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... rely on symptoms to know whether you are infected with HIV since most ... Symptoms include weight loss, weakness, fever, night sweats, coughing, chest ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Anatomy of the Skin
  • The skin is the largest organ of the body.
  • Two major layers are the dermis and epidermis.
  • Subcutaneous fat helps insulate the body from the
  • Skin thickness varies regionally thickest skin
    is on the soles of the feet and palms of the

Anatomy of the Skin
Anatomy of the Skin (cont.)
  • Skins functions include
  • Protection from environment.
  • Maintenance of bodys fluid balance.
  • Protection against disease organisms. Temperature
  • Housing for sensory nerves.
  • Production of vitamin D.

  • Are disease-causing microorganisms (viruses,
    bacteria, and parasites) that may be present in
    human blood.
  • - Bloodborne pathogens are transmitted when
    blood or OPIMs (other potentially infectious
    materials) come in contact with mucous membranes
    or nonintact skin.
  • - Cuts, abrasions, burns, rashes, acne, paper
    cuts, and hangnails.
  • - Splashes or sprays, handling or touching
    contaminated items or surfaces, injection under
    the skin by puncture wounds or cuts from
    contaminated sharps.

  • Pathogen- Any disease-causing microorganism
  • Reservoir Host- The individual in which the
  • microorganism reside.
  • Portal of Exit- The pathogens route of escape
    from the
  • reservoir.
  • Route of Transmission- The method by which the
  • pathogen enters its new host (direct contact,
    air, insects,
  • etc.)
  • Portal of Entry- The route through which the
    pathogen enters its new host (respiratory,
    gastrointestinal, urinary, and reproductive

  • Susceptible Host- The source, such as a human
    who accepts the pathogen, and depending on degree
    of resistance, supports the pathogens life and
    reproduction (malnourished, suppressed immune
    systems, and others in poor health)
  • Sterlization is the complete destruction of all
    forms of
  • microbial life
  • Aseptic means sterile, preventing infection

  • Staphylococci are bacteria that occur naturally
    on the
  • skin and therefore are on your hands. Research
  • shown the most effective method to reduce the
    risk of
  • industrial illnesses is to use frequent
  • Washing of hands needs to be done
  • - First arriving at work
  • Before performing each medical procedure on
  • During a procedure if your hands become
  • After using restroom
  • After removing gloves from your hands
  • Before eating

  • Proper Handwashing Technique

  • Sharps Containers
  • All needles, scalpel blades, and other sharp
    objects should be disposed of in the proper
  • Never recap, bend, or manually remove a dirty
  • Always deposit the entire syringe and needle or
  • object in the container.
  • Immediately clean any puncture wound with alcohol
  • and betadine and cover the wound. Report incident
  • your supervisor or instructor.

  • What Is An Acceptable Container
  • It must be
  • Closable
  • Puncture Resistant
  • Leakproof on sides and bottom
  • Labeled or color coded
  • A sharps container may be made of a variety of
  • including cardboard or plastic, as long as the
    four criteria
  • are met. Duct tape may secure a lid, but isnt
    acceptable if
  • it serves as the lid.

  • Removing Contaminated Gloves
  • Cross-contamination

  • Wound Care
  • Primary goals of wound care are
  • Control bleeding.
  • Prevent infection.
  • Primary concern when rendering first aid is
    avoidance of exposure to whole blood that may
    transmit HIV or HBV.
  • The majority of wounds in sports are abrasions,
    lacerations, or incisions.
  • Turf burn is a form of abrasion associated with
    artificial grass surfaces.

Wound Treatment Protocol
  • 1. Apply direct pressure to control bleeding by
    applying some type of sterile dressing.
  • 2. If dressing becomes blood soaked, add more
    dressing on top. Do not remove blood-soaked
  • 3. If bleeding is severe and does not respond to
    direct pressure, use elevation in combination
    with direct pressure.

Wound Treatment Protocol (cont.)
  • 4. Increased hemorrhage control can be achieved
    by application of pressure bandage over either
    brachial or femoral arteries, depending on wound
  • Once pressure is applied to these points, it
    should not be removed until athlete is under
    physicians care.
  • Tourniquet should be applied only as a last
  • 5. All materials used to treat the wound should
    be stored for later disposal in a properly
    identified biohazardous material container.

Wound Care
  • At the time of initial injury, a decision must be
    made regarding continued participation.
  • Consider health and safety of the athlete as well
    as risk to others.
  • Once bleeding has stopped, apply commercially
    made dressing held in place by adhesive bandage.
  • Lacerations and incisions, particularly those to
    the scalp and face, merit special attention
    because of potential cosmetic impact.
  • General rule Any wound that is below dermal
    layer and more than 1 cm in length should be seen
    by a physician, especially if it is on the face.

