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Summer Institute: Student Progress Monitoring for Math

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Michelle Hosp. Erica Lembke. Laura S enz. Pamela Stecker ... CBA (Tucker; Burns) Finds instructional level. Mastery Measurement (Precision Teaching, WIDS) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Summer Institute: Student Progress Monitoring for Math


1
Summer Institute Student Progress Monitoring for
Math
2 0 0 5
  • Lynn S. Fuchs and Douglas Fuchs
  • Tracey Hall
  • John Hintze
  • Michelle Hosp
  • Erica Lembke
  • Laura Sáenz
  • Pamela Stecker

2
Using Curriculum-Based Measurement for Progress
Monitoring
3
Progress Monitoring
  • Progress monitoring (PM) is conducted frequently
    and designed to
  • Estimate rates of student improvement.
  • Identify students who are not demonstrating
    adequate progress.
  • Compare the efficacy of different forms of
    instruction and design more effective,
    individualized instructional programs for problem
    learners.

4
What Is the Difference Between Traditional
Assessments and Progress Monitoring?
  • Traditional Assessments
  • Lengthy tests.
  • Not administered on a regular basis.
  • Teachers do not receive immediate feedback.
  • Student scores are based on national scores and
    averages and a teachers classroom may differ
    tremendously from the national student sample.

5
What Is the Difference Between Traditional
Assessments and Progress Monitoring?
  • Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) is one type of
    PM.
  • CBM provides an easy and quick method for
    gathering student progress.
  • Teachers can analyze student scores and adjust
    student goals and instructional programs.
  • Student data can be compared to teachers
    classroom or school district data.

6
Curriculum-Based Assessment
  • Curriculum-Based Assessment (CBA)
  • Measurement materials are aligned with school
    curriculum.
  • Measurement is frequent.
  • Assessment information is used to formulate
    instructional decisions.
  • CBM is one type of CBA.

7
Progress Monitoring
  • Teachers assess students academic performance
    using brief measures on a frequent basis.
  • The main purposes are to
  • Describe the rate of response to instruction.
  • Build more effective programs.

8
Different Forms of Progress Monitoring
  • CBA (Tucker Burns)
  • Finds instructional level
  • Mastery Measurement (Precision Teaching, WIDS)
  • Tracks short-term mastery of a series of
    instructional objectives
  • CBM

9
Focus of This Presentation
  • Curriculum-Based Measurement
  • The scientifically validated form of progress
    monitoring.

10
Teachers Use Curriculum-Based Measurement To . . .
  • Describe academic competence at a single point in
    time.
  • Quantify the rate at which students develop
    academic competence over time.
  • Build more effective programs to increase student
    achievement.

11
Curriculum-Based Measurement
  • The result of 30 years of research
  • Used across the country
  • Demonstrates strong reliability, validity, and
    instructional utility

12
Research Shows . . .
  • CBM produces accurate, meaningful information
    about students academic levels and their rates
    of improvement.
  • CBM is sensitive to student improvement.
  • CBM corresponds well with high-stakes tests.
  • When teachers use CBM to inform their
    instructional decisions, students achieve better.

13
Most Progress Monitoring Mastery Measurement
  • Curriculum-Based Measurement is NOT
  • Mastery Measurement

14
Mastery Measurement Tracks Mastery of
Short-Term Instructional Objectives
  • To implement Mastery Measurement, the teacher
  • Determines the sequence of skills in an
    instructional hierarchy.
  • Develops, for each skill, a criterion-referenced
    test.

15
Hypothetical Fourth Grade Math Computation
Curriculum
  • 1. Multidigit addition with regrouping
  • 2. Multidigit subtraction with regrouping
  • 3. Multiplication facts, factors to nine
  • 4. Multiply two-digit numbers by a
    one-digit number
  • 5. Multiply two-digit numbers by a two-digit
    number
  • 6. Division facts, divisors to nine
  • 7. Divide two-digit numbers by a one-digit number
  • 8. Divide three-digit numbers by a one-digit
    number
  • 9. Add/subtract simple fractions, like
    denominators
  • 10. Add/subtract whole numbers and mixed numbers

16
Multidigit Addition Mastery Test
17
Mastery of Multidigit Addition
18
Hypothetical Fourth Grade Math Computation
Curriculum
  • 1. Multidigit addition with regrouping
  • 2. Multidigit subtraction with regrouping
  • 3. Multiplication facts, factors to nine
  • 4. Multiply two-digit numbers by a one-digit
    number
  • 5. Multiply two-digit numbers by a two-digit
    number
  • 6. Division facts, divisors to nine
  • 7. Divide two-digit numbers by a one-digit number
  • 8. Divide three-digit numbers by a one-digit
    number
  • 9. Add/subtract simple fractions, like
    denominators
  • 10. Add/subtract whole numbers and mixed numbers

