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MIS 300

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Title: MIS 300


1
MIS 300
  • 100 Top Hits for Slides for the Course
  • With emphasis on the 2nd half

2
Contents
  • General Model of Problem Solving
  • MIS DSS GSS ESS
  • Specialized Systems
  • Management Support Systems
  • Technological Leadership
  • System Development
  • Risk Management and Security
  • Computer Crime and Ethics

3
Focus of the Course
  • First six weeks Information technology and how
    it works, definitions, IT as a business enabler
    and platform
  • Last six weeks What information technology can
    do for users user roles producing and managing
    information technology effects of IT

4
Decision Making as a Component of Problem Solving
SEE THINK SAY DO LEARN
Figure 6.1 How Decision Making Relates to
Problem Solving
5
Decision Making as a Component of Problem Solving
(continued)
  • Problem solving a process that goes beyond
    decision making to include the implementation
    stage
  • Implementation stage a solution is put into
    effect
  • Monitoring stage decision makers evaluate the
    implementation

6
Programmed Versus Nonprogrammed Decisions
  • Programmed decisions
  • Decisions made using a rule, procedure, or
    quantitative method
  • Easy to computerize using traditional information
    systems

7
Programmed Versus Nonprogrammed Decisions
(continued)
  • Nonprogrammed decisions
  • Decision that deals with unusual or exceptional
    situations
  • Not easily quantifiable

8
Optimization, Satisficing, and Heuristic
Approaches
  • Optimization model a process that finds the best
    solution, usually the one that will best help the
    organization meet its goals
  • Satisficing model a process that finds a
    goodbut not necessarily the bestproblem
    solution
  • Heuristics commonly accepted guidelines or
    procedures that usually find a good solution

9
An Overview of Management Information Systems
Management Information Systems in Perspective
  • A management information system (MIS) provides
    managers with information that supports effective
    decision making and provides feedback on daily
    operations
  • The use of MISs spans all levels of management

10
Management Information Systems in Perspective
(continued)
Figure 6.3 Sources of Managerial Information
11
Outputs of a Management Information System
  • Scheduled report produced periodically, or on a
    schedule
  • Key-indicator report summary of the previous
    days critical activities
  • Demand report developed to give certain
    information at someones request
  • Exception report automatically produced when a
    situation is unusual or requires management
    action
  • Drill-down report provides increasingly detailed
    data about a situation

12
Functional Aspects of the MIS
  • Most organizations are structured along
    functional lines or areas
  • The MIS can be divided along functional lines to
    produce reports tailored to individual functions
  • This tends to lead to fragmentation, the sort of
    effect that ERP is designed to counter!

13
An Overview of Decision Support Systems
  • A DSS is an organized collection of people,
    procedures, software, databases, and devices used
    to support problem-specific decision making and
    problem solving
  • The focus of a DSS is on decision-making
    effectiveness when faced with unstructured or
    semistructured business problems

14
Capabilities of a Decision Support System
  • Support all problem-solving phases
  • Support different decision frequencies
  • Support different problem structures
  • Support various decision-making levels

15
Capabilities of a Decision Support System
(continued)
What else goes along with level? Why?
Figure 6.10 Decision-Making Level
16
Components of a DSS
  • Model base provides decision makers access to a
    variety of models and assists them in decision
    making
  • Database
  • External database access
  • Access to the Internet and corporate intranet,
    networks, and other computer systems
  • Dialogue manager allows decision makers to
    easily access and manipulate the DSS and to use
    common business terms and phrases

17
Components of a DSS (continued)
Figure 6.11 Conceptual Model of a DSS
18
Group Support Systems
  • Group support system (GSS)
  • Consists of most elements in a DSS, plus software
    to provide effective support in group decision
    making
  • Also called group decision support system or
    computerized collaborative work system

19
Group Support Systems (continued)
Figure 6.12 Configuration of a GSS (Cf. Figure
6.11)
20
Characteristics of a GSS That Enhance Decision
Making
  • Special design
  • Ease of use
  • Flexibility
  • Decision-making support
  • Anonymous input
  • Reduction of negative group behavior
  • Parallel communication
  • Automated record keeping

21
Executive Support Systems
  • Executive support system (ESS) specialized DSS
    that includes all hardware, software, data,
    procedures, and people used to assist
    senior-level executives within the organization

22
Executive Support Systems in Perspective
  • Tailored to individual executives
  • Easy to use
  • Drill-down capable
  • Support the need for external data
  • Can help when uncertainty is high
  • Future-oriented
  • Linked to value-added processes

