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Summer Institute Student Progress Monitoring for

Math

2 0 0 5

- Lynn S. Fuchs and Douglas Fuchs
- Tracey Hall
- John Hintze
- Michelle Hosp
- Erica Lembke
- Laura Sáenz
- Pamela Stecker

Using Curriculum-Based Measurement for Progress

Monitoring

Progress Monitoring

- Progress monitoring (PM) is conducted frequently

and designed to - Estimate rates of student improvement.
- Identify students who are not demonstrating

adequate progress. - Compare the efficacy of different forms of

instruction and design more effective,

individualized instructional programs for problem

learners.

What Is the Difference Between Traditional

Assessments and Progress Monitoring?

- Traditional Assessments
- Lengthy tests.
- Not administered on a regular basis.
- Teachers do not receive immediate feedback.
- Student scores are based on national scores and

averages and a teachers classroom may differ

tremendously from the national student sample.

What Is the Difference Between Traditional

Assessments and Progress Monitoring?

- Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) is one type of

PM. - CBM provides an easy and quick method for

gathering student progress. - Teachers can analyze student scores and adjust

student goals and instructional programs. - Student data can be compared to teachers

classroom or school district data.

Curriculum-Based Assessment

- Curriculum-Based Assessment (CBA)
- Measurement materials are aligned with school

curriculum. - Measurement is frequent.
- Assessment information is used to formulate

instructional decisions. - CBM is one type of CBA.

Progress Monitoring

- Teachers assess students academic performance

using brief measures on a frequent basis. - The main purposes are to
- Describe the rate of response to instruction.
- Build more effective programs.

Different Forms of Progress Monitoring

- CBA (Tucker Burns)
- Finds instructional level
- Mastery Measurement (Precision Teaching, WIDS)
- Tracks short-term mastery of a series of

instructional objectives - CBM

Focus of This Presentation

- Curriculum-Based Measurement
- The scientifically validated form of progress

monitoring.

Teachers Use Curriculum-Based Measurement To . . .

- Describe academic competence at a single point in

time. - Quantify the rate at which students develop

academic competence over time. - Build more effective programs to increase student

achievement.

Curriculum-Based Measurement

- The result of 30 years of research
- Used across the country
- Demonstrates strong reliability, validity, and

instructional utility

Research Shows . . .

- CBM produces accurate, meaningful information

about students academic levels and their rates

of improvement. - CBM is sensitive to student improvement.
- CBM corresponds well with high-stakes tests.
- When teachers use CBM to inform their

instructional decisions, students achieve better.

Most Progress Monitoring Mastery Measurement

- Curriculum-Based Measurement is NOT
- Mastery Measurement

Mastery Measurement Tracks Mastery of

Short-Term Instructional Objectives

- To implement Mastery Measurement, the teacher
- Determines the sequence of skills in an

instructional hierarchy. - Develops, for each skill, a criterion-referenced

test.

Hypothetical Fourth Grade Math Computation

Curriculum

- 1. Multidigit addition with regrouping
- 2. Multidigit subtraction with regrouping
- 3. Multiplication facts, factors to nine
- 4. Multiply two-digit numbers by a

one-digit number - 5. Multiply two-digit numbers by a two-digit

number - 6. Division facts, divisors to nine
- 7. Divide two-digit numbers by a one-digit number
- 8. Divide three-digit numbers by a one-digit

number - 9. Add/subtract simple fractions, like

denominators - 10. Add/subtract whole numbers and mixed numbers

Multidigit Addition Mastery Test

Mastery of Multidigit Addition

Hypothetical Fourth Grade Math Computation

Curriculum

- 1. Multidigit addition with regrouping
- 2. Multidigit subtraction with regrouping
- 3. Multiplication facts, factors to nine
- 4. Multiply two-digit numbers by a one-digit

number - 5. Multiply two-digit numbers by a two-digit

number - 6. Division facts, divisors to nine
- 7. Divide two-digit numbers by a one-digit number
- 8. Divide three-digit numbers by a one-digit

number - 9. Add/subtract simple fractions, like

denominators - 10. Add/subtract whole numbers and mixed numbers

Multidigit Subtraction Mastery Test

Mastery of Multidigit Addition and Subtraction

Problems with Mastery Measurement

- Hierarchy of skills is logical, not empirical.
- Performance on single-skill assessments can be

misleading. - Assessment does not reflect maintenance or

generalization. - Assessment is designed by teachers or sold with

textbooks, with unknown reliability and validity. - Number of objectives mastered does not relate

well to performance on high-stakes tests.