19
Multidigit Subtraction Mastery Test
20
Mastery of Multidigit Addition and Subtraction
21
Problems with Mastery Measurement
  • Hierarchy of skills is logical, not empirical.
  • Performance on single-skill assessments can be
    misleading.
  • Assessment does not reflect maintenance or
    generalization.
  • Assessment is designed by teachers or sold with
    textbooks, with unknown reliability and validity.
  • Number of objectives mastered does not relate
    well to performance on high-stakes tests.

22
Curriculum-Based Measurement Was Designed to
Address These Problems
  • An Example of Curriculum-Based Measurement
  • Math Computation

23
Hypothetical Fourth Grade Math Computation
Curriculum
  • 1. Multidigit addition with regrouping
  • 2. Multidigit subtraction with regrouping
  • 3. Multiplication facts, factors to nine
  • 4. Multiply two-digit numbers by a one-digit
    number
  • 5. Multiply two-digit numbers by a two-digit
    number
  • 6. Division facts, divisors to nine
  • 7. Divide two-digit numbers by a one-digit number
  • 8. Divide three-digit numbers by a one-digit
    number
  • 9. Add/subtract simple fractions, like
    denominators
  • 10. Add/subtract whole numbers and mixed numbers

24
  • Random numerals within problems
  • Random placement of problem types on page

25
  • Random numerals within problems
  • Random placement of problem types on page

26
Donalds Progress in Digits Correct Across the
School Year
27
  • One Page of a 3-Page CBM in Math Concepts and
    Applications (24 Total Blanks)

28
Donalds Graph and Skills Profile
  • Darker boxes equal a greater level of mastery.

29
Sampling Performance on Year-Long Curriculum for
Each Curriculum-Based Measurement . . .
  • Avoids the need to specify a skills hierarchy.
  • Avoids single-skill tests.
  • Automatically assesses maintenance/generalization.
  • Permits standardized procedures for sampling the
    curriculum, with known reliability and validity.
  • SO THAT CBM scores relate well to performance on
    high-stakes tests.

30
Curriculum-Based Measurements Two Methods for
Representing Year-Long Performance
  • Method 1
  • Systematically sample items from the annual
    curriculum (illustrated in Math CBM, just
    presented).
  • Method 2
  • Identify a global behavior that simultaneously
    requires the many skills taught in the annual
    curriculum (illustrated in Reading CBM, presented
    next).

31
Hypothetical Second Grade Reading Curriculum
  • Phonics
  • CVC patterns
  • CVCe patterns
  • CVVC patterns
  • Sight Vocabulary
  • Comprehension
  • Identification of who/what/when/where
  • Identification of main idea
  • Sequence of events
  • Fluency

32
Second Grade Reading Curriculum-Based Measurement
  • Each week, every student reads aloud from a
    second grade passage for 1 minute.
  • Each weeks passage is the same difficulty.
  • As a student reads, the teacher marks the errors.
  • Count number of words read correctly.
  • Graph scores.

33
Curriculum-Based Measurement
  • Not interested in making kids read faster.
  • Interested in kids becoming better readers.
  • The CBM score is an overall indicator of reading
    competence.
  • Students who score high on CBMs are better
  • Decoders
  • At sight vocabulary
  • Comprehenders
  • Correlates highly with high-stakes tests.

34
CBM Passage for Correct Words per Minute
35
What We Look for in Curriculum-Based Measurement
  • Increasing Scores
  • Student is becoming a better reader.
  • Flat Scores
  • Student is not profiting from instruction and
    requires a change in the instructional program.

36
Sarahs Progress on Words Read Correctly
37
Jessicas Progress on Words Read Correctly
38
Reading Curriculum-Based Measurement
  • Kindergarten Letter sound fluency
  • First Grade Word identification fluency
  • Grades 13 Passage reading fluency
  • Grades 16 Maze fluency

39
Kindergarten Letter Sound Fluency
p U z L y
  • Teacher Say the sound that goes with each
    letter.
  • Time 1 minute

i t R e w
O a s d f
v g j S h
k m n b V
Y E i c x

40
First Grade Word Identification Fluency
  • Teacher Read these words.
  • Time 1 minute

41
Grades 13 Passage Reading Fluency
  • Number of words read aloud correctly in 1 minute
    on end-of-year passages.

42
  • CBM Passage for Correct Words per Minute

43
Grades 16 Maze Fluency
  • Number of words replaced correctly in 2.5 minutes
    on end-of-year passages from which every seventh
    word has been deleted and replaced with three
    choices.

