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Project Expansion: Planning, Implementing, and Managing for Success


Steps for Success. Establish an Effective Implementation Team ... Dress rehearsal. Go/No Go decision. Flipping the Switch. Celebration. Stabilization ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Project Expansion: Planning, Implementing, and Managing for Success

Project Expansion Planning, Implementing, and
Managing for Success
  • Presented by

US DOL/ETA Division of Youth Services
Planning for Success
  • System implementation projects, in general,
    experience low success rates
  • 28 of projects meet full success
  • 49 of projects are fully completed, but over
    budget, over schedule and lack full scope of
    planned functionality
  • 23 of projects experience complete failure or
    are cancelled 1
  • Undoubtedly offender-focused programs have even
    higher failure rates.
  • 1 Extreme Chaos, 2000. The Standish Group

Planning for Success
  • The key contributing factors to implementation
    failure reported were
  • Lack of planning unclear vision, goals and
    approach, not aligned with vendor/service
    provider incentives, schedules, other program
    priorities and other resource responsibilities.
  • Incomplete, unclear and/or changing requirements.
  • Lack of executive/community support and
  • Lack of resources dedicated to the project
    (staff, time, money, participant involvement,
    project management and IT support)

Planning for Success
  • Other contributing factors to implementation
    failure are
  • Unrealistic expectations for what can be
    accomplished and how quickly it can occur.
  • Believing the vendor/service provider will assume
    responsibility for all tasks
  • Hoping the vendor/service provider will fix your
    operational and personnel problems
  • Fear of change
  • Fear of technology

Expansion Workshop Goals
  • Keep you on the right side of these statistics
  • Help you think through project expansion planning
    and implementation decisions
  • Understand the options
  • Understand the risks
  • Position you for implementation success

The Project Expansion Process
The Project Expansion Process
Implementation Planning Steps for Success
  • Establish an Effective Implementation Team
  • Finalize Project Goals Priorities
  • Establish Implementation Strategies and Scope
  • Develop the Implementation Plan with a Realistic
  • Emphasize Communication
  • Establish Benchmarks to
  • Measure Project Success

Step 1 - Implementation Team Key Participants
  • Skilled Knowledgeable Project Director
  • Community Leadership
  • Local system Representation
  • JJS, WFD, PSD, etc.
  • Network/Technical Analyst
  • Trainer

Step 2 Finalize Project Goals Priorities
  • What is the vision for the project?
  • What is needed to help the project achieve?
  • Sustained quality of service for program
  • Ease of expansion and program integration into
    existing youth service network
  • Controlled costs
  • Higher ROI
  • Other ?
  • Which program features
  • functions support these
  • goals?

Some Causes of Scope Creep
  • When we suddenly realize that our projects scope
    has expanded far beyond its initial boundaries
  • when we have that how-did-we-ever-get-here
    feeling were experiencing the downside of
    scope creep.
  • Preventing scope creep starts with understanding
    how it happens.

Scope Creeping
  • More common sources of scope creep.
  • The unknown
  • Projects are ventures into unknown territory.
    Sometimes we underestimate the complexity of the
    problem we've tackled.
  • Perfectionism
  • We sometimes forget that good enough is good
  • Placating conflict
  • We'll do almost anything to avoid dealing with
    conflict directly. We'll even expand project
    scope to satisfy all conflicting parties. When we
    placate conflict, we run the risk of creating a
    project that nobody can execute.

Scope Creeping
  • Assimilation
  • To secure resources, programs sometimes seek
    partnerships based on a seemingly "natural fit"
    or for purposes of "efficiencies." But
    consolidation isn't free, and the efficiencies
    are often illusory.
  • Career advancement
  • By commandeering more resources, the leaders of a
    project can enhance their organizational power.
    Senior managers must learn to recognize these
    tactics, and approve scope expansions only on the
    basis of sound management principles.

Scope Creeping
  • The union of all misunderstandings
  • If scope isn't clearly defined at the outset,
    misunderstandings result. When that happens, to
    preserve consensus that the project should
    continue, we might have to expand the project
    scope to include the union of all initial
    understandings. Making things painfully clear at
    the outset is worth the effort.
  • The Donald Crowhurst effect
  • Donald Crowhurst was a participant in the 1968
    round the world single-handed sailing race
    sponsored by the London Sunday Times. As
    described in a 1970 book by Nicholas Tomalin and
    Ron Hall, his life pattern was to tackle
    ever-larger projects, concealing a pattern of
    failure. Like Donald Crowhurst, some projects
    expand their scope to avoid acknowledging
    failure. Failure or restart must be realistic
    options for any project manager.