Curriculum-Based Measurement Was Designed to

Address These Problems

- An Example of Curriculum-Based Measurement
- Math Computation

Hypothetical Fourth Grade Math Computation

Curriculum

- 1. Multidigit addition with regrouping
- 2. Multidigit subtraction with regrouping
- 3. Multiplication facts, factors to nine
- 4. Multiply two-digit numbers by a one-digit

number - 5. Multiply two-digit numbers by a two-digit

number - 6. Division facts, divisors to nine
- 7. Divide two-digit numbers by a one-digit number
- 8. Divide three-digit numbers by a one-digit

number - 9. Add/subtract simple fractions, like

denominators - 10. Add/subtract whole numbers and mixed numbers

- Random numerals within problems
- Random placement of problem types on page

- Random numerals within problems
- Random placement of problem types on page

Donalds Progress in Digits Correct Across the

School Year

- One Page of a 3-Page CBM in Math Concepts and

Applications (24 Total Blanks)

Donalds Graph and Skills Profile

- Darker boxes equal a greater level of mastery.

Sampling Performance on Year-Long Curriculum for

Each Curriculum-Based Measurement . . .

- Avoids the need to specify a skills hierarchy.
- Avoids single-skill tests.
- Automatically assesses maintenance/generalization.

- Permits standardized procedures for sampling the

curriculum, with known reliability and validity. - SO THAT CBM scores relate well to performance on

high-stakes tests.

Curriculum-Based Measurements Two Methods for

Representing Year-Long Performance

- Method 1
- Systematically sample items from the annual

curriculum (illustrated in Math CBM, just

presented). - Method 2
- Identify a global behavior that simultaneously

requires the many skills taught in the annual

curriculum (illustrated in Reading CBM, presented

next).

Hypothetical Second Grade Reading Curriculum

- Phonics
- CVC patterns
- CVCe patterns
- CVVC patterns
- Sight Vocabulary
- Comprehension
- Identification of who/what/when/where
- Identification of main idea
- Sequence of events
- Fluency

Second Grade Reading Curriculum-Based Measurement

- Each week, every student reads aloud from a

second grade passage for 1 minute. - Each weeks passage is the same difficulty.
- As a student reads, the teacher marks the errors.
- Count number of words read correctly.
- Graph scores.

Curriculum-Based Measurement

- Not interested in making kids read faster.
- Interested in kids becoming better readers.
- The CBM score is an overall indicator of reading

competence. - Students who score high on CBMs are better
- Decoders
- At sight vocabulary
- Comprehenders
- Correlates highly with high-stakes tests.

CBM Passage for Correct Words per Minute

What We Look for in Curriculum-Based Measurement

- Increasing Scores
- Student is becoming a better reader.
- Flat Scores
- Student is not profiting from instruction and

requires a change in the instructional program.

Sarahs Progress on Words Read Correctly

Jessicas Progress on Words Read Correctly

Reading Curriculum-Based Measurement

- Kindergarten Letter sound fluency
- First Grade Word identification fluency
- Grades 13 Passage reading fluency
- Grades 16 Maze fluency

Kindergarten Letter Sound Fluency

p U z L y

- Teacher Say the sound that goes with each

letter. - Time 1 minute

i t R e w

O a s d f

v g j S h

k m n b V

Y E i c x

First Grade Word Identification Fluency

- Teacher Read these words.
- Time 1 minute

Grades 13 Passage Reading Fluency

- Number of words read aloud correctly in 1 minute

on end-of-year passages.

- CBM Passage for Correct Words per Minute

Grades 16 Maze Fluency

- Number of words replaced correctly in 2.5 minutes

on end-of-year passages from which every seventh

word has been deleted and replaced with three

choices.

