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Factors affecting participation and Performance

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Soccer. Cricket. Golf. Physical Education Department. THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF PERFORMERS ... Can come from a coach, fellow players, spectators or video. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Factors affecting participation and Performance


1
Factors affecting participation and Performance
  • SKILL

2
A common definition
  • Skill is. . . . A learned ability to perform in
    a physical activity, efficiently,successfully and
    consistently

3
In other words
  • Efficiently you do not waste time or energy
  • Successfully you improve and perform to the
    best of your ability
  • Consistently you can rely on performing well
    on most days

4
The different types of skill
5
KEY POINT
  • SKILL IS THE LEARNED ABILITY TO PERFORM

6
Closed Skills
  • Skills that are fixed and dont require
    adjustment.
  • They are closed because the performer is in
    control of most of the factors in the environment
    they are working in - ie. Trampolining no change
    to environment or equipment.
  • Takes hours to perfect them.
  • Some skills like javelin have to be altered
    slightly because of wind for example. Also run up
    in pole vault maybe altered.
  • Need to be practised over and over again.

7
Open Skills
  • Skills that are constantly adapted or modified
    during play.
  • Environment of play or performance is not under
    the performers control, there are other people
    involved.
  • Basketball there are different lengths of
    passing and shooting. Performer can not control
    what may happen next.
  • Hockey receiving a ball depends on the speed
    of the ball, proximity of team mates and
    likelihood of being challenged.

8
OPEN AND CLOSED SKILLS Which of these are open
and closed skills?
1
2
3
4
5
9
OPEN AND CLOSED SKILLS Which are open and which
are closed skills?
6
7
8
10
9
10
An OPEN to CLOSED sports and skills continuum
Soccer
Cricket
Golf
OPEN
OPENC
OPEN
CLOSED
  • BOWLING
  • Open depends on
  • left right hand
  • batsman.
  • Bounce of ball
  • Wicket.
  • Closed same technique.
  • Practice technique over
  • and over again.
  • Pass or shot.
  • Cant say what is
  • going to happen next.
  • Golf Swing.
  • Environment is
  • generally the same
  • sometimes windy.
  • You have control
  • over equipment
  • choose club.

11
THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF PERFORMERS
  • THE NOVICE AND THE EXPERT

12
THE NOVICE PERFORMER
  • Will be very inconsistent in how they perform a
    new skill
  • Will put a lot of effort in but will produce a
    less effective performance
  • Will not produce the skill as quickly or as
    efficiently
  • Will not be able to adopt the skill quickly when
    necessary or may not possess the experience to do
    so

13
THE EXPERT PERFORMER
  • Will develop a high level of consistency with
    each performance
  • Will perform the skill with apparently little
    effort or expenditure of energy
  • Will perform the skill quickly and efficiently
  • Will be capable of adapting the skill to meet
    precise situations as they arise

14
LEARNING SKILLS INFORMATION PROCESSING
ACTIVITY TENNIS
  • Seeing opponent play
  • shot where is the ball
  • going to land/how fast
  • is the ball travelling?
  • What shot is it best to
  • play in situation?
  • Playing the shot.
  • Evaluating whether the
  • shot was successful
  • Good shot but could
  • have played it more
  • accurately.

Input
Decision making
Output
  • How successful was the
  • shot?
  • Where did the ball
  • land? or must hit
  • through the ball next
  • time.

Feedback
Task Use a different skill in an activity and
write down the information processing that a
player would use.
15
Evaluation and Analysis
  • Evaluation means
  • Being able to see what is good and bad about a
    performance.
  • Analysis means
  • Breaking down a performance in order to
    evaluate it.

16
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Feedback
  • Intrinsic
  • Recognising faults in your own performance.
  • Beginners struggle to evaluate their own faults
    as they dont have the experience.
  • Extrinsic
  • Feedback comes from someone else rather then
    yourself.
  • Can be general encouragement or specific
    information about the performance.
  • Usually only one or two comments about the
    performance.
  • Examples teachers, coaches, spectators.

