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Government Involvement in Red Tourism in China


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Title: Government Involvement in Red Tourism in China

Geography 2086/7108 China's Tourism Resources
Dr. Li, Yiping
Department of Geography, The University of Hong
KongSpring 2009
Lecture 1.1 General Introduction
  • Main content will cover
  • development and change of China's tourism
  • organizations and management of tourism in China
  • hotel business
  • travel leisure service provision
  • tourism education and training
  • social, economic and environmental issues
    associated with Chinas tourism development

Specific Lecture Topics
  • Introduction
  • Development and Change of Tourism in China
  • Tourism Management
  • In-bound Out-bound Travel Services
  • Tourism Management Hotels
  • Tourism Management Attractions
  • Tourism Planning and Marketing

  • Emerging Issues
  • Tourism Impacts in China
  • Culture Tourism and Issue of Authenticity
  • Individual Travel Scheme Host-Guest Relationship
  • Sport Events and Destination Image Building
  • Ecotourism Chinese Way of Viewing the Landscape
  • Working for the Future
  • Study of Tourism in the 21st Century
  • Field Trip and/or Project Presentation

Course Objectives
  • understand and appreciate the scope and
    complexity of Chinas tourism industry
  • understand the terminology appropriate to travel
    and tourism
  • understand a sampling of research methodologies
    used for studying travel and tourism in China
  • understand the various career directions
    available within Chinas travel and tourism
  • understand the external factors which impact the
    tourism industry in China
  • understand the economic and environmental impacts
    of tourism development in China
  • understand current trends and the future outlook
    for the field of tourism studies in general, and
    studies of travel and tourism in China in

Please Note
  • Course content and order of presentations may
    DEVIATE from this outline due to unforeseen

  • Lecture notes will not be distributed, BUT will
    be posted on-line at this weblink

  • Textbook
  • Lew, A., Yu, L., Ap, J. Zhang, G. (Eds.)
    (2003). Tourism in China. New York The Haworth
    Hospitality Press (ISBN 0789012820)
  • Recommended Readings
  • Lew, A., Yu, L. (Eds.) (1995). Tourism in
    China Geographic, Political, and Economic
    Perspectives. Boulder Westview Press (ISBN
  • Relevant articles will be recommended from
    tourism research journals such as
  • Journal of China Tourism Research
  • Annals of Tourism Research
  • Tourism Management
  • Journal of Sustainable Tourism
  • Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research
  • Journal of Ecotourism
  • Asia-Pacific Journal of Tourism Research

  • 100 Coursework
  • Project 1 (40)
  • Prepare an Annotated Bibliography about Tourism
    in China
  • Project 2 (50)
  • An Independent Study of Tourism in China
  • Lecture participation (10)

COURSEWORKProject 1 Prepare an Annotated
Bibliography about Tourism in ChinaThis is an
assignment of library research. You are required
to prepare an annotated bibliography about
tourism in China. An annotated bibliography is a
list of citations to books, articles, and
documents, ect.. Each citation is followed by a
brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and
evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose
of the annotation is to inform the reader of the
relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources
cited. You must follow 2 specific steps to
complete this project
  • 1 Identify 10 articles and / or books (15
    points, due by Friday, Feb 20th, 2009)
  • Identify articles and / or books, etc. (10
    minimum) of your interest, which must be
    relevant--regarding tourism in China.
  • Report your choice in typed written format,
    following Geography Departments Guidelines on
    the use of reference materials in course
    assignments (see Appendix 1)
  • Submit this report (basically a list of citations
    you will use in order to complete the annotated
    bibliography) by 430pm on Friday, Feb 20th, 2009
  • Delay submission will result in deduction of your
    final mark

  • 2. Complete the annotated bibliography (25
    points, due by 430pm on Friday, March 20th
    2009). Delay will result in deduction of your
    final mark

