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Title: Home Energy Seminary


1
(No Transcript)
2
Home Energy Seminary Save Money! Protect the
Climate!
3
  • Home Energy Seminary
  • Introduction Climate Change
  • Home Energy Lights
  • Appliances
  • Fridges, Washing machines, AC
  • A little Physics Understanding your home!
  • Building diagnostics
  • Insulation vs. Air-tightness
  • Windows
  • Heating Systems

4
Short Primer on Climate Change Is NOT the Ozone
Hole! Is caused by gases that trap heat in the
atmosphere. These gases come from burning fossil
fuels and other sources. They form a blanket
around the earth. More greenhouse gases ? more
heat in the atmosphere ? change in the global
climate.
5
The Bad News about Climate Change
6
"To me the question of the environment is more
ominous than that of peace and war...I'm more
worried about global warming than I am of any
major military conflict." -- U.N. Weapons
Inspector Hans Blix, (March 14, 2003)
7
Climate Change and CO2 Concentration
Carbon dioxide (ppmv)
Temperature change (oC)
Current temperature
150 100 50
0 Thousands of Years ago
8
1941 Alaska's Glacier Bay National Park was
2,000 feet thick. 2004 same shoreline
Photos 1941 courtesy of U.S. Geological Survey
2004 National Park Service photo by Bruce
Molina
9
Per Capita Climate Gas Emissions
10
Cumulative CO2 Emissions from 1800-1988 The
Ecological Debt of the North
Graph by Martin Storksdiek
11
Climate Change Equity
Average Bangladeshi produces 0.2 tons of CO2
Average American produces 21 tons of
CO2 Millions of Bangladeshi will loose their
home and livelihood due to sea level rise.
12
As the global climate changes, extreme weather
events such as droughts, floods, heat waves,
heavy rainfall, tropical storms and hurricanes
are expected to increase. (Dr. David Easterling,
National Climatic Data Center, 9-26-00)
Flooding of the Ohio river (NOAA Photo Library
www.photolib.noaa.gov)
13
Climate Change Extreme Drought Severe drought
as a result of global warming threatens to spread
across half the Earth's land surface by 2100,
turning one third of the planet into a
desert. (Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction
and Research, 2006)
Drought Popenguine, Senegal (United Nations
Photo Library www.un.org/av/photo)
14
Severe Impacts on Agriculture Great regional
differences are expected.
  • Shorter growing seasons
  • Droughts
  • Floods
  • Water shortages
  • More Weeds
  • More Pests