Computer Maze

Donalds Progress on Words Selected Correctly for

Curriculum-Based Measurement Maze Task

Curriculum-Based Measurement

- CBM is distinctive.
- Each CBM test is of equivalent difficulty.
- Samples the year-long curriculum.
- CBM is highly prescriptive and standardized.
- Reliable and valid scores.

The Basics of Curriculum-Based Measurement

- CBM monitors student progress throughout the

school year. - Students are given reading probes at regular

intervals. - Weekly, biweekly, monthly
- Teachers use student data to quantify short- and

long-term goals that will meet end-of-year goals.

The Basics of Curriculum-Based Measurement

- CBM tests are brief and easy to administer.
- All tests are different, but assess the same

skills and difficulty level. - CBM scores are graphed for teachers to use to

make decisions about instructional programs and

teaching methods for each student.

Curriculum-Based Measurement Research

- CBM research has been conducted over the past 30

years. - Research has demonstrated that when teachers use

CBM for instructional decision making - Students learn more.
- Teacher decision making improves.
- Students are more aware of their performance.

Steps to Conducting Curriculum-Based Measurements

- Step 1 How to Place Students in a Math

Curriculum-Based Measurement Task for Progress

Monitoring - Step 2 How to Identify the Level of Material for

Monitoring Progress - Step 3 How to Administer and Score Math

Curriculum-Based Measurement Probes - Step 4 How to Graph Scores

Steps to Conducting Curriculum-Based Measurements

- Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals
- Step 6 How to Apply Decision Rules to Graphed

Scores to Know When to Revise Programs and

Increase Goals - Step 7 How to Use the Curriculum- Based

Measurement Database Qualitatively to Describe

Students Strengths and Weaknesses

Step 1 How to Place Students in a Math

Curriculum-Based Measurement Task for Progress

Monitoring

- Kindergarten and first grade
- Quantity Array
- Number Identification
- Quantity Discrimination
- Missing Number
- Grades 16
- Computation
- Grades 26
- Concepts and Applications

Step 2 How to Identify the Level of Material for

Monitoring Progress

- Generally, students use the CBM materials

prepared for their grade level. - However, some students may need to use probes

from a different grade level if they are well

below grade-level expectations.

Step 2 How to Identify the Level of Material

for Monitoring Progress

- To find the appropriate CBM level
- Determine the grade-level probe at which you

expect the student to perform in math competently

by years end. - OR
- On two separate days, administer a CBM test

(either Computation or Concepts and Applications)

at the grade level lower than the students

grade-appropriate level. Use the correct time

limit for the test at the lower grade level, and

score the tests according to the directions. - If the students average score is between 10 and

15 digits or blanks, then use this lower

grade-level test. - If the students average score is less than 10

digits or blanks, move down one more grade level

or stay at the original lower grade and repeat

this procedure. - If the average score is greater than 15 digits or

blanks, reconsider grade-appropriate material.

Step 3 How to Administer and Score Math

Curriculum-Based Measurement Probes

- Students answer math problems.
- Teacher grades math probe.
- The number of digits correct, problems correct,

or blanks correct is calculated and graphed on

student graph.

Computation

- For students in grades 16.
- Student is presented with 25 computation problems

representing the year-long, grade-level math

curriculum. - Student works for set amount of time (time limit

varies for each grade). - Teacher grades test after student finishes.

Computation

Student Copy of a First Grade Computation Test

Computation

Computation

Grade Time limit

First 2 min.

Second 2 min.

Third 3 min.

Fourth 3 min.

Fifth 5 min.

Sixth 6 min.

- Length of test varies by grade.

Computation

- Students receive 1 point for each problem

answered correctly. - Computation tests can also be scored by awarding

1 point for each digit answered correctly. - The number of digits correct within the time

limit is the students score.