44
Computer Maze
45
Donalds Progress on Words Selected Correctly for
Curriculum-Based Measurement Maze Task
46
Curriculum-Based Measurement
  • CBM is distinctive.
  • Each CBM test is of equivalent difficulty.
  • Samples the year-long curriculum.
  • CBM is highly prescriptive and standardized.
  • Reliable and valid scores.

47
The Basics of Curriculum-Based Measurement
  • CBM monitors student progress throughout the
    school year.
  • Students are given reading probes at regular
    intervals.
  • Weekly, biweekly, monthly
  • Teachers use student data to quantify short- and
    long-term goals that will meet end-of-year goals.

48
The Basics of Curriculum-Based Measurement
  • CBM tests are brief and easy to administer.
  • All tests are different, but assess the same
    skills and difficulty level.
  • CBM scores are graphed for teachers to use to
    make decisions about instructional programs and
    teaching methods for each student.

49
Curriculum-Based Measurement Research
  • CBM research has been conducted over the past 30
    years.
  • Research has demonstrated that when teachers use
    CBM for instructional decision making
  • Students learn more.
  • Teacher decision making improves.
  • Students are more aware of their performance.

50
Steps to Conducting Curriculum-Based Measurements
  • Step 1 How to Place Students in a Math
    Curriculum-Based Measurement Task for Progress
    Monitoring
  • Step 2 How to Identify the Level of Material for
    Monitoring Progress
  • Step 3 How to Administer and Score Math
    Curriculum-Based Measurement Probes
  • Step 4 How to Graph Scores

51
Steps to Conducting Curriculum-Based Measurements
  • Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals
  • Step 6 How to Apply Decision Rules to Graphed
    Scores to Know When to Revise Programs and
    Increase Goals
  • Step 7 How to Use the Curriculum- Based
    Measurement Database Qualitatively to Describe
    Students Strengths and Weaknesses

52
Step 1 How to Place Students in a Math
Curriculum-Based Measurement Task for Progress
Monitoring
  • Kindergarten and first grade
  • Quantity Array
  • Number Identification
  • Quantity Discrimination
  • Missing Number
  • Grades 16
  • Computation
  • Grades 26
  • Concepts and Applications

53
Step 2 How to Identify the Level of Material for
Monitoring Progress
  • Generally, students use the CBM materials
    prepared for their grade level.
  • However, some students may need to use probes
    from a different grade level if they are well
    below grade-level expectations.

54
Step 2 How to Identify the Level of Material
for Monitoring Progress
  • To find the appropriate CBM level
  • Determine the grade-level probe at which you
    expect the student to perform in math competently
    by years end.
  • OR
  • On two separate days, administer a CBM test
    (either Computation or Concepts and Applications)
    at the grade level lower than the students
    grade-appropriate level. Use the correct time
    limit for the test at the lower grade level, and
    score the tests according to the directions.
  • If the students average score is between 10 and
    15 digits or blanks, then use this lower
    grade-level test.
  • If the students average score is less than 10
    digits or blanks, move down one more grade level
    or stay at the original lower grade and repeat
    this procedure.
  • If the average score is greater than 15 digits or
    blanks, reconsider grade-appropriate material.

55
Step 3 How to Administer and Score Math
Curriculum-Based Measurement Probes
  • Students answer math problems.
  • Teacher grades math probe.
  • The number of digits correct, problems correct,
    or blanks correct is calculated and graphed on
    student graph.

56
Computation
  • For students in grades 16.
  • Student is presented with 25 computation problems
    representing the year-long, grade-level math
    curriculum.
  • Student works for set amount of time (time limit
    varies for each grade).
  • Teacher grades test after student finishes.

57
Computation
Student Copy of a First Grade Computation Test
58
Computation
59
Computation
Grade Time limit
First 2 min.
Second 2 min.
Third 3 min.
Fourth 3 min.
Fifth 5 min.
Sixth 6 min.
  • Length of test varies by grade.

60
Computation
  • Students receive 1 point for each problem
    answered correctly.
  • Computation tests can also be scored by awarding
    1 point for each digit answered correctly.
  • The number of digits correct within the time
    limit is the students score.

