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North Carolina Wind Energy Projects

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Title: North Carolina Wind Energy Projects


1
North Carolina Wind Energy Projects
Small Scale Wind Technology
Raleigh Wind Summit September 20, 2005 Dennis
Scanlin
  • Tennessee Wind Working Group
  • March 5, 2005

2
2005 AWEA Study
  • 14 25 annual growth over 15 years
  • 4 US firms supply 1/3 global demand
  • 30 MW installed in US between 1990 2004
  • 8,000 turbines sold in 2004 40 overseas
  • 1.2 M annual sales in 1990 15.8 M in 2004
  • 355 MW by 2010 and 55.6 100 M in annual
    sales with favorable support

3
Growing Worldwide Market for Small Turbines More
than 150,000 installed
4
Class 2 sites OK
5
24 County Western NC Wind Map
6
Area of Wind Power Classes 24 Western NC
Counties
7
County Wind Maps for Western NC
  • True Wind Map Combined With
  • Road data
  • Digital elevation models
  • Public lands
  • Appalachian Trail
  • Town boundaries
  • Utility grid
  • Tax parcel maps

www.wind.appstate.edu
8
Elevation Wind Velocity
9
Coastal North Carolina
10
Importance of Micro-Siting
11
Measuring Devices and Parameters
  • Anemometer
  • Best indication of energy production
  • Indicator of turbulence
  • Provide information on wind shear
  • Wind Vane
  • Wind rose
  • Siting
  • Temp Sensor
  • Identify icing events
  • Air density
  • Barometric Pressure
  • Air Density
  • Data Loggers

12
Anemometers Wind Vanes
13
(No Transcript)
14
Monthly and Annual Wind Speed Averages
15
Season and Time of Day
  • Higher winds found late in the evening and early
    morning
  • Higher winds seen during the winter

16
Modern Small Wind TurbinesHigh Tech, High
Reliability, Low Maintenance
  • Small turbines range from 20 W to 100 kW
  • Only 3-4 moving parts means very low maintenance
  • 20- to 40-year design life
  • Proven technology 150,000 installed over a
    billion operational hours
  • American companies are the market and technology
    leaders
  • Costs have declined by 7 over past 5 years to
    2100/KW

17
Small Wind Turbine Technology
Horizontal AxisUpwind
Horizontal AxisDownwind
Vertical Axis
Controllers, Inverters
Systems
Towers
18
Horizontal Axis - Upwind
  • Configuration 2 or 3 blades aimed into the wind
    by the tail
  • Blades Fiber-reinforced plastics
  • Over-Speed Protection Furling (rotor turns out
    of the wind)
  • Generator Direct-drive, permanent magnet
    alternator (no brushes), 3-phase AC,
    variable-speed operation

Bergey EXCEL, 10 kW
19
Southwest WindpowerFlagstaff, Arizona www.windene
rgy.com
Whisper 2001000 W
AIR-X300 W
Whisper100900 W
Whisper 5003 kW
20
Wind Turbine Installed CostExample
21
Bergey WindpowerNorman, Oklahoma www.bergey.com
BWC XL.11 kW
BWC Excel10 kW
22
Wind Turbine Installed CostExample 1
23
African WindpowerAbundant Renewable
EnergyNewberg, Oregon www.abundantre.com
AWP3.61.5 kW (Grid-tie)
24
Abundant Renewable EnergyNewberg, Oregon
www.abundantre.com
ARE 110 2.5 KW ARE 442 8.5 KW
ARE1102.5 kW
25
Wind Turbine Industries, Inc. Prior Lake,
Minnesota www.windturbine.net
Jacobs 31/2020 kW
26
FuhrländerLorax Energy Systems, Rhode Island
www.lorax-energy.com
FL 250250 kW
FL 100100 kW
FL 3030 kW
27
Over-Speed Protection During High Winds
  • Upward Furling The rotor tilts back during high
    winds

28
Over-Speed Protection During High Winds
  • Angle Governor The rotor turns up and to one side

29
HAWT - Downwind
  • Configuration 2 or 3 blades, no tail, blades
    face downwind
  • Blades Fiber-reinforced plastics
  • Over-Speed Protection Zebedee Furl (blade
    coning), tip brakes, stall regulation
  • Generator Direct-drive, permanent magnet
    alternator (no brushes), 3-phase AC,
    variable-speed operation