Computation

- Correct Digits Evaluate Each Numeral in Every

Answer

4507

4507

4507

2146

2146

2146

2

61

4

2361

2

1

44

3 correct

4 correct

2 correct

digits

digits

digits

Computation

Scoring Different Operations

Computation

- Division Problems with Remainders
- When giving directions, tell students to write

answers to division problems using R for

remainders when appropriate. - Although the first part of the quotient is scored

from left to right (just like the student moves

when working the problem), score the remainder

from right to left (because student would likely

subtract to calculate remainder).

Computation

- Scoring Examples Division with Remainders

Computation

- Scoring Decimals and Fractions
- Decimals Start at the decimal point and work

outward in both directions. - Fractions Score right to left for each portion

of the answer. Evaluate digits correct in the

whole number part, numerator, and denominator.

then add digits together. - When giving directions, be sure to tell students

to reduce fractions to lowest terms.

Computation

Scoring Examples Decimals

Computation

- Scoring Examples Fractions

Correct Answer

Student

s Answer

6

7 / 1 2

8 / 1 1

6

(2 correct digits)

ü

ü

5

6 / 1 2

5

1 / 2

(2 correct digits)

ü

ü

Computation

- Samanthas
- Computation
- Test
- Fifteen problems attempted.
- Two problems skipped.
- Two problems incorrect.
- Samanthas score is 13 problems.
- However, Samanthas correct digit score is 49.

Computation

- Sixth Grade
- Computation
- Test
- Lets practice.

Computation

Answer Key

- Possible score of 21 digits correct in first row.
- Possible score of 23 digits correct in the second

row. - Possible score of 21 digits correct in the third

row. - Possible score of 18 digits correct in the fourth

row. - Possible score of 21 digits correct in the fifth

row. - Total possible digits on this probe 104.

Concepts and Applications

- For students in grades 26.
- Student is presented with 1825 Concepts and

Applications problems representing the year-long

grade-level math curriculum. - Student works for set amount of time (time limit

varies by grade). - Teacher grades test after student finishes.

Concepts and Applications

- Student Copy of a Concepts and Applications test
- This sample is from a third grade test.
- The actual Concepts and Applications test is

3 pages long.

Concepts and Applications

Grade Time limit

Second 8 min.

Third 6 min.

Fourth 6 min.

Fifth 7 min.

Sixth 7 min.

- Length of test varies by grade.

Concepts and Applications

- Students receive 1 point for each blank answered

correctly. - The number of correct answers within the time

limit is the students score.

Concepts and Applications

- Quintens Fourth Grade Concepts and Applications

Test - Twenty-four blanks answered correctly.
- Quintens score is 24.

Concepts and Applications

Concepts and Applications

- Fifth Grade Concepts and Applications Test1
- Lets practice.

Concepts and Applications

Fifth Grade Concepts and Applications TestPage 2

Concepts and Applications

- Fifth Grade Concepts and Applications TestPage 3
- Lets practice.

Concepts and Applications

Problem Answer

10 3

11 A ?ADC C ?BFE

12 0.293

13 ? ?

14 28 hours

15 790,053

16 451 CDLI

17 7

18 10.00 in tips 20 more orders

19 4.4

20 ? ?

21 5/6 dogs or cats

22 1 m

23 12 ft

Answer Key

Problem Answer

1 54 sq. ft

2 66,000

3 A center C diameter

4 28.3 miles

5 7

6 P 7 N 10

7 0 5 bills 4 1 bills 3 quarters

8 1 millions place 3 ten thousands place

9 697

Quantity Array

- For kindergarten or first grade students.
- Student is presented with 36 items and asked to

orally identify the number of dots in a box. - After completing some sample items, the student

works for 1 minute. - Teacher writes the students responses on the

Quantity Array score sheet.

Quantity Array

- Student Copy
- of a Quantity
- Array test
- Actual student copy is 3 pages long

Quantity Array

- Quantity Array
- Score Sheet

Quantity Array

- If the student does not respond after 5 seconds,

point to the next item and say Try this one. - Do not correct errors.
- Teacher writes students responses on the

Quantity Array score sheet. Skipped items are

marked with a hyphen (-). - At 1 minute, draw a line under the last item

completed. - Teacher scores the task, putting a slash through

incorrect items on the score sheet. - Teacher counts the number of correct answers in 1

minute.