23
Capabilities of Executive Support Systems
  • Support for defining an overall vision
  • Support for strategic planning
  • Support for strategic organizing and staffing
  • Support for strategic control
  • Support for crisis management

24
An Overview of Artificial Intelligence
  • Artificial intelligence (AI) the ability of
    computers to mimic or duplicate the functions of
    the human brain
  • Artificial intelligence systems the people,
    procedures, hardware, software, data, and
    knowledge needed to develop computer systems and
    machines that demonstrate the characteristics of
    intelligence

25
The Nature of Intelligence
  • Learn from experiences and apply knowledge
    acquired from experience
  • Handle complex situations
  • Solve problems when important information is
    missing
  • Determine what is important
  • React quickly and correctly to a new situation
  • By definition, a computer is unintelligent
  • The hallmark of intelligence is generating
    information out of experience.

26
The Nature of Intelligence (continued)
  • Understand visual images
  • Process and manipulate symbols
  • Be creative and imaginative
  • Use heuristics

27
The Difference Between Natural and Artificial
Intelligence
Table 7.1 A Comparison of Natural and Artificial
Intelligence
28
Expert Systems
  • Hardware and software that stores knowledge and
    makes inferences, similar to a human expert
  • Used in many business applications

29
Robotics
  • Mechanical or computer devices that perform tasks
    that either require a high degree of precision or
    are tedious or hazardous for humans
  • Contemporary robotics combines high-precision
    machine capabilities with sophisticated
    controlling software
  • Many applications of robotics exist today
  • Research into robots is continuing

30
Vision Systems
  • The hardware and software that permit computers
    to capture, store, and manipulate visual images
    and pictures
  • Used by the U.S. Justice Department to perform
    fingerprint analysis
  • Used for identifying people based on facial
    features

31
Natural Language Processing
  • Processing that allows the computer to understand
    and react to statements and commands made in a
    natural language, such as English
  • Three levels of voice recognition
  • Command recognition of dozens to hundreds of
    words
  • Discrete recognition of dictated speech with
    pauses between words
  • Continuous recognition of natural speech

32
An Overview of Expert Systems Characteristics
and Limitations of an Expert System
  • Can explain its reasoning or suggested decisions
  • Can display intelligent behavior
  • Can draw conclusions from complex relationships
  • Can provide portable knowledge
  • Can deal with uncertainty

33
Characteristics and Limitations of an Expert
System (continued)
  • Not widely used or tested
  • Difficult to use
  • Limited to relatively narrow problems
  • Cannot readily deal with mixed knowledge
  • Possibility of error
  • Cannot refine its own knowledge
  • Difficult to maintain
  • May have high development costs
  • Raises legal and ethical concerns

34
When to Use Expert Systems
  • Provide a high potential payoff or significantly
    reduce downside risk
  • Capture and preserve irreplaceable human
    expertise
  • Solve a problem that is not easily solved using
    traditional programming techniques
  • Develop a system more consistent than human
    experts

35
When to Use Expert Systems (continued)
  • Provide expertise needed at a number of locations
    at the same time or in a hostile environment that
    is dangerous to human health
  • Provide expertise that is expensive or rare
  • Develop a solution faster than human experts can
  • Provide expertise needed for training and
    development to share the wisdom and experience of
    human experts with a large number of people

Do you see a potential problem here?
36
Components of Expert Systems
Figure 7.2 Components of an Expert System
37
The Explanation Facility
  • Allows a user or decision maker to understand how
    the expert system arrived at certain conclusions
    or results
  • For example it allows a doctor to find out the
    logic or rationale of the diagnosis made by a
    medical expert system

38
The Knowledge Acquisition Facility
  • Provides convenient and efficient means of
    capturing and storing all the components of the
    knowledge base
  • Acts as an interface between experts and the
    knowledge base

39
Participants in Developing and Using Expert
Systems
  • Domain expert individual or group that has the
    expertise or knowledge one is trying to capture
    in the expert system
  • Knowledge engineer an individual who has
    training or experience in the design,
    development, implementation, and maintenance of
    an expert system
  • Knowledge user individual or group that uses and
    benefits from the expert system

40
Applications of Expert Systems and Artificial
Intelligence
  • Credit granting and loan analysis
  • Catching cheats and terrorists
  • Information management and retrieval
  • AI and expert systems embedded in products
  • Plant layout and manufacturing
  • Hospitals and medical facilities
  • Help desks and assistance
  • Employee performance evaluations

41
What Is SUPPORTED?
Tools for bringing things to conclusion
  • Managers are employed to create conclusions, to
    make things happen
  • Thus, any support they receive can be only of two
    types
  • To make it easier to make things happen or
  • To make others think things have happened (i.e.,
    to increase the perception of things happening)

Tools for helping others see that things have
happened
42
What Is a Conclusion?
  • A Decision
  • Agreement or consensus
  • Realization of a model or plan
  • Addition to knowledge
  • Increase in confidence
  • Any (presumed positive) change in resources (such
    as cash, staff, customers, etc.)