Lew, A., Yu, L., Ap, J. and Zhang, G. (2003)
(ed). Tourism in China. New York The Haworth
Hospitality Press, 256pp. This book provides a
comprehensive understanding of Chinas tourism
development from 1949 to present. The editors
attempt to reconfigure a number of papers along
the major themes opportunities, challenges, and
strategies associated with tourism development in
China. It is discernable in the collection of
papers that a series of paradoxical problems have
emerged in Chinas burgeoning tourism industry
The country is in the midst of modernizing its
norms and values, but still has no civil society
to counterbalance the power of the state. It
enjoys the benefits of a growing economy which is
generally considered successful, but is far from
being regulated by the invisible hand of the
market. There is intense social opposition, but
there are no social movements that might lead
towards a democratic system crucial to the
continuous economic success in the 21st century.
It is a pity that only Ning Wang lightly
addressed those paradoxical problems in his
discussion of heritage conservation versus
culture change. The whole book failed to
recognize that an understanding of those problems
should be crucial to studying contemporary China
in general, and its tourism development in
  • Project 2 An Independent Study of Tourism in
  • This assignment is geared to individual field
    study of tourism in China
  • You are required to conduct a field study of
    your own choice regarding tourism in China, Macau
    or Hong Kong
  • Your study should investigate one or two issues
    you deem to be important for Chinas tourism
  • Your report must contain these components
  • Introduction
  • Discussion of the key issue(s)
  • Conclusion
  • You must follow Geography Departments Guidelines
    on the use of reference materials in course
    assignments (see Appendix 1) when writing your
  • This project counts as 50 of your final grade,
    and will be due by 2 phases
  • 100-word preliminary idea of study (10 points,
    due by 430pm on Friday, March 27th, 2009)

Lecture Participation (10)
  • 10 points will be given for class participation
  • Students that regularly interact and respond
    (positively) within the class discussion will
    generally receive all 10 points
  • Participation will also be related to attendance
    and attentiveness during class
  • No lecture attendance check will be conducted,
    but at any time during my office hours between
    March 30th and May 5th, you are to come to my
    office for
  • A performance report (mostly just a chat so I can
    have a better understanding of who you are)
  • A discussion about your potential of
  • future promotion (passing the course)
  • getting a raise (higher grade).

Oral Presentation of Field Study Report
  • 3 volunteers will be selected to do a 25-minute
    oral presentation on the field study
  • Oral presentation should be done on the last
    lecture day of the course
  • Presenters are required to submit a soft copy of
    presentation slides instead of a written report
    of the field study
  • Selection of presenters will be conducted on the
    second lecture day after reading week
  • If more than 3 students volunteer to present,
    final presenters will be selected by a lucky draw

How to write this 100 word report of your
preliminary idea of field study?(10 points, due
by 430pm on Friday, March 27th, 2009)
  • Personal Information
  • Your name Ng. Nancy
  • Your Student ID 200700000
  • Your tentative topic for the field study , e.g.
  • Theme parks development in Shenzhen
  • Casino Tourism in Macau
  • A Case Analysis of Hotel Management in Hong Kong
  • etc.?
  • Outline of your work
  • Describe the study location, and introduce the
    key issue(s) for study
  • Possible method of study
  • Discussion of study results
  • Conclusion
  • List of questions and difficulties (if you have
  • ???
  • ???

You must submit both projects via Geography
Department Assignment Collection Boxin the
Departments General OfficeIf you have any
questions regarding the two projects, do not
hesitate to contact your TA or me. This can be
done during my regular office hours or by
appointmentMy office hoursTuesday 1430
1730 My office306 Hui Oi Chow Building
Mutual Expectations Codes of Civility
  • You can expect me to
  • Come prepared for, and attend, all lectures
    regularly and punctually
  • I demand the same from you, and will consider
    these unacceptable behaviors
  • Reading during a lecture
  • Consuming food or drink
  • Littering the lecture room
  • Using walkmans, radios, MP3, mobile phones, etc.,
    which may impede the ability of you or other
    students to learn
  • If we all abide by this code of civility and
    mutual respect, we set the stage for a healthy
    and stimulating intellectual forum.

