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Unit Planning Methods of Teaching


Develop a set of activities into coherent lesson plans ... Wolfinger, D.M. (1984). Teaching Science in the Elementary School. Boston: Little, Brown. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit Planning Methods of Teaching

Unit Planning Methods of Teaching
Learning Objectives
  • Outline and apply the steps of unit planning
  • Identify and apply eight methods of teaching to
    an instructional unit
  • Develop a set of activities into coherent lesson
  • Understand the advantages of planning an
    instructional unit
  • Develop an instructional unit

Unit Planning
  • Choosing a topic
  • Deciding on unit timing
  • Setting goals
  • Outlining a sequence of activities

Unit Planning
  • Trying out the activities with actual materials
  • Writing the lesson plans
  • Planning for non-cognitive goals
  • Providing for continuity elements

Unit Planning
  • Planning an ending
  • Developing a means of evaluation

National Science Teaching Standards--Instructional
  • Understanding and responding to individual
    students strengths, experiences, and needs
  • Adapting the curriculum
  • Focusing on student understanding and use of
  • Guiding students in active and extended
    scientific inquiry

National Science Teaching Standards--Instructional
  • Providing opportunities for scientific discussion
    and debate among students
  • Continuously assessing student understanding
  • Sharing responsibility for learning with students

Methods of Teaching (1/2)
  • Exposition
  • Exposition with Interaction
  • Discussion
  • The Socratic Method

Methods of Teaching (2/2)
  • The Ordinary Demonstration
  • Discovery Demonstration
  • Guided Discovery
  • Open Inquiry

Developing Lessons Models
  • Direct Instruction
  • Teacher-Centered--less student autonomy
  • Learning to use tools and equipment
  • Learning to use basic processes
  • Guided Discovery
  • Greater student autonomy
  • Cause students to think about their experience
  • Assists students in constructing their own
    understanding of the activity

Developing Lessons Models
  • Performance Objective
  • Materials
  • Learning activities
  • Motivation
  • Presentation
  • Guided Practice
  • Independent Practice
  • Closure
  • Assessment
  • Performance Objective
  • Materials
  • Learning activities
  • Motivation
  • Data Collection
  • Data Processing
  • Closure
  • Assessment

Learning Cycle (1/3)
  • The learning cycle is an established planning
    method in science education and consistent with
    contemporary theories about how individuals
  • In the early 1960s, Robert Karplus and his
    colleagues proposed and used an instructional
    model based on the work of Piaget. This model
    would eventually be called the Learning Cycle.
    (Atkin Karplus, 1962).
  • Numerous studies have shown that the learning
    cycle as a model of instruction is far superior
    to transmission models in which students are
    passive receivers of knowledge from their teacher
    (Bybee, 1997).
  • As an instructional model, the learning cycle
    provides the active learning experiences
    recommended by the National Science Education
    Standards (National Research Council, 1996).

Retrieved from http//agpa.uakron.edu/k12/best_pra
Learning Cycle (2/3)
  • Note components of 5-E learning cycle model
  • Note that the lesson outline I provide applies
    this approach

Learning Cycle (3/3)
  • Engage
  • In this stage you want to create interest and
    generate curiosity in the topic of study raise
    questions and elicit responses from students that
    will give you an idea of what they already know.
    This is also a good opportunity for you to
    identify misconceptions in students'
    understanding. During this stage students should
    be asking questions (Why did this happen? How can
    I find out?) Examples of engaging activities
    include the use of children's literature and
    discrepant events.
  • Explore
  • During the Explore stage students should be given
    opportunities to work together without direct
    instruction from the teacher. You should act as a
    facilitator helping students to frame questions
    by asking questions and observing. Using Piaget's
    theory, this is the time for disequilibrium.
    Students should be puzzled. This is the
    opportunity for students to test predictions and
    hypotheses and/or form new ones, try alternatives
    and discuss them with peers, record observations
    and ideas and suspend judgment.
  • Explain
  • During Explain, you should encourage students to
    explain concepts in their own words, ask for
    evidence and clarification of their explanation,
    listen critically to one another's explanation
    and those of the teacher. Students should use
    observations and recordings in their
    explanations. At this stage you should provide
    definitions and explanations using students'
    previous experiences as a basis for this
  • Extend
  • During Extend students should apply concepts and
    skills in new (but similar) situations and use
    formal labels and definitions. Remind students of
    alternative explanations and to consider existing
    data and evidence as they explore new situations.
    Explore strategies apply here as well because
    students should be using the previous information
    to ask questions, propose solutions, make
    decisions, experiment, and record observations.
  • Evaluate
  • Evaluation should take place throughout the
    learning experience. You should observe students'
    knowledge and/or skills, application of new
    concepts and a change in thinking. Students
    should assess their own learning. Ask open-ended
    questions and look for answers that use
    observation, evidence, and previously accepted
    explanations. Ask questions that would encourage
    future investigations.

Retrieved from http//www.coe.ilstu.edu/scienceed
Enhancing Instruction
  • Set and enforce behavior standards before lesson
    and enforce behavior standards consistently
  • Where appropriate, provide direct information by
    telling, showing, or other means
  • Speak carefully and brieflyplan your delivery
    carefully. Keep directions short and clear
  • Plan materials distribution and clean up
  • Separate students from materials before
  • Minimize interruptions
  • Deal with novelty

Interdisciplinary Activities
  • Rationale for integration
  • Time pressure
  • Fragmentation of the curriculum
  • Pressure for the 3 Rs
  • The explosion of knowledge

  • Does the lesson meet important objectives/goals
    in both disciplines?
  • Can a better job be accomplished through

  • Topic-oriented integration
  • Concept-oriented integration
  • Skills-content integration

  • Carin, A.A., Bass, J.E., Contant, T.L. (2005).
    Methods for teaching science as inquiry (Ninth
    edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ
    Pearson-Merrill-Prentice Hall
  • Howe, A. C. and Jones, L. (1993). Engaging
    Children in Science. Upper Saddle River, NJ
  • Kellough, R.D. (1996). Integrating Mathematics
    and Science (K-3). Prentice-Hall
  • Kellough, R.D. (1996). Integrating Mathematics
    and Science (4-6). Prentice-Hall
  • King, K.P. (2007). Integrating the National
    Science Education Standards into Classroom
    Practice. Columbus, OH Pearson-Merrill-Prentice
  • National Research Council. (1996). National
    Science Education Standards. Washington, DC
    National Academy Press
  • Tolley, K. (1993). The Art and Science
    Connection (K-3). Addison-Wesley
  • Tolley, K. (1993). The Art and Science
    Connection (4-6). Addison-Wesley
  • Wolfinger, D.M. (1984). Teaching Science in the
    Elementary School. Boston Little, Brown.
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