15
Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health
Increase in vector-borne diseases
Increase in heat-related deaths
Increase in urban air pollution increase in
respiratory illnesses
16
Temperature rise due to climate change could
leave up to 30 percent of species at risk of
extinction by the end of this century. IPCC 2007
All pictures on this poster are from the NOAA
Photo Library www.photolib.noaa.gov
17
The Solutions to Climate Change We have to cut
emissions by 80 in the coming decades. We have
to move away from fossil fuels and increase
efficiency dramatically. We have about a decade
to start to dramatically cut emissions.
18
Efficiency An estimated 94 of materials become
waste before a product is even manufactured.
Only 6 per cent of materials extracted each
year are embodied in durable goods!
19
The Good News about Climate Change
20
The Solutions to Climate Change can address many
other problems
Energy Security National Security Job
Security Local Air Pollution
21
Reducing Your Carbon Footprint What is big? What
is small?
22
The Big Ones How much you travel Airplane and
Car emissions How you live House size, SFpP,
quality of house What you eat Lots of meat,
vegetarian, vegan? How many kids you have. How
much stuff you buy.
23
Your Car
Transportation is responsible for ¼ of US CO2
emissions. Americans are responsible for almost
50 of global car emissions. You know best how
to reduce your car emissions.. Now you just
have to find a way to actually do so.
24
Air Travel
Emissions at high altitudes have a much greater
warming potential. 1. Boston Washington
Boston Approx. 0.5 tons of CO2 Thats the per
capita annual emissions of a Sri Lankan. 2.
Boston Frankfurt Boston Approx. 4 tons of
CO2 There are 115 countries that have lower
yearly per capita emissions..
25
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26
Meat
Meat production has increased by 500 percent
since 1950. 43 of the world's beef is raised
on factory feedlots. Livestock emit 16 of the
world's annual production of methane. An
estimated 70 percent of all antibiotics in the
U.S. are fed to pigs, poultry, and cattle merely
to promote growth and compensate for the
unsanitary and confined conditions on factory
farms. By volume, livestock in the country
consume eight times more antibiotics than humans
do. With its high meat content, the average U.S.
diet requires twice as much water per person per
day as an equally nutritious vegetarian diet.
A diet high in grain-fed meat can require two to
four times more land than a vegetarian
diet. www.worldwatch.org/node/1495
27
Population We are 300 million now! Yippee! We
emit as much CO2 as China India
combined! (thats 2,5 billion folks) Each
American emits as much as 6 Chinese or 17
Indians..
28
Climate Change Equity
Average Bangladeshi produces 0.2 tons of CO2
Average American produces 21 tons of
CO2 Millions of Bangladeshi will loose their
home and livelihood due to sea level rise.
29
Stuff Buy less of it
30
Reducing the Carbon Footprint of your home
31
Home Energy Seminary Save Money! Protect the
Climate!
Americans spend more than 160 billion a year to
heat, cool, light and live in our homes. Homes
use about 21 of the energy we use as a nation.
Homes contribute about 17 of our national
emissions of greenhouse gases.
32
Get an Energy Audit
A professional will be able to analyze your house
and give you advise. Youll get most out of it,
if you are well educated! Prepare well and ask
lots of questions!
33
Massachusetts
Call 1-866-527-Save. The audit is free and you
can get some attractive rebates. Take advantage
of it - you paid for it on your energy bills!
Youll get most out of it, if you are well
educated! Prepare well and ask lots of
questions!
34
New York Sate
  • NY Home Performance with ENERGYSTAR program
  • Central Hudson Gas Electric Corp.,
  • Consolidated Edison of New York, Inc.,
  • New York State Electric and Gas Corporation,
  • Rochester Gas Electric Corporation,
  • National Grid,
  • Orange and Rockland Utilities, Inc.

Low interest loans and rebates are available for
energy efficiency upgrades. http//www.getenergysm
art.org
35
Switch To Compact Fluorescent Bulbs (CFLs)!
More expensive upfront (1-12) but they'll save
30-50! Many different types of CFLs available
(including for small fixtures, 3-ways, etc).
Last 10 times longer! Watch for available
rebates.
36
Compact Fluorescent Bulbs
Take 1-2 min to reach fullest brightness. Are
less bright when it is cold. If you are
concerned about brightness, buy a brighter
one! Should not flicker after 1-2 seconds.
37
Compact Fluorescent Bulbs
Are not all of equally good quality try them out
before you buy many.
38
Compact Fluorescent Bulbs
Regular CFB dont work in dimmable fixtures. Buy
a dimmable CFB. Check out www.efi.org for
specialty bulbs.
39
Compact Fluorescent Bulbs
Have a small amount of mercury call your city
about disposal. (But they still use less mercury
than would have been produced at the power plant
when you use a regular incandescent bulb)
40
Fluorescent Bulbs (CFLs) Facts!
If every household in the US replaced 5 fixtures
with CFLs Savings 800 billion kWh The
equivalent of shutting down 21 power plants.
41
Halogen Torchieres
Nice light but
Uses 300W 500W. (a normal bulb uses
60W) Halogen torchieres are also a fire hazard!
Buy a torchiere with CFB!
42
Appliances Energy Star www.energystar.gov Look
for the energy star label! More than 35 product
categories are available with the ENERGY STAR
label. Careful! Energy Star appliances are
rated by size class. Look for the smallest
appliance that fits your needs!
43
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44
Refrigerator If your refrigerator is more than 8
years old, it makes sense to replace it. The new
one will pay for itself in energy savings in
about 3-6 years. Again! Energy Star appliances
are rated by size class. Look for the smallest
refrigerator that fits your needs! Side-by-side
are least efficient.
45
Washing Machines
BAD Top-loader GOOD Front-loader
40 to 60 less water 30 to 50 less energy 50
to 70 less detergent
46
Front loading Washing Machines
Top-loader 40 gallons of water per load. Front
loader 20 - 25 gallons. You could save as much
as 7,000 gallons of water per year! Gentler on
clothes. Decreases drying time considerably. Do a
better job cleaning clothes. Be modern, get a
front-loader! Top-loaders are the technology
your grand-parents used!!! PS Only do full loads.
Use cold water as often as possible.
47
  • Conventional Dryer
  • 800-1000 kW/year
  • 80-120/ year