Step 3 Establish Implementation Strategy Scope
  • Phased vs. Big Bang Implementation
  • Incremental functionality vs. full system
  • Phased participant services vs. immediate full
  • Communication Strategy
  • Go-Live Date Constraints Planning

Implementation Strategy Scope Phased vs.
Big Bang Implementation
  • Incremental vs. Full System Functionality
  • Do we want/need all functions/services available
    Day One?
  • Can we absorb that level of change at one time?
  • Can we take on that level of implementation work
    at one time?
  • If not
  • Based on the priorities of project goals
  • Based on the time and resources that can be
  • What functions do we want/need immediately?
  • In what sequence should we add the other
  • Over what period of time?

Implementation Strategy Scope Example -
Incremental Functionality
  • Establish Facility location
  • Satisfy logistical requirements
  • For program, staff, and participants
  • Staffing in Proportion to participants served
  • Provide minimum hardware/software and training
    material requirements
  • Staggered enrollments based on growing program
  • Community-based roll-out
  • Signage
  • Hosted Events

Implementation Strategy Scope Phased vs.
Big Bang Implementation
  • Phased Program Services vs. Immediate Full
  • Will we be ready for everyone to Go Live at the
    same time?
  • Can we absorb that level of change at one time?
  • Can we support everyone on Day One?
  • If not
  • Who/what areas should go first?
  • What impacts will this mix have on the overall
    design of and delivery of program components?
  • In what sequence should we add program
    components, staff, participants?
  • Over what period of time?

Implementation Strategy Scope Phased
Participant Considerations
  • Program Cross-over/Coverage
  • Participants
  • Sites
  • Programs
  • Teams
  • Case Management
  • Support staff
  • Technical Support
  • Maintenance of Mixed Program Elements
  • Labor
  • Distance between sites
  • Cohesiveness and consistency of services

Implementation Strategy Scope Communications
Strategy Approach
  • External
  • Promotional
  • Community Reaction
  • Internal
  • Employee Reaction
  • Job loss
  • Role change
  • Technical challenges
  • Stakeholders

Implementation Strategy Scope Implementation
  • When is the best time to implement?
  • Are there key resource constraints?
  • Are there any other program activities to plan

Step 4 Develop the Implementation Plan with a
Realistic Timeline
Based on the goals and strategies set for the
program expansion project
  • What specific tasks need to be done?
  • By whom?
  • When?
  • How long will all this take to complete?

Developing the Implementation Plan Conduct
Vendor/Service Provider Planning Meetings
  • Communicate program vision, goals, strategies
  • Establish overall project structure parameters
  • Contacts
  • Escalation
  • Build relationships
  • Confirm requirements
  • Establish agreement on
  • Tasks
  • Roles and responsibilities
  • Time requirements

Developing the Implementation Plan Confirming
  • Facilities/Support
  • xxxx
  • xxxx
  • xxxx
  • Staff
  • xxxx
  • xxxx
  • Program
  • xxxx
  • xxxx
  • xxxx
  • Other Considerations

Developing the Implementation Plan Defining
the Detailed Tasks Responsibilities
  • Workflow Design/Confirmation
  • Policy Procedure Changes
  • Job Changes
  • Program Design Configuration
  • Report Design/Project Forecasting
  • Facilities/Support
  • Training Needs
  • Project team
  • Participant

Developing the Implementation Plan Defining
the Detailed Tasks Responsibilities
  • Go-Live Planning
  • Staff schedules
  • Support
  • Dress rehearsal
  • Go/No Go decision
  • Flipping the Switch
  • Celebration
  • Stabilization

Developing the Implementation Plan Documenting
the Plan
  • Milestones
  • Tasks
  • Dependencies
  • Responsibilities
  • Vendor/Service Providers
  • Program
  • Individual
  • Time requirements

Developing the Implementation Plan Setting a
Realistic Timeline
  • Bottom Up Estimation
  • Let the tasks resources drive the timeline OR
  • Provide the resources to support the tasks for
    the timeline
  • Remember Schedule Constraints
  • Set a Go-Live that is Achievable
  • Communicate It

Managing Risks
  • What is Risk?
  • A risk is something that may happen and if it
    does, will have an adverse impact on the project.
  • A few points here "that may happen" implies a
    probability of less then 100. If it has a
    probability of 100 - in other words it will
    happen - it is an issue.
  • A risk must also have a probability something
    above 0. It must be a chance to happen or it is
    not a risk.