43
What is the Support in Management Support Systems
?
Gather Access, Analyze
Display, Communicate Remember
better Knowledge Array,
Compare Debate Archive Data

Compute WHAT A MANAGEMENT SUPPORT SYSTEM CAN DO
FOR MANAGERS TO INCREASE CONFIDENCE AND
EFFECTIVENESS OF PROBLEM-SOLVING
44
What Kinds of Tools Are There
  • Display and Data Formatting (Presentation)
  • Data Search and Processing (MIS)
  • Suggested Action (Consulting)
  • Evaluation of Action (DSS)
  • Logical Conclusion (Expert System)
  • Action (Operational System)

45
How These Tools Differ
  • Each one incorporates more knowledge than those
    above.
  • The value of the knowledge is higher and the
    knowledge is more specific.
  • Each removes some of the burden from the problem
    solver in generating and evaluating solutions

46
Structure of a Management Support System
This takes place continually, refining
the Quality and relevance of the stored data
DIALOG MANAGER
47
Structure of a Management Support System
System Management
Model Management
Model
Usage
DIALOG MANAGER
48
General Model of a Management Support System
AdvisingSystemInterface
Advice
LEARNING
Feedback
49
Who Is a Technology Leader?
Those who specify and build the systems
  • Technology developers
  • Technology commercializers
  • Technology stewards

Those who figure out how to make a profit
Those who get the systems built and employed
USE
Project
50
Who Is a Technology Leader?
  • Technology stewards
  • User management
  • Project managers clients
  • Process managers
  • Product owners

51
Technology Leadership
  • Three components
  • Assessment
  • Forecasting
  • Management
  • Transfer
  • A technological leader fosters technological
    innovation, and understands the technology life
    cycle.
  • Such a leader initiates and steers
    commercialization of technological advances,
    links business and technology strategies, manages
    technology RD and understands technological
    revolutions.

52
Technology Management Components
  • Technology Assessment
  • Evaluating technologies as they are created
  • To make wise investments, understand the true
    costs, improve existing technologies, and develop
    ways of employing technologies
  • Technology Forecasting
  • Predicting what technologies are going to be
    available
  • To strategize technology use, second-guess the
    competition, stay on top of the technology wave

53
Technology Management Components
  • Technology Management
  • Developing and using appropriate technologies
  • To lead the technology, employ it in the best
    way, and to profit from technology use.
  • Technology Transfer
  • Helping others learn the benefits and uses of
    appropriate technologies
  • Making technologies available to others

54
Technology Transfer
Rest of Organization
Technology Innovation Source
55
Technology Management Process(Pre-implementation)
56
Technology Management Process (Post-implementatio
n)
57
Technology Life Cycle
58
Commercialization and Marketing of Technology
Are all internally developed systems loss
leaders?
Break-even
Time
59
An Overview of Systems Development Participants
in Systems Development
  • Development team
  • Responsible for determining the objectives of the
    information system and delivering a system that
    meets these objectives
  • Usually consists of stakeholders, users,
    managers, systems development specialists, and
    various support personnel

60
Systems Development Methods
  • The systems development process is also called a
    systems development life cycle (SDLC)
  • Traditional systems development life cycle
  • Prototyping
  • Rapid application development (RAD)
  • End-user development

61
The Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle
Figure 8.4 The Traditional Systems Development
Life Cycle
62
The Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle
(continued)
  • Systems investigation problems and opportunities
    are identified and considered in light of the
    goals of the business
  • Systems analysis study of existing systems and
    work processes to identify strengths, weaknesses,
    and opportunities for improvement
  • Systems design defines how the information
    system will do what it must do to obtain the
    problems solution

63
The Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle
(continued)
  • Systems implementation the creation or acquiring
    of various system components detailed in the
    systems design, assembling them, and placing the
    new or modified system into operation
  • Systems maintenance and review ensures that the
    system operates, and modifies the system so that
    it continues to meet changing business needs