Quantity Array

- Mimis Quantity
- Array Score
- Sheet
- Skipped items are marked with a (-).
- Twenty-four items attempted.
- Three incorrect.
- Mimis score is 21.

Quantity Array

- Teacher Score
- Sheet
- Lets practice.

Quantity Array

- Student
- SheetPage 1
- Lets practice.

Quantity Array

- Student
- SheetPage 2
- Lets practice.

Quantity Array

- Student
- SheetPage 3
- Lets practice.

Number Identification

- For kindergarten or first grade students.
- Student is presented with 84 items and is asked

to orally identify the written number between 0

and 100. - After completing some sample items, the student

works for 1 minute. - Teacher writes the students responses on the

Number Identification score sheet.

Number Identification

- Student Copy of
- a Number
- Identification test
- Actual student copy is 3 pages long.

Number Identification

- Number Identification Score Sheet

Number Identification

- If the student does not respond after 3 seconds,

point to the next item and say Try this one. - Do not correct errors.
- Teacher writes the students responses on the

Number Identification score sheet. Skipped items

are marked with a hyphen (-). - At 1 minute, draw a line under the last item

completed. - Teacher scores the task, putting a slash through

incorrect items on score sheet. - Teacher counts the number of correct answers in 1

minute.

Number Identification

- Jamals Number
- Identification
- Score Sheet
- Skipped items are marked with a (-).
- Fifty-seven items attempted.
- Three incorrect.
- Jamals score is 54.

Number Identification

- Teacher Score
- Sheet
- Lets practice.

Number Identification

- Student
- SheetPage 1
- Lets practice.

Number Identification

- Student
- SheetPage 2
- Lets practice.

Number Identification

- Student
- SheetPage 3
- Lets practice.

Quantity Discrimination

- For kindergarten or first grade students.
- Student is presented with 63 items and asked to

orally identify the larger number from a set of

two numbers. - After completing some sample items, the student

works for 1 minute. - Teacher writes the students responses on the

Quantity Discrimination score sheet.

Quantity Discrimination

- Student Copy of a
- Quantity
- Discrimination test
- Actual student copy is 3 pages long.

Quantity Discrimination

- Quantity Discrimination Score Sheet

Quantity Discrimination

- If the student does not respond after 3 seconds,

point to the next item and say Try this one. - Do not correct errors.
- Teacher writes students responses on the

Quantity Discrimination score sheet. Skipped

items are marked with a hyphen (-). - At 1 minute, draw a line under the last item

completed. - Teacher scores the task, putting a slash through

incorrect items on the score sheet. - Teacher counts the number of correct answers in a

minute.

Quantity Discrimination

- Lins Quantity
- Discrimination
- Score Sheet
- Thirty-eight items attempted.
- Five incorrect.
- Lins score is 33.

Quantity Discrimination

- Teacher Score
- Sheet
- Lets practice.

Quantity Discrimination

- Student
- SheetPage 1
- Lets practice.

Quantity Discrimination

- Student
- SheetPage 2
- Lets practice.

Quantity Discrimination

- Student
- SheetPage 3
- Lets practice.

Missing Number

- For kindergarten or first grade students.
- Student is presented with 63 items and asked to

orally identify the missing number in a sequence

of four numbers. - After completing some sample items, the student

works for 1 minute. - Teacher writes the students responses on the

Missing Number score sheet.

Missing Number

- Student Copy
- of a Missing
- Number Test
- Actual student copy is 3 pages long.

Missing Number

- Missing Number
- Score Sheet

Missing Number

- If the student does not respond after 3 seconds,

point to the next item and say Try this one. - Do not correct errors.
- Teacher writes the students responses on the

Missing Number score sheet. Skipped items are

marked with a hyphen (-). - At 1 minute, draw a line under the last item

completed. - Teacher scores the task, putting a slash through

incorrect items on the score sheet. - Teacher counts the number of correct answers in I

minute.

Missing Number

- Thomass
- Missing Number
- Score Sheet
- Twenty-six items attempted.
- Eight incorrect.
- Thomass score is 18.

Missing Number

- Teacher Score
- Sheet
- Lets practice.