61
Computation
  • Correct Digits Evaluate Each Numeral in Every
    Answer

4507
4507
4507
2146
2146
2146
2
61
4
2361
2
1
44
3 correct
4 correct
2 correct
digits
digits
digits
62
Computation
Scoring Different Operations
63
Computation
  • Division Problems with Remainders
  • When giving directions, tell students to write
    answers to division problems using R for
    remainders when appropriate.
  • Although the first part of the quotient is scored
    from left to right (just like the student moves
    when working the problem), score the remainder
    from right to left (because student would likely
    subtract to calculate remainder).

64
Computation
  • Scoring Examples Division with Remainders

65
Computation
  • Scoring Decimals and Fractions
  • Decimals Start at the decimal point and work
    outward in both directions.
  • Fractions Score right to left for each portion
    of the answer. Evaluate digits correct in the
    whole number part, numerator, and denominator.
    then add digits together.
  • When giving directions, be sure to tell students
    to reduce fractions to lowest terms.

66
Computation
Scoring Examples Decimals
67
Computation
  • Scoring Examples Fractions

Correct Answer
Student

s Answer
6
7 / 1 2
8 / 1 1
6
(2 correct digits)
ü
ü
5
6 / 1 2
5
1 / 2
(2 correct digits)
ü
ü
68
Computation
  • Samanthas
  • Computation
  • Test
  • Fifteen problems attempted.
  • Two problems skipped.
  • Two problems incorrect.
  • Samanthas score is 13 problems.
  • However, Samanthas correct digit score is 49.

69
Computation
  • Sixth Grade
  • Computation
  • Test
  • Lets practice.

70
Computation
Answer Key
  • Possible score of 21 digits correct in first row.
  • Possible score of 23 digits correct in the second
    row.
  • Possible score of 21 digits correct in the third
    row.
  • Possible score of 18 digits correct in the fourth
    row.
  • Possible score of 21 digits correct in the fifth
    row.
  • Total possible digits on this probe 104.

71
Concepts and Applications
  • For students in grades 26.
  • Student is presented with 1825 Concepts and
    Applications problems representing the year-long
    grade-level math curriculum.
  • Student works for set amount of time (time limit
    varies by grade).
  • Teacher grades test after student finishes.

72
Concepts and Applications
  • Student Copy of a Concepts and Applications test
  • This sample is from a third grade test.
  • The actual Concepts and Applications test is
    3 pages long.

73
Concepts and Applications
Grade Time limit
Second 8 min.
Third 6 min.
Fourth 6 min.
Fifth 7 min.
Sixth 7 min.
  • Length of test varies by grade.

74
Concepts and Applications
  • Students receive 1 point for each blank answered
    correctly.
  • The number of correct answers within the time
    limit is the students score.

75
Concepts and Applications
  • Quintens Fourth Grade Concepts and Applications
    Test
  • Twenty-four blanks answered correctly.
  • Quintens score is 24.

76
Concepts and Applications
77
Concepts and Applications
  • Fifth Grade Concepts and Applications Test1
  • Lets practice.

78
Concepts and Applications
Fifth Grade Concepts and Applications TestPage 2
79
Concepts and Applications
  • Fifth Grade Concepts and Applications TestPage 3
  • Lets practice.

80
Concepts and Applications
Problem Answer
10 3
11 A ?ADC C ?BFE
12 0.293
13 ? ?
14 28 hours
15 790,053
16 451 CDLI
17 7
18 10.00 in tips 20 more orders
19 4.4
20 ? ?
21 5/6 dogs or cats
22 1 m
23 12 ft
Answer Key
Problem Answer
1 54 sq. ft
2 66,000
3 A center C diameter
4 28.3 miles
5 7
6 P 7 N 10
7 0 5 bills 4 1 bills 3 quarters
8 1 millions place 3 ten thousands place
9 697
81
Quantity Array
  • For kindergarten or first grade students.
  • Student is presented with 36 items and asked to
    orally identify the number of dots in a box.
  • After completing some sample items, the student
    works for 1 minute.
  • Teacher writes the students responses on the
    Quantity Array score sheet.

82
Quantity Array
  • Student Copy
  • of a Quantity
  • Array test
  • Actual student copy is 3 pages long

83
Quantity Array
  • Quantity Array
  • Score Sheet

84
Quantity Array
  • If the student does not respond after 5 seconds,
    point to the next item and say Try this one.
  • Do not correct errors.
  • Teacher writes students responses on the
    Quantity Array score sheet. Skipped items are
    marked with a hyphen (-).
  • At 1 minute, draw a line under the last item
    completed.
  • Teacher scores the task, putting a slash through
    incorrect items on the score sheet.
  • Teacher counts the number of correct answers in 1
    minute.