64
The Major Phases of System Development
Review Evaluation Mainenance
Analysis
Implemen- tation
Design
65
Prototyping
Expert Imple-menta-tion
Figure 8.5 Prototyping Is an Iterative Approach
to Systems Development
66
The End-User Systems Development Life Cycle
  • Any systems development project in which the
    primary effort is undertaken by a combination of
    business managers and users
  • End-user-developed systems can be structured as
    complementary to, rather than in conflict with,
    existing and emerging information systems

67
Outsourcing and On Demand Computing
  • An outside consulting firm or computer company
    that specializes in systems development can be
    hired to take over some or all of the development
    and operations activities
  • Outsourcing can involve a large number of
    countries and companies in bringing new products
    and services to market

68
Systems Investigation
  • What primary problems might a new or enhanced
    system solve?
  • What opportunities might a new or enhanced system
    provide?
  • What new hardware, software, databases,
    telecommunications, personnel, or procedures will
    improve an existing system or are required in a
    new system?
  • What are the potential costs (variable and
    fixed)?
  • What are the associated risks?

69
Feasibility Analysis
Is there a workable technology?
  • Technical feasibility
  • Economic feasibility
  • Schedule feasibility
  • Legal feasibility
  • Operational feasibility

Can we afford the potential implementations?
Can we do it in time?
These two types of feasibility are often joined
with othersinto a set of criteria termed
organizational will. Do we have the courage
and culture to carry out the implementation?
70
The Systems Investigation Report
  • Summarizes the results of systems investigation
    and the process of feasibility analysis
  • Recommends a course of action continue on into
    systems analysis, modify the project in some
    manner, or drop it

71
Systems Analysis
  • Answers the question What must the information
    system do to solve the problem?
  • Primary outcome a prioritized list of system
    requirements

72
Data Analysis
  • A set of diagramming techniques
  • Data modeling
  • Entity-relationship (ER) diagrams
  • Relatively easy to understand a narrative of
    what entities (actors, objects) produce or use
    what information
  • Activity modeling
  • Data-flow diagrams (DFDs)
  • Conceptual, intuitive, should be shared with
    potential users for verification

73
The Systems Analysis Report
  • The systems analysis report should cover
  • The strengths and weaknesses of the existing
    system from a stakeholders perspective
  • The user/stakeholder requirements for the new
    system (also called the functional requirements)
  • The organizational requirements for the new
    system
  • A description of what the new information system
    should do to solve the problem

?
74
Systems Design
  • Answers the question How will the information
    system do what it must do to solve a problem?
  • Has two dimensions logical and physical
  • Logical design description of the functional
    requirements of a system a model of the user
  • Physical design specification of the
    characteristics of the system components
    necessary to put the logical design into action
    a model of the system

75
Systems Implementation User Roles
Heavy user involvement
Figure 8.18 Typical Steps in Systems
Implementation
76
Personnel Hiring and Training
  • IS manager
  • Systems analysts
  • Computer programmers
  • Data-entry operators
  • Hiring users describe the job match the skills
  • Users may take up to three months to learn the
    new jobs.

77
Data Preparation
  • Also called data conversion
  • Ensuring all files and databases are ready to be
    used with new computer software and systems
  • With mission-critical data, generally a really
    expensive proposition

78
Testing
  • Unit testing testing of individual programs
  • System testing testing the entire system of
    programs
  • Volume testing testing the application with a
    large amount of data
  • Integration testing testing all related systems
    together
  • Acceptance testing conducting any tests required
    by the user

79
Installation
  • The process of physically placing the computer
    equipment on the site and making it operational
  • Normally the manufacturer is responsible for
    installing computer equipment
  • Someone from the organization (usually the IS
    manager) should oversee the process

80
Start-Up
  • The process of making the final tested
    information system fully operational
  • Direct conversion (also called plunge or direct
    cutover Black Monday effect)
  • Phase-in approach (function by function perhaps
    department by department)
  • Pilot start-up (a test area, function or
    department)
  • Parallel start-up (where mission critical
    information is required or involved, where
    absolutely reliable service is needed)

81
User Acceptance
  • User-acceptance document formal agreement signed
    by the user that states that a phase of the
    installation or the complete system is approved

82
Systems Operation and Maintenance
  • Systems operation use of a new or modified
    system
  • Systems maintenance checking, changing, and
    enhancing the system to make it more useful in
    achieving user and organizational goals

83
Systems Review
  • Process of analyzing systems to make sure that
    they are operating as intended
  • Often compares the performance and benefits of
    the system as it was designed with the actual
    performance and benefits of the system in
    operation
  • Event-driven review review triggered by a
    problem or opportunity, such as an error, a
    corporate merger, or a new market for products
  • Time-driven review review performed after a
    specified amount of time

