Social%20Change%20and%20Movements - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation



... and mass consciousness, popular culture, and political and legal reform? ... French & Raven's. Bases of Social Power. Reward. Coercive. Legitimate. Referent ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:33
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 27
Provided by: johna6


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Social%20Change%20and%20Movements

Social Change and Movements
  • John A. Cagle

Dana Cloud Key questions
  • How does social change happen?
  • What has worked for social movements in the past?
  • Are those strategies still valid in the present?
  • What is the balance among rhetorical and other
    (economic, cultural, political) factors in
    determining opportunities for and outcomes of
    movements for social change?
  • What are the usual stages of social movements and
    what are the rhetorical tasks of each stage?
  • How have movements interacted with, built upon,
    and/or challenged other movements?

  • What various ideological camps are present in
    each movement and what rhetorical markers
    distinguish these positions?
  • How do we know when a social movement has
  • What have been the relationships between social
    movements and mass consciousness, popular
    culture, and political and legal reform?
  • What should be the role of scholars in evaluating
    and participating in social movements?

Bowers Ochs Rhetoric of Agitation and Control
  • Rhetoric is the rationale of instrumental
    symbolic behavior.
  • Agitation exists when
  • people outside the normal decision-making
  • advocate significant social change and
  • encounter a degree of resistance within the
    establishment such as to require more than the
    normal discursive means of persuasion.
  • Control refers to the response of the
    decision-making establishment.

Two kinds of agitation
  • Agitation based on vertical deviance occurs when
    the agitators subscribe to the value system of
    the establishment, but dispute the distribution
    of benefits or power with that value system.
  • Agitation based on lateral deviance occurs when
    the agitators dispute the value system itself.

French Ravens Bases of Social Power
  • Reward
  • Coercive
  • Legitimate
  • Referent
  • Expert

(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
Critical variables
  • Agitation
  • Actual membership
  • Potential membership
  • Rhetorical sophistication
  • Control
  • Power
  • Strength of ideology
  • Rhetorical sophistication

(No Transcript)
Generalization A
  • An agitative group low in rhetorical
    sophistication uses the strategies of nonviolent
    resistance, escalation/confrontation, Gandhi and
    guerrilla, or guerrilla prematurely, before the
    possibilities of petition, promulgation,
    solidification, and polarization have been

Contributors to Intergroup Conflict
  • Perceptual Differences resulting from
  • Different Goal, Time, and/or Social Orientations
  • Different Attitudinal Sets - competitive vs.
    cooperative and cosmopolitan vs. local
  • Status Differences - rank and standing relative
    to others
  • The Nature of Task Relationships
  • Task Interaction - similar to interdependence
  • Task Ambiguity - not understanding
    responsibilities and requirements
  • Power Differences
  • Lower power if group is considered substitutable
  • How able a group can adapt to changes impact on
    that groups power
  • Controlling and having access to resources gives
    a group power

An Overview of Intergroup Conflict
Conflict Resolution Techniques
Dysfunctional Consequences
Changes between groups Distorted
perceptions Negative Stereotyping Decrease in
Communica- tions
Changes within group Increases in
cohesiveness Rise in autocratic
leadership Focus on activity Emphasis on loyalty
Problem solving Superordinate goals Expansion of
resources Avoidance Forcing Smoothing Compromise A
ltering human variable Altering structural
variables Identifying common enemy
Causes of Intergroup Conflict
Interdependence Differences in goals -Limited
resources -Reward structures Differences in
perceptions -Different goals -Different time
horizons -Status incongruency -Inaccurate
perceptions Increased demand for specialists
Functional Consequences
Awareness of Problem
results in
Positive movement toward organizational goals
Search for solutions
results in
results in
Change and adaptation
results in
Survival of organization
Intergroup Conflict
Action lines
Influence lines
Managing Conflict Strategies
Intervention Styles
Partys Desire to Satisfy Own Concerns
Partys Desire to Satisfy Others Concerns
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
Conflict Management Strategies Tactics
  • Avoidance Behaviors
  • Direct denial
  • Implicit denial
  • Evasive remark
  • Topic shifts
  • Topic Avoidance
  • Abstract remarks
  • Noncommital statements
  • Noncommital questions
  • Procedural remarks

  • Cooperative behaviors
  • Description
  • Qualification
  • Disclosure
  • Soliciting disclosure
  • Soliciting criticism
  • Empathy or support
  • Concessions
  • Accepting responsibility

  • Competitive behaviors
  • Personal criticism
  • Rejection
  • Hostile imperatives
  • Hostile questioning
  • Hostile joking or sarcasm
  • Presumptive attribution
  • Denial of responsibility

Managing Conflict Strategies
  • Confrontation Meeting - subgroups meet to
    identify conflicts and develop action plans to
    eliminate them.
  • Third-Party Interventions - third party acts as
    mediator, arbitrator, or fact finder - generally
    done in union/management situations.

Focus on Structural Mechanisms
  • Hierarchy - senior individual coordinates the
    activities of two interacting groups, e.g.,
    Executive VP.
  • Plans and Goals - that interacting groups
    understand and agree to.
  • Linking Roles - person placed in a lateral
    position to act a conduit between groups,
    generally temporary function.
  • Task Forces - groups generally made up of one
    representative from each group.

  • Integrating Roles or Units - e.g., a project
    manager who permanently links groups.
  • Project or Product Structure - have people from
    different teams comprise groups to service a
    specific customer base.
  • Matrix Organization - having people report to
    more than one boss, e.g., project manager and VP
    of RD.

Kenneth Burkes Dramatism
  • The range of rhetoric is wide.
  • All life is drama.
  • Drama features human motives.
  • Hierarchy is fundamental to human symbolism.
  • Rhetoric promises transcendence.
  • Rhetoric is fueled by the negative.

Burkes Dramatism
  • The Act is the basic concept of dramatism.
  • Action consists of purposeful voluntary acts
    motions are nonpurposeful, nonmeaningful acts.

  • The individual is a biological and neurological
    being, distinguished by symbol-using behavior,
    the ability to act.
  • People are symbol-creating, symbol-using, and
    symbol-misusing animals.
  • Burkes view of symbols is broad, including an
    array of linguistic and nonverbal elements.
  • People filter reality through a symbolic screen.

Rhetorical Analysis
  • Kenneth Burkes Pentad act, scene, agent,
    agency, and purpose
  • Pentadic ratios can be used to define the central
    relationship of any communication scene-act,
    scene-agency, scene-purpose, act-purpose,
    act-agent, act-agency, agent-purpose,
    agent-agency, and agency-purpose.