Be old-fashioned! Dry your clothes like your
grand-parents did!!! Tip If you do not have
time to hang all your clothes, hang the heavy,
and thick things towels, sheets, socks
48
Use Fans Instead of AC! Only 10-15 of the
energy an AC uses. (Shut the fan off when you
leave the room, because it does not actually cool
the air but just move it. The exception to this
is a window fan to get cool night air from the
outside into the house.)
49
Be cheap! Turn it off!
Most electricity is used by things that are on a
lot and use a lot of power Refrigerator
(500kWh-1300 kWh per year) Freezer (500kWh-1300
kWh per year) Desktop Computer (300-1000 kWh per
year) Lights
Dont forget to turn your heat or AC off /down!
50
Great Myths Turning off your computer will harm
it.
WRONG! This used to be true back when computers
had green screens and punch cards
51
Great Myths Leaving your heat on is more
efficient than turning it down because you need
so much energy to heat the house back up.
WRONG! Think about it! Its as if youd claim
that putting down your suitcase while waiting for
the bus uses more energy than holding it up the
whole time, because youd have to pick it up
again.
52
A Little Physics
How Heat Travels
Convection
The flow of hot and cold gases
This is how heat travels through leaks,
cracks and gaps in your house.
53
Will she be warm enough in the winter?
Convection Air leaks This is why you wear a
wind breaker over your woolen sweater!
54
Blower-Door Test
55
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56
What You Can Do Use weather stripping and
caulking! Its cheap, it works!
Stay warm! Save Money! Protect the Climate! From
the simple to the sophisticated, air sealing
pays!
57
Conduction
Heat exchange between adjacent molecules
This is how heat travels through materials. Some
materials conduct heat better than
others. Insulation slows the movement of heat.
58
Conduction Insulation This is why you wear a
woolen sweater in winter and a cotton
sweatshirt in the summer!
59
Infra-red Photography
60
How Conduction is measured
Insulation is rated by Resistance R-Value High
R-value high insulation properties You want
High R- Value
Windows are rated by Conductance U-value Low
U-value high insulation properties You want
Low U- Value
61
Two components to good weatherization
Minimize air leaks Optimize insulation
62
How Your House Loses Heat
63
Insulation (conduction) Get your walls and attic
insulated! Insulating your walls and attic, along
with addressing leaks around your doors and
windows, can save as much as 30 on your heating
bill. Insulate before you replace windows it
will cost you much less and save you more.
Watch out for active knob-and-tube wiring
before you insulate!
64
Insulation materials
  • Fiberglass

65
Insulation materials
  • Cellulose

66
Fiberglass Vs. Cellulose
67
Fiberglass vs. Cellulose
  • Fiberglass like a woolen sweater
  • easy to install
  • can be cheaper
  • moisture tolerant
  • - does not stop air flow
  • poor fire protection
  • most of the times poorly installed
  • Cellulose like a down jacket
  • stops air flow
  • better fire protection
  • can fill up nooks and crannies.
  • - does not tolerate moisture very well