85
Quantity Array
  • Mimis Quantity
  • Array Score
  • Sheet
  • Skipped items are marked with a (-).
  • Twenty-four items attempted.
  • Three incorrect.
  • Mimis score is 21.

86
Quantity Array
  • Teacher Score
  • Sheet
  • Lets practice.

87
Quantity Array
  • Student
  • SheetPage 1
  • Lets practice.

88
Quantity Array
  • Student
  • SheetPage 2
  • Lets practice.

89
Quantity Array
  • Student
  • SheetPage 3
  • Lets practice.

90
Number Identification
  • For kindergarten or first grade students.
  • Student is presented with 84 items and is asked
    to orally identify the written number between 0
    and 100.
  • After completing some sample items, the student
    works for 1 minute.
  • Teacher writes the students responses on the
    Number Identification score sheet.

91
Number Identification
  • Student Copy of
  • a Number
  • Identification test
  • Actual student copy is 3 pages long.

92
Number Identification
  • Number Identification Score Sheet

93
Number Identification
  • If the student does not respond after 3 seconds,
    point to the next item and say Try this one.
  • Do not correct errors.
  • Teacher writes the students responses on the
    Number Identification score sheet. Skipped items
    are marked with a hyphen (-).
  • At 1 minute, draw a line under the last item
    completed.
  • Teacher scores the task, putting a slash through
    incorrect items on score sheet.
  • Teacher counts the number of correct answers in 1
    minute.

94
Number Identification
  • Jamals Number
  • Identification
  • Score Sheet
  • Skipped items are marked with a (-).
  • Fifty-seven items attempted.
  • Three incorrect.
  • Jamals score is 54.

95
Number Identification
  • Teacher Score
  • Sheet
  • Lets practice.

96
Number Identification
  • Student
  • SheetPage 1
  • Lets practice.

97
Number Identification
  • Student
  • SheetPage 2
  • Lets practice.

98
Number Identification
  • Student
  • SheetPage 3
  • Lets practice.

99
Quantity Discrimination
  • For kindergarten or first grade students.
  • Student is presented with 63 items and asked to
    orally identify the larger number from a set of
    two numbers.
  • After completing some sample items, the student
    works for 1 minute.
  • Teacher writes the students responses on the
    Quantity Discrimination score sheet.

100
Quantity Discrimination
  • Student Copy of a
  • Quantity
  • Discrimination test
  • Actual student copy is 3 pages long.

101
Quantity Discrimination
  • Quantity Discrimination Score Sheet

102
Quantity Discrimination
  • If the student does not respond after 3 seconds,
    point to the next item and say Try this one.
  • Do not correct errors.
  • Teacher writes students responses on the
    Quantity Discrimination score sheet. Skipped
    items are marked with a hyphen (-).
  • At 1 minute, draw a line under the last item
    completed.
  • Teacher scores the task, putting a slash through
    incorrect items on the score sheet.
  • Teacher counts the number of correct answers in a
    minute.

103
Quantity Discrimination
  • Lins Quantity
  • Discrimination
  • Score Sheet
  • Thirty-eight items attempted.
  • Five incorrect.
  • Lins score is 33.

104
Quantity Discrimination
  • Teacher Score
  • Sheet
  • Lets practice.

105
Quantity Discrimination
  • Student
  • SheetPage 1
  • Lets practice.

106
Quantity Discrimination
  • Student
  • SheetPage 2
  • Lets practice.

107
Quantity Discrimination
  • Student
  • SheetPage 3
  • Lets practice.

108
Missing Number
  • For kindergarten or first grade students.
  • Student is presented with 63 items and asked to
    orally identify the missing number in a sequence
    of four numbers.
  • After completing some sample items, the student
    works for 1 minute.
  • Teacher writes the students responses on the
    Missing Number score sheet.

109
Missing Number
  • Student Copy
  • of a Missing
  • Number Test
  • Actual student copy is 3 pages long.

110
Missing Number
  • Missing Number
  • Score Sheet

111
Missing Number
  • If the student does not respond after 3 seconds,
    point to the next item and say Try this one.
  • Do not correct errors.
  • Teacher writes the students responses on the
    Missing Number score sheet. Skipped items are
    marked with a hyphen (-).
  • At 1 minute, draw a line under the last item
    completed.
  • Teacher scores the task, putting a slash through
    incorrect items on the score sheet.
  • Teacher counts the number of correct answers in I
    minute.