Lecture 1.2 IntroductionDevelopment Change
ofTourism in China
Lecture Objectives
  • Understand evolution of Chinas tourism policies
    since 1949
  • the effect on the tourism development
  • Examine the spatial distribution of Chinas
    tourism resources
  • classification of tourism regions by Chinese
    tourism scholars
  • Discuss future trend of tourism development in

  • Recommended readings
  • Lam, T. Mao, F. (2001). A Study of
    International Tourism Development in China.
    Pacific Tourism Review 5 113-120
  • Lew, A., Yu, L., Ap, J. Zhang, G. (Eds.)
    (2003). Tourism in China, Chapters 1 2. New
    York The Haworth Hospitality Press
  • Oakes, T. (1998). Tourism and Modernity in China,
    Chapter 2 (pp. 58-82). London Routledge
  • Sofield, T Li, F. (1998). Tourism Development
    and Cultural Policies in China. Annals of Tourism
    Research 25 (2) 362-392
  • Xu, G. 1999). Tourism and Local Economic
    Development in China. Chapter 3 (pp.30-51). UK
    Cuzzon Press
  • Zhang, Y. (1995). An Assessment of Chinas
    Tourism Resources. In Lew, A. and Yu, L. (Eds.),
    Tourism in China Geographic, Political, and
    Economic Perspectives (pp. 41-59). Westview Press
  • You may choose to read any one of the above
    listed readings according to your time

Tourism in China An Evolutionary Perspective
  • Reflect on some Chinese tourism scholars view
    that China has a long history of leisure travel
    by pondering these questions
  • IS IT TRUE there is such a long history?
  • Why is it true and/or not true?
  • Differentiate
  • Concepts of travel and tourism

  • Thomas Cook Sons, and other world renown travel
    companies, opened their offices in Shanghai and
    Beijing during the 1920s
  • The start of tourism business in China
  • Wars (??) from the late 1930s to the late 1940s
    put a hold to all pleasure travel in China
  • The travel business became a form of special
    political activity after PRC was established in

  • 3 Decades of Tourism Growth
  • Facts and Figures
  • Gains the losses

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Worlds Top 10 International Tourism
Destinations, 2005 (UNWTO, 2006)
Worlds Top 10 international Tourism Earners,
2005 (UNWTO, 2006)
Worlds Top 10 Tourism Destinations in 2020
Worlds Top 10 Tourist-Generating Countries in
Note 2006 data not including the December data
International Tourism Receipts in China
Domestic Tourism in China (1978-2005)
  • Tourism Growth Infrastructure
  • Accommodation
  • 203 hotels in 1978, of which only about 60 were
    suitable to accommodate overseas visitors
  • 10888 star-rated hotels by 2004. These hotels all
    provide facilities of dining, lodging, and
    general services that meet the international

Postgraduate students are toupdate the statistics
Tourism Policies the Impacts
The TransformationOver the past 3 decades, the
official purpose of tourism in China has
undergone three 3 changes
  • Politics only (1949 1978)
  • Politics plus economics (1978 to 1985)
  • Economics over politics (since 1986)

The development of the tourism policies led to
the transformations of tourism resource
management in China
  • Change 1
  • from micro-management and control to
    macro-management and service, e.g.
  • The Bureau for Travel and Tourism (BTT) before
  • China National Tourism Administration was set up
    in 1981

  • Change 2
  • from monopoly to decentralization in tourism
  • business operations
  • Three Magnates of Travel Services before 1978
  • CITS, CTS, and CYTS
  • By 2008???? (postgraduate students homework)
  • 1460 international travel services and 13467 by
  • 10888 star-rated hotels (1.3 million rooms)
  • A national tourism workforce of2.5 million people

  • Change 3
  • from a product-oriented to a market-oriented
  • Among actions recently taken, China has
  • simplified visa and frontier formalities for
    overseas tourists
  • introduced a star-rating classification of its
    hotels based on international standard
  • adopted a more relaxed policy regarding
    mainlanders visiting HK (CEPA-ITS)
  • set up tourism offices in major markets abroad to
    provide necessary and up-to-date information on
    the country, and participated regularly in major
    world tourism exhibitions

Future Trend Is It Predictable?
Experiences Gained Lessons Learnedkeep these
questions in mind when studying this course
  • The comparative advantage
  • How long will it last?
  • National economic policies
  • Are they always in line with tourism development?
  • Outside capital and modern manpower
  • Are they boldly introduced and efficiently
  • Negative impacts of tourism
  • Has appropriate attention been given?