68
Slide by Paul Eldrenkamp _at_ Byggmeister
69
Cellulose Installation
This should be the very first home improvement
you do! Pay back is 1-5 years Cost 1000 -
5000
70
Insulation Materials
  • Spray-foams
  • Icynene 2-part polyurethanes Soy-based

Rigid foams
71
General Insulation Strategies
  • Use an insulation that air-seals and insulates
  • Spray foam
  • Dense-pack (or wet-spray) cellulose
  • When practical, insulate the outermost plane
  • Attic roof rather than floor joists
  • Crawlspace floor and walls rather than ceiling
  • Basement walls rather than ceiling

Slide by Paul Eldrenkamp _at_ Byggmeister
72
Radiation
Electro-magnetic waves emitted from hot objects
This is the how the sun heats the surface of the
earth. This is why it can get very hot in a car
in the summer.
73
Window Replacement
New high-quality windows are definitively more
energy-efficient and will cut your heating
bills. Youll get rid of lead paint. New
windows are easier to operate and clean. -
High-quality windows are expensive (300-600 per
opening) - They have a very long pay back (30-50
years) - Esthetics
74
Window Replacement
  • The Dos
  • Get double or triple pane windows.
  • Get high quality windows.
  • Make sure to get an experienced installer who
    will pay attention to details (and insulate the
    weight box)
  • Get Low-e coating with argon fill.
  • Wood or fiberglass frames are best.
  • The Donts
  • Dont get single pane.
  • Dont be lured by the cheap price of some
    windows. You really get what you pay for.

75
Windows Invest in good storms, weather
stripping, caulk, plastic
76
Heating Systems
77
Heating Systems
Largest energy expense in the home. What
system? Steam, hot water, forced air? Gas, oil,
electric, wood
78
Sizing? Most systems are oversized To tell how
much, see how long it runs out of each hour
during cold weather. If less than half the time,
a smaller system will save energy.
79
Replacing your system Insist on a heat loss
analysis (ACCA Manual J) If your plumber sizes
the system by the old system, take your business
elsewhere!
80
Efficiency Check www.energystar.gov Go for over
90 efficiency. (Gas boilers can achieve higher
efficiencies.) Check for rebates!
81
Replacing a Heating System
Dont trust just your plumber! A little upfront
research can make a big difference. Get this
book, it will change your life www.aceee.org/con
sumerguide/index.htm
82
Electric Heat
Stay away form electric heat. Its very
expensive!!!! No electric water heater No
electric furnaces No space heaters Exception
If you want to heat only a small space in a
large house
83
Oil or Gas?
Natural Gas More climate friendly! More chimney
friendly! Less air pollution! No oil tank! More
expensive than oil.
unfortunately, doing the right thing is not
always the cheaper thing Also Efficiency can
make up for it. No oil tanks, no hazards
84
High-cost but low-impact issues
  • Vapor barriers
  • Vapor diffusion not a big problem in our climate
  • Big difference between a vapor barrier and an air
    barrier
  • Vapor barrier paints

Slide by Paul Eldrenkamp _at_ Byggmeister
85
Slide by Paul Eldrenkamp _at_ Byggmeister
86
High-cost but low-impact issues
  • Roof venting
  • Cold roof vs. hot roof (vented vs. unvented)
  • Instead of investing heavily in venting, invest
    in better roof insulation

Slide by Paul Eldrenkamp _at_ Byggmeister
87
Roof venting Ice dams
Slide by Paul Eldrenkamp _at_ Byggmeister
88
Summary
  • Solve the big problems firsthealth safety
    issues
  • Control moisture and pollutants at source
  • Air-seal and insulate (with the same material if
    possible)
  • Perform pre- and post-weatherization evaluations
    (blower door, infrared)

Slide by Paul Eldrenkamp _at_ Byggmeister
89
Saving energy in your home does more than just
save money! Its a step towards securing the
future for our children! Thank You!
90
Tufts Office of Sustainability
www.tufts.edu/programs/sustainability
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