Missing Number

- Student
- SheetPage 1
- Lets practice.

Missing Number

- Student
- SheetPage 2
- Lets practice.

Missing Number

- Student
- SheetPage 3
- Lets practice.

Step 4 How to Graph Scores

- Graphing student scores is vital.
- Graphs provide teachers with a straightforward

way to - Review a students progress.
- Monitor the appropriateness of student goals.
- Judge the adequacy of student progress.
- Compare and contrast successful and unsuccessful

instructional aspects of a students program.

Step 4 How to Graph Scores

- Teachers can use computer graphing programs.
- List available in Appendix A of manual.
- Teachers can create their own graphs.
- Create template for student graph.
- Use same template for every student in the

classroom. - Vertical axis shows the range of student scores.
- Horizontal axis shows the number of weeks.

Step 4 How to Graph Scores

Step 4 How to Graph Scores

- Student scores are plotted on graph and a line is

drawn between scores.

Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals

- Once a few scores have been graphed, the teacher

decides on an end-of-year performance goal for

each student. - Three options for making performance goals
- End-of-Year Benchmarking
- Intra-Individual Framework
- National Norms

Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals

- End-of-Year Benchmarking
- For typically developing students, a table of

benchmarks can be used to find the CBM

end-of-year performance goal.

Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals

Grade Probe Maximum score Benchmark

Kindergarten Data not yet available Data not yet available Data not yet available

First Computation 30 20 digits

First Data not yet available Data not yet available Data not yet available

Second Computation 45 20 digits

Second Concepts and Applications 32 20 blanks

Third Computation 45 30 digits

Third Concepts and Applications 47 30 blanks

Fourth Computation 70 40 digits

Fourth Concepts and Applications 42 30 blanks

Fifth Computation 80 30 digits

Fifth Concepts and Applications 32 15 blanks

Sixth Computation 105 35 digits

Sixth Concepts and Applications 35 15 blanks

Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals

- Intra-Individual Framework
- Weekly rate of improvement is calculated using at

least eight data points. - Baseline rate is multiplied by 1.5.
- Product is multiplied by the number of weeks

until the end of the school year. - Product is added to the students baseline rate

to produce end-of-year performance goal.

Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals

- First eight scores 3, 2, 5, 6, 5, 5, 7, and 4.
- Difference 7 2 5.
- Divide by weeks 5 8 0.625.
- Multiply by baseline 0.625 1.5 0.9375.
- Multiply by weeks left 0.9375 14 13.125.
- Product is added to median 13.125 4.625

17.75. - The end-of-year performance goal is 18.

Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals

Grade Computation Digits Concepts and Applications Blanks

First 0.35 N/A

Second 0.30 0.40

Third 0.30 0.60

Fourth 0.70 0.70

Fifth 0.70 0.70

Sixth 0.40 0.70

- National Norms
- For typically developing students, a table of

median rates of weekly increase can be used to

find the end-of-year performance goal.

Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals

Grade Computation Digits Concepts and Applications Blanks

First 0.35 N/A

Second 0.30 0.40

Third 0.30 0.60

Fourth 0.70 0.70

Fifth 0.70 0.70

Sixth 0.40 0.70

- National Norms
- Median 14
- Fourth Grade Computation Norm 0.70
- Multiply by weeks left 16 0.70 11.2
- Add to median 11.2 14 25.2
- The end-of-year performance goal is 25

Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals

- National Norms
- Once the end-of-year performance goal has been

created, the goal is marked on the student graph

with an X. - A goal line is drawn between the median of the

students scores and the X.

Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals

Drawing a Goal-Line

Goal-line The desired path of measured behavior

to reach the performance goal over time.

Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals

- After drawing the goal-line, teachers continually

monitor student graphs. - After seven to eight CBM scores, teachers draw a

trend-line to represent actual student progress. - The goal-line and trend-line are compared.
- The trend-line is drawn using the Tukey method.

Trend-line A line drawn in the data path to

indicate the direction (trend) of the observed

behavior.

Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals

- Tukey Method
- Graphed scores are divided into three fairly

equal groups. - Two vertical lines are drawn between the groups.
- In the first and third groups
- Find the median data point.
- Mark with an X.
- Draw a line between the first group X and third

group X. - This line is the trend-line.

Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals

Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals

Practice 1

Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals

Practice 1

Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals

Practice 2

Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals

Practice 2

Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals

- CBM computer management programs are available.
- Programs create graphs and aid teachers with

performance goals and instructional decisions. - Various types are available for varying fees.
- Listed in Appendix A of manual.

Step 6 How to Apply Decision Rules to Graphed

Scores to Know When to Revise Programs and

Increase Goals

- After trend-lines have been drawn, teachers use

graphs to evaluate student progress and formulate

instructional decisions. - Standard decision rules help with this process.

Step 6 How to Apply Decision Rules to Graphed

Scores to Know When to Revise Programs and

Increase Goals

- Based on four most recent consecutive scores
- If scores are above the goal-line, the

end-of-year performance goal needs to be

increased. - If scores are below the goal-line, the students

instructional program needs to be revised.

Step 6 How to Apply Decision Rules to Graphed

Scores to Know When to Revise Programs and

Increase Goals

Step 6 How to Apply Decision Rules to Graphed

Scores to Know When to Revise Programs and

Increase Goals

Goal-line

Most recent 4 points

Step 6 How to Apply Decision Rules to Graphed

Scores to Know When to Revise Programs and

Increase Goals

- Based on the students trend-line
- If the trend-line is steeper than the goal line,

the end-of-year performance goal needs to be

increased. - If the trend-line is flatter than the goal line,

the students instructional program needs to be

revised. - If the trend-line and goal-line are fairly equal,

no changes need to be made.

Step 6 How to Apply Decision Rules to Graphed

Scores to Know When to Revise Programs and

Increase Goals

Step 6 How to Apply Decision Rules to Graphed

Scores to Know When to Revise Programs and

Increase Goals

X

Goal-line

X

Trend-line

Step 6 How to Apply Decision Rules to Graphed

Scores to Know When to Revise Programs and

Increase Goals

30

25

X

20

15

X

Digits Correct in 7 Minutes

Goal-line

10

X

5

Trend-line

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

Weeks of Instruction

Step 7 How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement

Data Qualitatively to Describe Student Strengths

and Weaknesses

- Using a skills profile, student progress can be

analyzed to describe student strengths and

weaknesses. - Student completes Computation or Concepts and

Applications tests. - Skills profile provides a visual display of a

students progress by skill area.

Step 7 How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement

Data Qualitatively to Describe Student Strengths

and Weaknesses

Step 7 How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement

Data Qualitatively to Describe Student Strengths

and Weaknesses

Other Ways to Use the Curriculum-Based

Measurement Database

- How to Use the Curriculum-Based Measurement

Database to Accomplish Teacher and School

Accountability and for Formulating Policy

Directed at Improving Student Outcomes - How to Incorporate Decision Making Frameworks to

Enhance General Educator Planning - How to Use Progress Monitoring to Identify

Nonresponders Within a Response-to-Intervention

Framework to Identify Disability

How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data to

Accomplish Teacher and School Accountability for

Formulating Policy Directed at Improving School

Outcomes

- No Child Left Behind requires all schools to show

Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) toward a

proficiency goal. - Schools must determine measure(s) for AYP

evaluation and the criterion for deeming an

individual student proficient. - CBM can be used to fulfill the AYP evaluation in

math.

How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data to

Accomplish Teacher and School Accountability for

Formulating Policy Directed at Improving School

Outcomes

- Using Math CBM
- Schools can assess students to identify the

number of initial students who meet benchmarks

(initial proficiency). - The discrepancy between initial proficiency and

universal proficiency is calculated.

How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data to

Accomplish Teacher and School Accountability for

Formulating Policy Directed at Improving School

Outcomes

- The discrepancy is divided by the number of years

before the 20132014 deadline. - This calculation provides the number of

additional students who must meet benchmarks each

year.