112
Missing Number
  • Thomass
  • Missing Number
  • Score Sheet
  • Twenty-six items attempted.
  • Eight incorrect.
  • Thomass score is 18.

113
Missing Number
  • Teacher Score
  • Sheet
  • Lets practice.

114
Missing Number
  • Student
  • SheetPage 1
  • Lets practice.

115
Missing Number
  • Student
  • SheetPage 2
  • Lets practice.

116
Missing Number
  • Student
  • SheetPage 3
  • Lets practice.

117
Step 4 How to Graph Scores
  • Graphing student scores is vital.
  • Graphs provide teachers with a straightforward
    way to
  • Review a students progress.
  • Monitor the appropriateness of student goals.
  • Judge the adequacy of student progress.
  • Compare and contrast successful and unsuccessful
    instructional aspects of a students program.

118
Step 4 How to Graph Scores
  • Teachers can use computer graphing programs.
  • List available in Appendix A of manual.
  • Teachers can create their own graphs.
  • Create template for student graph.
  • Use same template for every student in the
    classroom.
  • Vertical axis shows the range of student scores.
  • Horizontal axis shows the number of weeks.

119
Step 4 How to Graph Scores
120
Step 4 How to Graph Scores
  • Student scores are plotted on graph and a line is
    drawn between scores.

121
Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals
  • Once a few scores have been graphed, the teacher
    decides on an end-of-year performance goal for
    each student.
  • Three options for making performance goals
  • End-of-Year Benchmarking
  • Intra-Individual Framework
  • National Norms

122
Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals
  • End-of-Year Benchmarking
  • For typically developing students, a table of
    benchmarks can be used to find the CBM
    end-of-year performance goal.

123
Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals
Grade Probe Maximum score Benchmark
Kindergarten Data not yet available Data not yet available Data not yet available
First Computation 30 20 digits
First Data not yet available Data not yet available Data not yet available
Second Computation 45 20 digits
Second Concepts and Applications 32 20 blanks
Third Computation 45 30 digits
Third Concepts and Applications 47 30 blanks
Fourth Computation 70 40 digits
Fourth Concepts and Applications 42 30 blanks
Fifth Computation 80 30 digits
Fifth Concepts and Applications 32 15 blanks
Sixth Computation 105 35 digits
Sixth Concepts and Applications 35 15 blanks
124
Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals
  • Intra-Individual Framework
  • Weekly rate of improvement is calculated using at
    least eight data points.
  • Baseline rate is multiplied by 1.5.
  • Product is multiplied by the number of weeks
    until the end of the school year.
  • Product is added to the students baseline rate
    to produce end-of-year performance goal.

125
Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals
  • First eight scores 3, 2, 5, 6, 5, 5, 7, and 4.
  • Difference 7 2 5.
  • Divide by weeks 5 8 0.625.
  • Multiply by baseline 0.625 1.5 0.9375.
  • Multiply by weeks left 0.9375 14 13.125.
  • Product is added to median 13.125 4.625
    17.75.
  • The end-of-year performance goal is 18.

126
Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals
Grade Computation Digits Concepts and Applications Blanks
First 0.35 N/A
Second 0.30 0.40
Third 0.30 0.60
Fourth 0.70 0.70
Fifth 0.70 0.70
Sixth 0.40 0.70
  • National Norms
  • For typically developing students, a table of
    median rates of weekly increase can be used to
    find the end-of-year performance goal.

127
Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals
Grade Computation Digits Concepts and Applications Blanks
First 0.35 N/A
Second 0.30 0.40
Third 0.30 0.60
Fourth 0.70 0.70
Fifth 0.70 0.70
Sixth 0.40 0.70
  • National Norms
  • Median 14
  • Fourth Grade Computation Norm 0.70
  • Multiply by weeks left 16 0.70 11.2
  • Add to median 11.2 14 25.2
  • The end-of-year performance goal is 25

128
Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals
  • National Norms
  • Once the end-of-year performance goal has been
    created, the goal is marked on the student graph
    with an X.
  • A goal line is drawn between the median of the
    students scores and the X.

129
Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals
Drawing a Goal-Line
Goal-line The desired path of measured behavior
to reach the performance goal over time.
130
Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals
  • After drawing the goal-line, teachers continually
    monitor student graphs.
  • After seven to eight CBM scores, teachers draw a
    trend-line to represent actual student progress.
  • The goal-line and trend-line are compared.
  • The trend-line is drawn using the Tukey method.