Proven WT600
30
Atlantic Orient Corp.Prince Edward Island,
Canada www.atlanticorientcanada.ca
AOC 15/5050 kW
31
Proven Engineering Products, Ltd.Scotland,
United Kingdom www.provenenergy.com
WT600600 W
WT2500 2.5 kW
WT60006 kW
32
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33
Proven Blade Coning
  • Flexible Zebedee hinge
  • As RPM increases, blades are thrown outwards by
    centrifugal force
  • Changes aerodynamic pitch
  • 10-15 year hinge life

34
VAWT Drag Lift
  • Configuration Lift or Drag
  • Drag Anemometer, Savonius
  • Lift Darrieus, H-Darrieus

Anemometer
Savonius Mother Earth News
Darrieus
35
Savonius (S-rotor)
  • Make from buckets, paddles, sails, and oil drums
  • originated in Finland
  • Can be useful for grinding grain, pumping water,
    and many other tasks
  • but are not good for generating electricity (low
    speed, high torque)

36
Darrieus Lift-Type Vertical-Axis Machines
Darrieus, curved blades
  • French engineer Georges Darrieus patented the
    design in 1931
  • Plus generator on ground, yawing not required
  • Minus low to ground, low efficiency, not
    self-starting, vibration, high bearing forces

H-Darrieus, straight blades
37
Small Wind Turbine Towers
Fixed Guyed Tower
Self-Supporting Tower
Tilt-Up Tower
38
Fixed Guyed Tower
Build on ground
Tilt-Up with crane
(3) guy wire anchors, climbing, crane
39
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40
Self Supporting Towers
Build on ground
Raise with tractor or crane
No guy wires, requires climbing or crane
41
The Wind Turbine Controller
  • Battery-Charging
  • Converts AC power to DC for charging batteries
  • Regulates the battery voltage to prevent
    overcharging
  • When the battery is fully charged
  • Power is diverted to another load, or
  • The rotor is unloaded and allowed to freewheel
  • Supplied with wind turbine

42
Inverters
Outback Power Systems Arlington, WA
www.outbackpower.com
SMA Windy Boy Grass Valley, CA www.sma-america.co
m
Xantrex Arlington, WA www.xantrex.com
43
On-Grid Wind System with Storage
Meter
Regulationandconversion
AC
Inverter
Windturbine
This system has storagewhich provides backup
power.
Load
02770330
44
Battery Charging System
45
On-Grid Wind System without Storage
Meter
AC
Inverter
Windturbine
Load
02770329
46
Batteryless Grid Tie System
47
The Effect of Seasons onHybrid Power Systems
Summer
Battery
Loads
PV modules and wind turbine
(storage)
(utilization)
(active generation)
Winter
Battery
Loads
PV modules and wind turbine
(storage)
(utilization)
(no generation)
02770322
48
Solar and Wind Resourcesare Complimentary
400
Data from SE Iowa
350
Hours of sunshine/month
Hours of Sunshine
300
Hours of sunshine or averagewind power (Watts/m2)
250
200
Average wind power
150
100
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
02770324
49
Estimating Energy Output
  • The turbines manufacturer will provide you with
    its power curve

50
Wind Distribution
  • Wind is known to follow a Weibull distribution

51
Wind Speed Frequency of OccurrenceAnnual Average
Wind Speed 11 mph (5 m/s)
52
Annual Energy Production 2,600 kWh/yBergey 1500
_at_ 11 mph (5 m/s) average wind speed
53
Bergey XL.1 (1 KW)
54
Resources/Incentives for Small Wind
55
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56
Small Wind Consumers GuideA U.S.guide, a
version for the American Corn Growers
Association, and 22 state-specific guides are
available from the National Renewable Energy
Laboratory
http//www. windpoweringamerica.gov
57
Alabama North Carolina Virginia Tennessee Kentucky
Maryland New Jersey
Anemometer Loan Programs
58
Anemometer Loan Program
59
Wind Resource Mapping
Final New Mexico Wind Resource Map
60
Home Wind Workshops
61
Workshops on Beech Mt, NC
62
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63
NC Small Wind Initiative
  • ASU, DOE, TVA, NC State Energy Office, Industry
    partners collaborative
  • Goals
  • Test Demonstrate
  • Consulting
  • Workshops
  • Wind Resource Assessment Anemometer Loan
  • Identify Contact Windy Land owners
  • www.wind.appstate.edu