How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data to

Accomplish Teacher and School Accountability for

Formulating Policy Directed at Improving School

Outcomes

- Advantages of using CBM for AYP
- Measures are simple and easy to administer.
- Training is quick and reliable.
- Entire student body can be measured efficiently

and frequently. - Routine testing allows schools to track progress

during school year.

How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data to

Accomplish Teacher and School Accountability for

Formulating Policy Directed at Improving School

Outcomes

Across-Year School Progress

How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data to

Accomplish Teacher and School Accountability for

Formulating Policy Directed at Improving School

Outcomes

Within-Year School Progress

(281)

How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data to

Accomplish Teacher and School Accountability for

Formulating Policy Directed at Improving School

Outcomes

Within-Year Teacher Progress

How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data to

Accomplish Teacher and School Accountability for

Formulating Policy Directed at Improving School

Outcomes

Within-Year Special Education Progress

How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data to

Accomplish Teacher and School Accountability for

Formulating Policy Directed at Improving School

Outcomes

Within-Year Student Progress

How to Incorporate Decision-Making Frameworks to

Enhance General Educator Planning

- CBM reports prepared by computer can provide the

teacher with information about the class - Student CBM raw scores
- Graphs of the low-, middle-, and high-performing

students - CBM score averages
- List of students who may need additional

intervention

How to Incorporate Decision-Making Frameworks to

Enhance General Educator Planning

How to Incorporate Decision-Making Frameworks to

Enhance General Educator Planning

How to Incorporate Decision-Making Frameworks to

Enhance General Educator Planning

How to Use Progress Monitoring to Identify

Non-Responders Within a Response-to-Intervention

Framework to Identify Disability

- Traditional assessment for identifying students

with learning disabilities relies on intelligence

and achievement tests. - Alternative framework is conceptualized as

nonresponsiveness to otherwise effective

instruction. - Dual-discrepancy
- Student performs below level of classmates.
- Students learning rate is below that of their

classmates.

How to Use Progress Monitoring to Identify

Non-Responders Within a Response-to-Intervention

Framework to Identify Disability

- All students do not achieve the same degree of

math competence. - Just because math growth is low, the student

doesnt automatically receive special education

services. - If the learning rate is similar to that of the

other students, the student is profiting from the

regular education environment.

How to Use Progress Monitoring to Identify

Non-Responders Within a Response-to-Intervention

Framework to Identify Disability

- If a low-performing student is not demonstrating

growth where other students are thriving, special

intervention should be considered. - Alternative instructional methods must be tested

to address the mismatch between the students

learning requirements and the requirements in a

conventional instructional program.

Case Study 1 Alexis

Case Study 1 Alexis

Case Study 2 Darby Valley Elementary

- Using CBM toward reading AYP
- A total of 378 students.
- Initial benchmarks were met by 125 students.
- Discrepancy between universal proficiency and

initial proficiency is 253 students. - Discrepancy of 253 students is divided by the

number of years until 20132014 - 253 11 23.
- Twenty-three students need to meet CBM benchmarks

each year to demonstrate AYP.

Case Study 2 Darby Valley Elementary

Across-Year School Progress

Case Study 2 Darby Valley Elementary

Within-Year School Progress

Case Study 2 Darby Valley Elementary

Ms. Main (Teacher)

Case Study 2 Darby Valley Elementary

Mrs. Hamilton (Teacher)

Case Study 2 Darby Valley Elementary

Special Education

Case Study 2 Darby Valley Elementary

Cynthia Davis (Student)

Case Study 2 Darby Valley Elementary

Dexter Wilson (Student)

Case Study 3 Mrs. Smith

Case Study 3 Mrs. Smith

Case Study 3 Mrs. Smith

Case Study 3 Mrs. Smith

Case Study 4 Marcus

Case Study 4 Marcus

Curriculum-Based Measurement Materials

- AIMSweb/Edformation
- Yearly ProgressProTM/McGraw-Hill
- Monitoring Basic Skills Progress/ Pro-Ed, Inc.
- Research Institute on Progress Monitoring,

University of Minnesota (OSEP Funded) - Vanderbilt University

Curriculum-Based Measurement Resources

- List on pages 3134 of materials packet
- Appendix B of CBM manual