Guidelines for Cleaning Wounds
  • Personnel caring for wound should wear latex
  • 2. Wash wound with sterile gauze pad saturated
    with soap and water.
  • 3. A 3 solution of hydrogen peroxide may be used
    to clear away clotted blood.
  • 4. Flush with a lot of water and dry with sterile
  • 5. Clean around wound with isopropyl alcohol do
    not apply the alcohol directly to the wound.

Guidelines for Cleaning Wounds (cont.)
  • 6. Apply a sterile, dry dressing and hold in
    place with some type of clean bandage.
  • 7. Severe wounds should be treated for control of
    bleeding and referred immediately for medical

HIV/HBV and the Athlete
  • HIV and HBV are bloodborne infections.
  • Anyone who is sexually active is at risk.
  • Athletes injecting steroids and sharing needles
    are also at risk.
  • Any time a person infected with HIV sustains a
    bleeding wound, the possibility of transmission
  • The prudent coach should follow basic preventive
    guidelines for HIV and HBV transmission, as
    outlined by OSHA.

HIV/HBV and the Athlete (cont.)
  • Coaches are at risk because they are often
    exposed to bloody towels, water bottles, playing
    surfaces, and blood-soaked bandaging materials.
  • Participants in wrestling, tackle football, and
    boxing often sustain wounds.
  • Coaches and officials should take precautions and
    remove players from participation when excessive
    bleeding is evident.
  • Education of athletes, coaches, and parents about
    HIV and HBV is essential.

Hepatitis Infection
  • HAV and HBV are both serious. HBV is considered
    potentially life threatening.
  • HAV is transmitted via feces, which is a problem
    for food handlers who do not wash their hands.
  • HBV transmitted through blood and sexual fluids.
  • IV drug users can also become infected through
    contaminated needles.
  • Incubation for HAV is 15 to 50 days HBV is 45 to
    160 days.

Hepatitis Infection (cont.)
  • Signs and symptoms for both types of infection
  • Nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, fever, and
  • If untreated, both types will involve the
    liver resulting in jaundice.
  • Liver damage is possible, leading in some cases
    to death.
  • Treatment is limited.
  • HAV can be treated with immediate inoculation to
    provide passive immunity.
  • Athletes with HAV or HBV should be removed from

  • Hepatitis can affect anyone. Each year in the
  • United States, 140,000 to 320,000 people will
  • become infected with the virus.
  • CDC studies have shown steady decline in the
  • incidence of HBV infection. Decline is
  • to the use of vaccine (series of 3 shots) and
  • implementation of other prevention methods,
  • such as engineering and work practice controls,
  • personal protective equipment, and universal
  • precautions.

  • HIV (Aquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)
  • HIV-1 and HIV-2
  • Causes suppression of the immune system and
  • can lead to opportunistic infections and unusual
  • types of cancer.
  • HIV-2 develops more slowly and may be milder.
  • Few cases in US and is predominately found in
  • Africa.

  • - CDC reports that is 2003 there were an
  • estimated 1,039,000 people in the US w/
  • - Approximately 25 of infected persons are
  • undiagnosed and unaware of their infection.
  • - Annual rate of infection with HIV is 16.5 cases
  • per 100,000 population with no vaccination.
  • - The only way to know if you are infected is to
  • be tested.
  • Incubation period w/ HIV from time of HIV
    infection to the development of AIDS may take
    8-10 years.

  • - Can not rely on symptoms to know whether you
    are infected with HIV since most people will not
    show symptoms for many years.
  • AIDS symptoms of AIDS are similar to the symptoms
    of many other infections and might include night
    sweats, weight loss, fever, fatigue, gland pain
    or swelling, and muscle or joint pain.
  • - Patients with AIDS by law are not mandated to
    inform health care providers so ALWAYS protect

  • Airborne disease
  • Since 1985, incidence of TB in the general US
    population has increased approximately 14.
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacteria
    responsible for causing TB in humans.
  • TB may cause disease in any organ of the body,
    most commonly the lung, which accounts for about
    85 of all infection sites.
  • - Other sites may include lymph nodes, CNS,
    kidneys, and the skeletal system.

  • TB is a serious and often fatal disease if left
  • Symptoms include weight loss, weakness, fever,
    night sweats, coughing, chest pain, and coughing
    up blood.
  • Prevalence of infection is much higher in the
    close contacts of TB patients than in the general

  • TB is spread from person to person in the form
  • of droplet nuclei in the air. When a person
    with TB coughs, sings or laughs, the droplet
    nuclei are released into the air. When
    uninfected people breath in the air, they become
    infected with TB
  • You must have close contact to a sufficient
    number of air droplet nuclei.
  • - A persons health must also be considered for
    contributing to susceptibility of TB disease.

  • - Among the medical risk factors for developing
    TB are diabetes, gastrectomy (removal of stomach)
    long-term corticosteroid use, immunosuppressive
    therapy, cancers and other malignancies, and HIV
  • Symptoms are similar to the flu or cold but
  • last longer and must be treated with
    prescription antibiotics.
  • - The HIV epidemic is a major contributing
    factor to the recent increase in cases of active
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