  • The second thing to consider from the definition
    is "will have an adverse impact".
  • If it will not have an adverse impact, it is not
    a risk. Suppose we said a risk was that we would
    find the project less complicated than we
    thought, and could finish early.
  • Unless finishing early has an adverse effect on
    the project, it is not a risk.

The Risk Management Plan
  • There are four stages to risk management. They
  • Risk Identification
  • Risks Quantification
  • Risk Response
  • Risk Monitoring and Control

Risk Identification
  • In this stage, we identify and name the risks.
    The best approach is pull together key players,
    partnerships, etc., to help carry out this
  • There are different sorts of risks and we need to
    decide on a project by project basis what to do
    about each type.
  • Business risks
  • Generic risks

Defining Risk
  • Risks should be defined in two parts.
  • The first is the cause of the situation (Vendor
    not meeting deadline, Business users not
    available, etc.).
  • The second part is the impact (Budget will be
    exceeded, Milestones not achieved, etc.).
  • Hence a risk might be defined as "The vendor not
    meeting deadline will mean that budget will be
  • If this format is used, it is easy to remove
    duplicates, and understand the risk.

Risk Quantification
  • Risk need to be quantified in two dimensions.
  • The impact of the risk needs to be assessed.
  • The probability of the risk occurring needs to be
    assessed. For simplicity,
  • rate each on a 1 to 4 scale.
  • The larger the number, the larger the impact or
  • By using a matrix, a priority can be established.

Risk Probability Matrix

  • _________________
  • 4
  • 3 Med

  • ________________
  • Probability 2
  • 1 Low

  • _________________

  • 1 2 3 4

  • Impact
  • Note that if probability is high, and impact is
    low, it is a Medium risk. On the other hand if
    impact is high, and probability low, it is High
    priority. A remote chance of a catastrophe
    warrants more attention than a high chance of a

Risk Response
  • There are four things you can do about a risk.
    The strategies are
  • Avoid the risk. Do something to remove it. Use
    a different vendor/service provider for example.
  • Transfer the risk. Make someone else
    responsible. Perhaps a Vendor can be made
    responsible for a particularly risky part of the
  • Mitigate the risk. Take actions to lessen the
    impact or chance of the risk occurring. If the
    risk relates to availability of resources, draw
    up an agreement and get sign-off for the resource
    to be available.
  • Accept the risk. The risk might be so small the
    effort to do anything is not worth while.

Rick Control
  • A risk response plan should include the strategy
    and action items to address the strategy. The
    actions should include what needs to be done, who
    is doing it, and when it should be completed.
  • The final step is to continually monitor risks
    to identify any change in the status, or if they
    turn into an issue. It is best to hold regular
    risk reviews to identify actions outstanding,
    risk probability and impact, remove risks that
    have passed, and identify new risks.

Risk Management In Summary
  • Risk management is not a complex task. If you
    follow the four steps, you can put together a
    risk management plan for a project in a short
    space of time.
  • Without a plan, the success of the project, and
    the reputation of your program are on the line.
    Follow these steps and you will increase your
    chances of success.

Step 5 Emphasize Communication
  • Internal Communication
  • Enlist full support
  • Ease concerns
  • Job security
  • Technical learning support
  • Tell them what to expect when

Emphasize Communication
  • Community Communication
  • Tell them what you are doing why
  • Provide consistent answers to questions
  • Keep them informed on progress
  • Communicate enthusiasm confidence
  • Include them in program success celebrations

Step 6 Establish Benchmarks to Measure Project
  • Measurements based upon goals
  • Participation
  • Literacy and Numeracy Gains
  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Long-term Placement
  • Recidivism
  • Individually stated goals
  • ?

Planning for Success
Good implementation planning leads to.. SUCCESS
Thank You for Participating
  • For more information, contact

US DOL at Richard Morris Sherry West LaSharn
Technical Assistance at Abt Associates