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CMOS Device Model

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Good weak-strong inversion transition. Transconductance when VDS is small ... Device geometries from SPICE (table, graph); may require iteration (e.g. CGS) Sweep V1 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CMOS Device Model


1
CMOS Device Model
  • Objective
  • Hand calculations for analog design
  • Efficiently and accurately simulation
  • CMOS transistor models
  • Large signal model
  • Small signal model
  • Simulation model
  • Noise model

2
Large Signal Model
  • Nonlinear equations for solving dc values of
    device currents given voltages
  • Level 1 Shichman-Hodges (VT, K', g, l, f, and
    NSUB)
  • Level 2 with second-order effects (varying
    channel charge, short-channel, weak inversion,
    varying surface mobility, etc.)
  • Level 3 Semi-empirical short-channel model
  • Level 4 BSIM models. Based on automatically
    generated parameters from a process
    characterization. Good weak-strong inversion
    transition.

3
Transconductance when VDS is small
4
Transconductance when VDS is small
5
Transconductance when VDS is small
6
Effect of changing VDS for a large VGS
7
Effect of changing VDS for a given VGS
8
Effect of changing VDS for a given VGS
9
Effect of changing VDS for various VGS
VGSltVT
10
Effect of changing VDS for various VGS
11
Effect of changing VDS for various VGS
12
MOST Regions of Operation
  • Cut-off, or non-conducting VGS ltVT
  • ID0
  • Conducting VGS gtVT
  • Saturation VDS gt VGS VT
  • Triode or linear or ohmic or non-saturation VDS
    lt VGS VT

13
With channel length modulation
14
Capacitors Of The Mosfet
15
CBD and CBS include both the diffusion-bulk
junction capacitance as well as the side wall
junction capacitance. They are highly nonlinear
in bias voltages. C4 is the capacitance between
the channel and the bulk. It is highly nonlinear
and depends on the operation of the device. C4 is
not measurable from terminals.
16
/2
17
Gate related capacitances
18
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19
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20
Small signal model
21
Typically VDB, VSB are in such a way that there
is a reversely biased pn junction. Therefore
gbd gbs 0
22
In saturation
But
23
In non-saturation region
24
High Frequency Figures of Merit wT
  • AC current source input to G
  • AC short S, D, B to gnd
  • Measure AC drain current output
  • Calculate current gain
  • Find frequency at which current gain 1.
  • Ignore rs and rd, ? Cbs, Cbd, gds, gbs, gbd all
    have zero voltage drop and hence zero current
  • Vgs Iin /jw(CgsCgbCgd) Iin /jwCgs
  • Io - (gm - jw Cgd)Vgs - gmVgs
  • Io/Iin gm/wCgs

25
  • At wT, current gain 1
  • wT gm/(CgsCgd) gm/Cgs
  • or

26
High Frequency Figures of Merit wmax
  • AC current source input to G
  • AC short S, D, B to gnd
  • Measure AC power into the gate
  • Assume complex conjugate load
  • Compute max power delivered by the transistor
  • Find maximum power gain
  • Find frequency at which power gain 1.

27
  • wmax frequency at which power gain becomes 1

PL
28
BSIM models
  • Non-uniform charge density
  • Band bending due to non-uniform gate voltage
  • Non-uniform threshold voltage
  • Non-uniform channel doping, x, y, z
  • Short channel effects
  • Charge sharing
  • Drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL)
  • Narrow channel effects
  • Temperature dependence
  • Mobility change due to temp, field (x, y)
  • Source drain, gate, bulk resistances

29
Short Channel Effects
  • VTH decreases for small L
  • Large offset for diff pairs with small L
  • Mobility reduction
  • Velocity saturation
  • Vertical field (small tox6.5nm)
  • Reduced gm increases slower than root-ID

30
Threshold Voltage VTH
  • Strong function of L
  • Use long channel for VTH matching
  • But this increases cap and decreases speed
  • Process variations
  • Run-to-run
  • How to characterize?
  • Slow/nominal/fast
  • Both worst-case optimistic

31
Effect of Velocity Saturation
  • Velocity mobility field
  • Field reaches maximum Emax
  • (Vgs-Vt)/L reaches ESAT
  • gm become saturated
  • gm ½mnCoxWESAT
  • But Cgs still 2/3 WL Cox
  • wT gm/Cgs ¾ mnESAT /L
  • No longer 1/L2

32
Threshold Reduction
  • When channel is short, effect of Vd extends to S
  • Cause barrier to drop, i.e. Vth to drop
  • Greatly affects sub-threshold current 26 mV Vth
    drop ? current e
  • 100200 mV Vth drop due to Vd not uncommon ? 100s
    or 1000 times current increase
  • Use lower density active near gate but higher
    density for contacts

33
Other effects
  • Temperature variation
  • Normal-Field Mobility Degradation
  • Substrate current
  • Very nonlinear in Vd
  • Drain to source leakage current at Vgs0
  • Big concern for static power
  • Gate leakage currents
  • Hot electron
  • Tunneling
  • Very nonlineary
  • Transit Time Effects

34
Consequences for Design
  • SPICE (HSPICE or Spectre)
  • BSIM3, BSIM4 models
  • Accurate but inappropriate for hand analysis
  • Verification ( optimization)
  • Design
  • Small signal parameter design space
  • gm, CL (speed, noise)
  • gm/ID, ID (power, output range, speed)
  • Av0 gmro (gain)
  • Device geometries from SPICE (table, graph)
  • may require iteration (e.g. CGS)