64
Beech Mountain, NC
65
(No Transcript)
66
Wind Working Group
  • Telephone Conferences
  • Two Meetings
  • Petition
  • Meetings with elected officials
  • and others
  • Fact Sheet development
  • Public policy work
  • Regional articles and presentations
  • Coalition of Environmental,
  • Energy, State Energy Office,
  • DOE, University, and
  • Industry folks

67
Books by Paul GipeAvailable from Chelsea Green
Publishing Co.www.chelseagreen.com
68
Policy Options for Small Wind
  • Investment Incentives (rebates, buy-downs,
    grants, etc.)
  • Investment Tax Credits
  • Net Metering
  • Sales Tax Reductions/Exemptions
  • Property Tax Reductions
  • Uniform Zoning Requirements
  • Low Interest Loans
  • Line Extension Policies
  • Strategies for Supporting Wind Energy, A
    Review and Analysis of Policy Options,
    http//www.nationalwind.org/pubs/strategies/defaul
    t.htm

69
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70
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71
What is the Section 9006 Program?
  • Created as a U.S. Department of Agriculture
    program
  • Program designed to assist farmers, ranchers and
    rural small businesses with energy projects
  • In 2005, this program provides grants for
    renewable energy and energy efficiency projects
    and may provide loan guarantees
  • Created as a 5 year program. Congress has funded
    the program at 22.8 million per year for the
    first three years.
  • In 2003 and 2004, a total of 44 million in
    grants were awarded to 281 projects in 33 states.

72
Who is Eligible?
  • Rural small businesses and agricultural producers
    can apply
  • The 2005 NOFA is expected to include the
    following definitions
  • Rural Any area other than a city of town with
    population over 50,000. Cannot be in urbanized
    area adjacent to such a city or town.
  • Agricultural Producer -- An individual or
    entity directly engaged in the production of
    agricultural products (including farming or
    ranching) that gets 50 of their gross income
    from the operations
  • Small Business A private entity including a
    sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation,
    cooperative (including most Rural Electric
    Cooperatives), and certain other electric
    utilities.
  • Must meet SBA size standards for small business
    www.sba.gov/size/indextableofsize.html
  • Non-profits excluded

Actual definitions available in the 2005 NOFA
73
2004 Federal Farm Bill Awardees585,290 for 12
small wind projects (100 kW and less)No Case
Studies Yet
74
2003 Federal Farm Bill Awardees187,134 for 9
small wind projects
75
NC Renewable Energy Tax Credits
  • 35 for all technologies
  • Can take tax credit over 5 years
  • No more than half of tax liability
  • No refund based on tax credit

76
Residential
  • Credit Limits
  • 1,400 residential solar domestic hot water
  • 3,500 residential active space heating, combined
    solar hot water and space heating, passive space
    heating
  • 10,500 residential biomass, wind, hydroelectric
    and photovoltaic or solar thermal electric

77
Wind Turbine Installed CostExample
2,633 3,511 1,790
Tax Credit
Final Cost 4890 6,522
3,325
78
TVA Green Power Switch Generation Partners Program
  • Details
  • Wind or PV
  • (.5 50 KW)
  • Residential or small commercial
  • .15/KWH credit
  • Energy used on site is billed at standard rate

http//www.tva.com/greenpowerswitch/partners/index
.htm
79
NC GreenPower Programwww.ncgreenpower.org
  • To improve the quality of the environment by
    encouraging the development of renewable energy
    resources through consumers voluntary purchase
    of green power.
  • RFP process for green power
  • No wind producers yet
  • Green Power program initially quoted an estimate
    of .06/kwh

80
Sources of wind information
  • www.windpoweringamerica.gov
  • www.awea.org (American Wind Energy Association)
  • www.nrel.gov/wind
  • www.homepower.com
  • USDA Farm bill www.rurdev.usda.gov/rbs/farmbill
  • www.wind.appstate.edu
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