Trend-line A line drawn in the data path to
indicate the direction (trend) of the observed
behavior.
131
Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals
  • Tukey Method
  • Graphed scores are divided into three fairly
    equal groups.
  • Two vertical lines are drawn between the groups.
  • In the first and third groups
  • Find the median data point.
  • Mark with an X.
  • Draw a line between the first group X and third
    group X.
  • This line is the trend-line.

132
Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals
133
Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals
Practice 1
134
Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals
Practice 1
135
Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals
Practice 2
136
Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals
Practice 2
137
Step 5 How to Set Ambitious Goals
  • CBM computer management programs are available.
  • Programs create graphs and aid teachers with
    performance goals and instructional decisions.
  • Various types are available for varying fees.
  • Listed in Appendix A of manual.

138
Step 6 How to Apply Decision Rules to Graphed
Scores to Know When to Revise Programs and
Increase Goals
  • After trend-lines have been drawn, teachers use
    graphs to evaluate student progress and formulate
    instructional decisions.
  • Standard decision rules help with this process.

139
Step 6 How to Apply Decision Rules to Graphed
Scores to Know When to Revise Programs and
Increase Goals
  • Based on four most recent consecutive scores
  • If scores are above the goal-line, the
    end-of-year performance goal needs to be
    increased.
  • If scores are below the goal-line, the students
    instructional program needs to be revised.

140
Step 6 How to Apply Decision Rules to Graphed
Scores to Know When to Revise Programs and
Increase Goals
141
Step 6 How to Apply Decision Rules to Graphed
Scores to Know When to Revise Programs and
Increase Goals
Goal-line
Most recent 4 points
142
Step 6 How to Apply Decision Rules to Graphed
Scores to Know When to Revise Programs and
Increase Goals
  • Based on the students trend-line
  • If the trend-line is steeper than the goal line,
    the end-of-year performance goal needs to be
    increased.
  • If the trend-line is flatter than the goal line,
    the students instructional program needs to be
    revised.
  • If the trend-line and goal-line are fairly equal,
    no changes need to be made.

143
Step 6 How to Apply Decision Rules to Graphed
Scores to Know When to Revise Programs and
Increase Goals
144
Step 6 How to Apply Decision Rules to Graphed
Scores to Know When to Revise Programs and
Increase Goals
X
Goal-line
X
Trend-line
145
Step 6 How to Apply Decision Rules to Graphed
Scores to Know When to Revise Programs and
Increase Goals
30
25
X

20
15
X

Digits Correct in 7 Minutes
Goal-line
10
X
5
Trend-line
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Weeks of Instruction
146
Step 7 How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement
Data Qualitatively to Describe Student Strengths
and Weaknesses
  • Using a skills profile, student progress can be
    analyzed to describe student strengths and
    weaknesses.
  • Student completes Computation or Concepts and
    Applications tests.
  • Skills profile provides a visual display of a
    students progress by skill area.

147
Step 7 How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement
Data Qualitatively to Describe Student Strengths
and Weaknesses
148
Step 7 How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement
Data Qualitatively to Describe Student Strengths
and Weaknesses
149
Other Ways to Use the Curriculum-Based
Measurement Database
  • How to Use the Curriculum-Based Measurement
    Database to Accomplish Teacher and School
    Accountability and for Formulating Policy
    Directed at Improving Student Outcomes
  • How to Incorporate Decision Making Frameworks to
    Enhance General Educator Planning
  • How to Use Progress Monitoring to Identify
    Nonresponders Within a Response-to-Intervention
    Framework to Identify Disability

150
How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data to
Accomplish Teacher and School Accountability for
Formulating Policy Directed at Improving School
Outcomes
  • No Child Left Behind requires all schools to show
    Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) toward a
    proficiency goal.
  • Schools must determine measure(s) for AYP
    evaluation and the criterion for deeming an
    individual student proficient.
  • CBM can be used to fulfill the AYP evaluation in
    math.

151
How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data to
Accomplish Teacher and School Accountability for
Formulating Policy Directed at Improving School
Outcomes
  • Using Math CBM
  • Schools can assess students to identify the
    number of initial students who meet benchmarks
    (initial proficiency).
  • The discrepancy between initial proficiency and
    universal proficiency is calculated.

152
How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data to
Accomplish Teacher and School Accountability for
Formulating Policy Directed at Improving School
Outcomes
  • The discrepancy is divided by the number of years
    before the 20132014 deadline.
  • This calculation provides the number of
    additional students who must meet benchmarks each
    year.