35
Intrinsic voltage gain of MOSFET
Sweep V1 Measure vgs
Intrinsic voltage gain gm/go Dvds/Dvgs for
constant Id
36
Electronic Noise
  • Noise phenomena
  • Device noise models
  • Representation of noise (2-ports)
  • Motivation
  • Output spectral density
  • Input equivalent spectral density
  • Noise figure
  • Sampling noise (kT/C noise)
  • SNR versus Bits
  • Noise versus Power Dissipation
  • Dynamic range
  • Minimum detectable signal

37
Noise in Devices and Circuits
  • Noise is any unwanted excitation of a circuit,
    any input that is not an information-bearing
    signal.
  • External noise Unintended coupling with other
    parts of the physical world in principle, can be
    virtually eliminated by careful design.
  • Intrinsic noise Unpredictable microscopic
    events inherent in the device/circuit can be
    reduced, but never eliminated.
  • Noise is especially important to consider when
    designing low-power systems because the signal
    levels (typically voltages or currents) are
    small.

38
Noise vs random process variations
  • random process variations
  • Variations from one device to another
  • For any device, it is fixed after fabrication
  • Noise
  • Unpredictable variations during operation
  • Unknown after fabrication
  • Remains unknown after measurement during
    operation
  • May change with environment

39
Time domain description of noise
40
What is signal and what is noise?
41
Signal and noise power

42
Physical interpretation
If we apply a signal (or noise) as a voltage
source across a one Ohm resistor, the power
delivered by the source is equal to the signal
power. Signal power can be viewer as a measure
of normalized power.
power
43
Signal to noise ratio
SNR 0 dB when signal power noise power
Absolute noise level in dB w.r.t. 1 mW of signal
power
44
SNR in bits
  • A sine wave with magnitude 1 has power 1/2.
  • Quantize it into N2n equal levels between -1 and
    1 (with step size 2/2n)
  • Quantization error uniformly distributed between
    1/2n
  • Noise (quantization error) power 1/3 (1/2n)2
  • Signal to noise ratio 1/2 1/3 (1/2n)2
    1.5(1/2n)2 1.76 6.02n dB or n bits

45
-1ltClt1
C0 n1 and n2 uncorrelated C1 perfectly
correlated
46
Adding uncorrelated noises
Adding correlated noises
47
For independent noises
48
Frequency domain description of noise
Given n(t) stationary, its autocorrelation is
The power spectral density of n(t) is
For real signals, PSD is even. ? can use single
sided spectrum 2x positive side
? single sided PSD
49
Parsevals Theorem If
If x(t) stationary,
50
Interpretation of PSD
Pxf1 PSDx(f1)
PSDx(f)
51
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52
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53
Types of Noise
  • man made
  • Interference
  • Supply noise
  • Use shielding, careful layout, isolation,
  • intrinsic noise
  • Associated with current conduction
  • fundamental thermal noise
  • manufacturing process related
  • flicker noise

54
Thermal Noise
  • Due to thermal excitation of charge carriers in a
    conductor. It has a white spectral density and is
    proportional to absolute temperature, not
    dependent on bias current.
  • Random fluctuations of v(t) or i(t)
  • Independent of current flow
  • Characterization
  • Zero mean, Gaussian pdf
  • Power spectral density constant or white up to
    about 80THz

55
Thermal noise dominant in resisters
Example R 1k?, B 1MHz, 4µV rms or 4nA rms
56
HW
Equivalently, we can model a real resistor with
an ideal resistor in parallel with a current
noise source. What rms value should the current
source have? Show that when two resistors are
connected in series, we can model them as ideal
series resistors in series with a single noise
voltage source. Whats the rms value of the
voltage source? Show that two parallel resistors
can be modeled as two ideal parallel resistors in
parallel with a single noise current source.
Whats the rms value of the current source?
57
Noise in Diodes
  • Shot noise dominant
  • DC current is not continuous and smooth but
    instead is a result of pulses of current caused
    by the individual flow of carriers.
  • It depends on bias, can be modeled as a
  • white noise source and typically larger than
    thermal noise.
  • - Zero mean
  • Gaussian pdf
  • Power spectral density flat
  • Proportional to current
  • Dependent on temperature

58
Example ID 1mA, B 1MHz, 17nA rms
59
MOS Noise Model
60
  • Flicker noise
  • Kf,NMOS 6 times larger than Kf,PMOS
  • Strongly process dependent
  • -when referred to as drain current noise, it is
    inversely proportional to L2

61
BJT Noise
62
Sampling Noise
  • Commonly called kT/C noise
  • Applications ADC, SC circuits,

R
von
C
Used
63
Filtering of noise
x(t)
y(t)
H(s)
H(f )2 H(s)sj2pf H(s)s-j2pf
64
Noise Calculations
  • 1) Get small-signal model
  • 2) Set all inputs 0 (linear superposition)
  • 3) Pick output vo or io
  • 4) For each noise source vx, or ix
  • Calculate Hx(s) vo(s) / vx(s) (or io, ix)
  • 5) Total noise at output is
  • 6) Input Referred Noise Fictitious noise source
    at input

65
Example CS Amplifier
Von(inRL inMOS)/goT
goT 1/RL sCL
RL
66
wo1/RLCL
67
Some integrals
68
HW
In the previous example, if the transistor is in
triode, how would the solution change?
HW
If we include the flicker noise source, how would
that affect the computation? What do you suggest
we should modify?
HW
In the example, if RL is replaced by a PMOS
transistor in saturation, how would the solution
change? Assume appropriate bias levels.
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