84
General Risk Model
85
Risk Management Components
  • Assessment/Awareness
  • Avoidance
  • Deterence/Deflection
  • Defence
  • Audit/Detection
  • Recovery
  • Retaliation
  • Reassessment/Learning

1 2-10 4-100 8-1000 16-10000 32-100000 64-1
000000 Priceless!
Costs rise rapidly as risk manage-ment tactics
evolve in time by powers of 2 to 10
86
Cost/Benefit Tradeoff
Because loss is highest for late actions, there
is a rapid increase in value of expense
At some point tactics are complex themselves and
expose actor to further risk
87
Computer Waste and Mistakes
  • Computer waste
  • The inappropriate use of computer technology and
    resources
  • Computer-related mistakes
  • Errors, failures, and other computer problems
    that make computer output incorrect or not useful

88
Computer Waste
  • Discarding of technology
  • Unused systems
  • Personal use of corporate time and technology
  • Spam
  • Poorly designed systems
  • Unintelligent system use

89
Computer-Related Mistakes
  • Mistakes can be caused by unclear expectations
    and a lack of feedback
  • A systems analyst might specify a system that is
    not what is needed or wanted
  • A programmer might develop a program that
    contains errors
  • Users might accept a system that is not what is
    needed or what is wanted
  • A data-entry clerk might enter the wrong data

90
Computer Crime
  • Often defies detection
  • The amount stolen or diverted can be substantial
  • The crime is clean and nonviolent (so far!)
  • The number of IT-related security incidents is
    increasing dramatically
  • Computer crime is now global

91
The Computer as a Tool to Commit Crime
  • Criminals need two capabilities to commit most
    computer crimes
  • Knowing how to gain access to the computer system
  • Knowing how to manipulate the system to produce
    the desired result
  • Social engineering
  • Dumpster diving

92
Identity Theft
  • An imposter obtains key pieces of personal
    identification information, such as Social
    Security or drivers license numbers, in order to
    impersonate someone else
  • The information is then used to obtain credit,
    merchandise, and services in the name of the
    victim or to provide the thief with false
    credentials
  • Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act of
    1998

93
Data Alteration and Destruction
  • Virus a computer program capable of attaching to
    disks or other files and replicating itself
    repeatedly, typically without the users
    knowledge or permission
  • Worm an independent program that replicates its
    own program files until it interrupts the
    operation of networks and computer systems

94
Data Alteration and Destruction 2
  • Trojan horse a program that appears to be useful
    but actually masks a destructive program
  • Logic bomb an application or system virus
    designed to explode or execute at a specified
    time and date

95
Using Antivirus Programs
  • Antivirus program program or utility that
    prevents viruses and recovers from them if they
    infect a computer
  • An antivirus software should be run and updated
    often

96
Privacy Issues
  • With information systems, privacy deals with the
    collection and use or misuse of data
  • Privacy and the federal government
  • Privacy at work you dont have any
  • E-mail privacy doesnt exist
  • Privacy and the Internet caveat emptor

97
Privacy The Basic Issue
  • Information about the individual may or may not
    belong to the individual as property
  • English common law, the basis of our general law,
    recognizes property rights as inherent and
    inviolable (in general)
  • Intellectual assets differ in many ways from
    physical property
  • Eg. Copyable without damage
  • Eg. Valuable only for brief period of time
  • Eg. Can cause damage as well as be an asset

98
Information about Oneself
  • In general this does NOT belong to the individual
  • Example public figure
  • Example customer records
  • Example Employee records
  • Example Ones image (visual or audio)
  • Information in general is inherent in an activity
    and belongs to that activity the owner of the
    activity is the owner of the information.
  • This is not a well-developed field with clear-cut
    principles that juries and judges adhere to.

99
Corporate Privacy Policies
  • Should address a customers knowledge, control,
    notice, and consent over the storage and use of
    information
  • May cover who has access to private data and when
    it may be used
  • A good database design practice is to assign a
    single unique identifier to each customer

100
Individual Efforts to Protect Privacy
  • Find out what is stored about you in existing
    databases
  • Be careful when you share information about
    yourself
  • Be proactive to protect your privacy
  • When purchasing anything from a Web site, make
    sure that you safeguard your credit card numbers,
    passwords, and personal information

101
Foreign Language Guide Book
What you want to express What
to say in ITish
  • Its cute but it doesnt do what its supposed
    to do.
  • I know YOU think its great technology, but it
    doesnt meet my needs.
  • Wow! This is really going to make me look good
    on the job!
  • IT DOESNT WORK!
  • I DONT WANT IT!
  • THANKS!
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