feed on the leaves of various trees shrubs
    between March September
  • Capable of causing severe reactions in some
    people
  • Equipped with stinging spines located over their
    bodies
  • Each spine injects venom when touched
  • Wearing long sleeved shirts when working around
    trees shrubbery are means of protection

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Scorpion
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INFORMATION
  • Nocturnal and rarely seen by people unless they
    invade the home
  • Little southern devil is a common species
    throughout the south
  • Stings are not life threatening and usually
    require no medical attention unless victim is
    sensitive to venom

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Tick
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INFORMATION
  • Important vectors of organism causing diseases in
    humans
  • Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), Lyme disease
    (LD) and ehrlichiosis are most noted diseases
    carried by ticks
  • RMSF is caused by organism called rickettsia,
    symptoms include fever, headache rash
  • Takes only one infected tick to bite to contract
    it

336
INFORMATION
  • Lyme disease is caused by a spirochete and is
    characterized by a distinctive skin lesion in
    about 65 of the cases
  • Lesion is called erythema migrans (EM) and
    appears from 3 days to 1 month after a bite
  • Victims suffer headache, fever, arthritic-like
    pain stiff neck

337
PREVENTION
  • Chemical repellants containing DEET are effective
  • Light colored clothing help make detection easier
  • Check yourself frequently when in wooded areas
  • Examine scalp groin areas in particular
  • Immature ticks are larvae called seed ticks and
    have only six legs while adults have eight legs
  • Both are capable of transmitting diseases

338
Bees, wasps, yellow jackets hornets
  • Usually nest in hives in the ground, trees,
    bushes or old buildings or barns
  • Very aggressive with multiple stings common
  • Can cause allergic reactions in some victims
  • PROTECTION Keep alert and watch for nests or
    signs of insects

Yellow jacket
339
Yellow-jacket
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INFORMATION
  • Medium sized wasps marked with black yellow
    bands or stripes
  • Builds nests below or above ground
  • Below ground nests are often built in rotten
    stumps, under landscape timbers, firewood piles,
    sides of terraces or ditches
  • Above ground nests occur in barns between stacks
    of baled hay or straw, under porches, in block
    wall voids

342
INFORMATION
  • Eastern southern are two common species
  • Very aggressive when nesting sites are approached
    intruders are often stung repeatedly before
    they can retreat
  • People often stung while mowing grass, plowing or
    excavating dirt or walking through wooded
    brushy areas
  • Nests located in wall voids may threaten people
    inside the home when they enter a room t
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