17
Types of Knowledge
  • Knowledge of Performance (KP)
  • Tells you how you have performed irrespective of
    result.
  • Can come from a coach, fellow players, spectators
    or video.
  • Can also sense how well you have performed
    yourself.
  • Can also analyse performance and how it can be
    improved.
  • Knowledge of Results (KR)
  • Tells you whether you have achieved your result
    irrespective of performance.
  • Comes from external sources
  • Examples distance in javelin
  • result in a game
  • Was your serve an ace?

18
PRACTICING AND DEVELOPING SKILLS
  • PART PRACTICE
  • Breaking a skill down into separate manageable
    parts.
  • Practice each of the skills individually.
  • Example serving in tennis learn how to grip
    the racket, your stance, how to throw up the ball
    and the swing of the racket.
  • VARIABLE PRACTICE
  • This type of practice is important when learning
    an open skill.
  • You practice the skill in lots of different
    settings.
  • Example a cricketer plays his shots according
    to the type and speed of delivery.

19
  • WHOLE PRACTICE
  • Repeat the skill over and over again.
  • Activities which dont lend themselves to being
    split into parts.
  • Example dribbling in football.
  • FIXED PRACTICE
  • This type of practice is used to learn a closed
    skill.
  • The skill is repeated under the same
    environmental conditions.
  • Example golfer will practice his shots
    repeatedly. The setting of the skill doesnt
    change.

20
LEARNING AND DEVELOPING SKILLS
  • Demonstration and Copying
  • Skills are learnt by copying others teachers,
    trainer. Teacher will demonstrate how a skills
    should be performed and then feedback on
    students performance until its done correctly.
  • Film or footage could also be used.
  • Practice
  • Skills become established through practice
    practice makes perfect.
  • Initial demonstrations must be technically
    correct.
  • Feedback intrinsic and extrinsic also essential
    for skills to be practised effectively.
  • Practice can be based on the whole skill or in
    some cases part skill

21
  • Trial and Error
  • Practicing and learning a skill until you start
    to make it work.
  • Problems occur if a person gets into a bad habit
    or learns the skill incorrectly.
  • Role Models
  • Have to be good technically.
  • Can be useful to learn skills from.

22
MOTOR SKILLS
  • Gross Motor Skills
  • Involves large movements of large muscles.
  • Examples javelin throw, dancers when they jump.
  • Fine Motor Skills
  • Involves small movements of small muscles.
  • Examples wrist movement in producing spin on a
    tennis ball, wrist movements in badminton.
  • WRITE AT BOTTOM OF PAGE
  • Both sets of motor skills need to be performed
    consistently. They often work together to produce
    both large movements and fine control when
    performing a skill.

23
FINE AND GROSS MOTOR SKILLS Which of these are
fine and which are gross motor skills?
1
2
3
4
Hit in hockey
Flick shot
Drive Shot
6
5
7
Top spin on a tennis a shot
Use of wrist in a set shot
24
DECISION MAKING
  • Perception
  • Is how you see something separates important
    information from unimportant information so you
    can make decisions.
  • Examples of different interpretations of
    situations can be a reason for arguments between
    players and officials.
  • Memory
  • Making a decision based upon memories and
    experiences from previous situations.
  • There are two types of memory -
  • Short Term Memory
  • Something you learn quickly, but can forget
    easily.
  • When learning a new skill it is organised in
    short term memory then passed onto long term
  • Long Term Memory
  • A skill learnt over a period of time is stored in
    long term memory.
  • Has a lifetime capacity never forget skill.
  • Examples riding a bike, swimming.

25
  • Limited Channel Capacity
  • You can only absorb a certain amount of
    information.
  • Skills are therefore learnt one at a time.
  • Overload and Selective Attention
  • Too much information at any one time causes
    overload of information. So selective attention
    occurs ie. Remembering only 2 teaching points
    out of 3 or 4.

26
Task Watch the 4 sports clips
  • 1) List as many words as you can for each sport
    that describes the action of the performers
  • 2) Complete the table in full
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