Spatial distribution of Chinas tourism
resources Classifications of tourism regions
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Tourism Resources
  • A uniquely combined natural cultural (human)
    resource base for developing tourism
  • Natural and scenic resources shanshui
    (mountains and rivers), such as

  • Historical resources over 5,000 years recorded
    history of continuous development has left a rich
    legacy in
  • Agriculture
  • Handicrafts
  • Science and technology
  • Medicine
  • Literature
  • Architecture
  • Art
  • Philosophy

  • Human (cultural) resources - cultural heritage
    ethnic diversity are rich and varied tourism
    resources, such as
  • Tradition
  • Ethnic diversity
  • Cuisines
  • Distinct political system
  • Vibrant city life

Major Characteristics of Tourism Resources
  • vast land and various terrains
  • unique geological features and regional
  • long history and rich culture heritage
  • ethnic dynamics and varieties
  • rapid change with contrast of tradition and

RESOURCE PATTERNSChinese tourism scholars agree
that a tourism region should have 4
  • A relative concentration of tourism resources
  • A sufficient broadness of regional extent
  • A distinctive and complementary combination of
    diverse resources, and
  • One or more well established tourism centres
    supported by adequate infrastructure,
    superstructure, and stable markets

Accordingly, Chinas tourism regions may be
classified by a 9-region scheme on the basis of
geographic contiguous regions and relative
completeness of a historical or cultural resource
  • Beijing Tourism Region
  • Silk Road Tourism Region
  • Northeast Tourism Region
  • South China Tourism Region
  • Southwest Tourism Region
  • Taiwan Tourism Region
  • Qinzang (Qinhai-Tibetan Plateaus) Tourism Region
  • Yangtze River Valley Tourism Region
  • Yellow River Valley Tourism Region

Cases of exampleYangtze River Valley Tourism
A relative concentration of tourism resources
Shanghai global city, colonial culture, shopping
entertainment, transportation hub.
Jiangsu Zhejiang land of rice and fish,
ancient capitals, arts crafts, agriculture,
cuisine, the Grand Canal, Taihu Lake, etc.
Anhui Jiangxi Yellow Mountain and Mount
Lushan, Jiuhua Mountain, Poyang Lake, etc.
A sufficient broadness of regional extent
  • A distinctive and complementary combination of
    diverse resources
  • modern and traditional, natural and
  • One or more well established tourism centres
    supported by adequate infrastructure,
    superstructure, and stable markets

Perspective 2 for classifying tourism
regions(climatic differentiations destination
characteristics destination characteristics)Anoth
er perspective reflects the emphasis on climatic
differentiations and destination characteristics
in identifying Chinas tourism regions
  • Zhongyuan (Central China) Ancient Civilisation
    Tourism Region
  • Eastern Coast Tourism Region
  • Chuan Han (Sichuan) Tourism Region
  • South China Tropical Landscape Tourism Region
  • Southwest Karst Landform Tourism Region
  • Northwest Silk Road Tourism Region
  • North China Tourism Region
  • Northern Border Frontier Fortress Tourism Region
  • Qing-Zang Highland Tourism Region

  • The strong influence of Chinas regional
    economic structure, which is characterized by
  • a developed and industrial eastern coast region
  • a less developed and less
  • industrial central inland region
  • a least developed and least
  • industrialized western
  • interior regionis clearly seen in the
  • spatial patterns of
  • tourism development