153
How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data to
Accomplish Teacher and School Accountability for
Formulating Policy Directed at Improving School
Outcomes
  • Advantages of using CBM for AYP
  • Measures are simple and easy to administer.
  • Training is quick and reliable.
  • Entire student body can be measured efficiently
    and frequently.
  • Routine testing allows schools to track progress
    during school year.

154
How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data to
Accomplish Teacher and School Accountability for
Formulating Policy Directed at Improving School
Outcomes
Across-Year School Progress
155
How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data to
Accomplish Teacher and School Accountability for
Formulating Policy Directed at Improving School
Outcomes
Within-Year School Progress
(281)
156
How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data to
Accomplish Teacher and School Accountability for
Formulating Policy Directed at Improving School
Outcomes
Within-Year Teacher Progress
157
How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data to
Accomplish Teacher and School Accountability for
Formulating Policy Directed at Improving School
Outcomes
Within-Year Special Education Progress
158
How to Use Curriculum-Based Measurement Data to
Accomplish Teacher and School Accountability for
Formulating Policy Directed at Improving School
Outcomes
Within-Year Student Progress
159
How to Incorporate Decision-Making Frameworks to
Enhance General Educator Planning
  • CBM reports prepared by computer can provide the
    teacher with information about the class
  • Student CBM raw scores
  • Graphs of the low-, middle-, and high-performing
    students
  • CBM score averages
  • List of students who may need additional
    intervention

160
How to Incorporate Decision-Making Frameworks to
Enhance General Educator Planning
161
How to Incorporate Decision-Making Frameworks to
Enhance General Educator Planning
162
How to Incorporate Decision-Making Frameworks to
Enhance General Educator Planning
163
How to Use Progress Monitoring to Identify
Non-Responders Within a Response-to-Intervention
Framework to Identify Disability
  • Traditional assessment for identifying students
    with learning disabilities relies on intelligence
    and achievement tests.
  • Alternative framework is conceptualized as
    nonresponsiveness to otherwise effective
    instruction.
  • Dual-discrepancy
  • Student performs below level of classmates.
  • Students learning rate is below that of their
    classmates.

164
How to Use Progress Monitoring to Identify
Non-Responders Within a Response-to-Intervention
Framework to Identify Disability
  • All students do not achieve the same degree of
    math competence.
  • Just because math growth is low, the student
    doesnt automatically receive special education
    services.
  • If the learning rate is similar to that of the
    other students, the student is profiting from the
    regular education environment.

165
How to Use Progress Monitoring to Identify
Non-Responders Within a Response-to-Intervention
Framework to Identify Disability
  • If a low-performing student is not demonstrating
    growth where other students are thriving, special
    intervention should be considered.
  • Alternative instructional methods must be tested
    to address the mismatch between the students
    learning requirements and the requirements in a
    conventional instructional program.

166
Case Study 1 Alexis
167
Case Study 1 Alexis
168
Case Study 2 Darby Valley Elementary
  • Using CBM toward reading AYP
  • A total of 378 students.
  • Initial benchmarks were met by 125 students.
  • Discrepancy between universal proficiency and
    initial proficiency is 253 students.
  • Discrepancy of 253 students is divided by the
    number of years until 20132014
  • 253 11 23.
  • Twenty-three students need to meet CBM benchmarks
    each year to demonstrate AYP.

169
Case Study 2 Darby Valley Elementary
Across-Year School Progress
170
Case Study 2 Darby Valley Elementary

Within-Year School Progress
171
Case Study 2 Darby Valley Elementary
Ms. Main (Teacher)
172
Case Study 2 Darby Valley Elementary
Mrs. Hamilton (Teacher)
173
Case Study 2 Darby Valley Elementary
Special Education
174
Case Study 2 Darby Valley Elementary
Cynthia Davis (Student)
175
Case Study 2 Darby Valley Elementary
Dexter Wilson (Student)
176
Case Study 3 Mrs. Smith
177
Case Study 3 Mrs. Smith
178
Case Study 3 Mrs. Smith
179
Case Study 3 Mrs. Smith
180
Case Study 4 Marcus
181
Case Study 4 Marcus
182
Curriculum-Based Measurement Materials
  • AIMSweb/Edformation
  • Yearly ProgressProTM/McGraw-Hill
  • Monitoring Basic Skills Progress/ Pro-Ed, Inc.
  • Research Institute on Progress Monitoring,
    University of Minnesota (OSEP Funded)
  • Vanderbilt University

183
Curriculum-Based Measurement Resources
  • List on pages 3134 of materials packet
  • Appendix B of CBM manual
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