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AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

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Title: AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT


1
AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN PUNJAB REVIEW AND
FUTURE STRATEGY
2
Punjab A Profile
  • Area (geographical) 5.04 m ha
  • Net sown area 4.2 m ha
  • Total cropped area 7.9 m ha
  • Irrigated area 4.04 m ha(97.4)
  • Tubewells irrigated 2.92 m ha (73) through
    11.68 lakh tubewells
  • Canals irrigated 1.10 m ha (27)
  • Cropping intensity 189
  • Major Cropping Systems Rice-Wheat, Cotton-Wheat
    and
    Maize-Wheat

3
Punjab leads in
  • Punjab State with only 1.53 percent of
    Geographical area of the Country Produces about
  • 22 wheat,
  • 12 rice ,
  • 10 cotton,
  • 45 mushrooms,
  • 26 honey and
  • 10 milk.
  • It contributes 40-50 of rice and 50-70 of
    wheat to the central pool.
  • Highest per capita availability of milk 939 gms
    per day and second highest production of 91.67
    lac MT of milk.

4
CROPPING PATTERN 2007-08
Crop area as age of total cropped area
5
GROSS STATE DOMESTIC PRODUCT AT CONSTANT PRICES
(1999-2000)
(Rs. in Crores)
SECTOR SECTOR 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08
Primary (Agriculture) Primary (Agriculture) 27540.76 28004.18 29138.43 30368.19
Secondary Secondary 19085.71 21407.76 23609.06 26300.90
Tertiary Tertiary 34206.92 36317.35 38400.63 40509.58
share of Agriculture and Allied Sectors in GDP State 33.90 32.67 31.97 31.25
share of Agriculture and Allied Sectors in GDP National 20.2 19.6 18.5 -
6
BUDGET ALLOCATION TO AGRICULTURE AND ALLIED
SECTORS
Year Budget Allocation (Lac Rs.) Expenditure (Lac Rs.) age
2005-06 14268.28 6996.77 49.04
2006-07 13569.69 14299.32 105.38
2007-08 20793.76 17679.00 85.02
2008-09 27701.00 25176.00 90.88
Not only the allocation to the agriculture and
allied sectors has been increasing but the
expenditure is also increasing, indicating
thereby a renewed emphasis on development of this
sector.
7
PLAN ALLOCATION TO AGRICULTURE
Year Plan Outlay (Crore Rs.) Agri. Sector Outlay (Crore Rs.) age
2005-06 3550.00 142.68 4.02
2006-07 4000.00 135.70 3.39
2007-08 5111.00 200.08 3.91
2008-09 6210.00 242.49 3.90
8
FINANCIAL PROGRESS OF VARIOUS PROGRAMMES
S. N. Scheme 2008-09 (Rs. in crores) 2008-09 (Rs. in crores) 2008-09 (Rs. in crores) 2008-09 (Rs. in crores)
S. N. Scheme Unspent Balance Release during the year Total Expenditure
1 Macro Management Work Plan for Agriculture 1.17 17.50 18.67 12.78
2 Technology Mission on Cotton 1.1 - 1.1 -
3 National Horticulture Mission 23.46 17.53 40.99 29.42
4 Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil Palm and Maize (ISOPOM) 0.69 0.3094 0.9994 0.6552
5 Support to State Extension Programme for Extension 2.95 6.38 9.33 4.60
6 Micro Irrigation 1.96 5.05 7.01 5.30
7 Development and Strengthening of Infrastructure Facilities for Production and Distribution of Quality Seeds - 1.883 1.883 1.448
8 National Project on Soil Health Management and Fertility - 0.35 0.35 -
9 Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) 34.15 87.52 121.67 70.01
10 National Food Security Mission (NFSM) 8.78 42.69 51.47 37.61
9
OUTPUT AND OUTCOMES
10
COVERAGE OF ADDITIONAL AREA
(Area in )
S. N. Crop 1990-91 2000-01 2007-08
1 Paddy 26.9 32.9 33.4
2 Maize 2.5 2.1 2.0
3 Bajra 0.2 0.1 0.1
4 Wheat 43.6 42.9 44.6
5. Barley 0.5 0.4 0.2
5 KH. Pulses 1.0 0.5 0.2
6 Rabi Pulses 1.0 0.2 0.1
7 KH.Oilseeds 0.4 0.3 0.3
8 Rabi Oilseeds 1.1 0.8 0.5
9 Cotton 9.3 6.0 7.7
10 Sugarcane 1.3 1.5 1.4
11 Vegetables 0.7 1.4 1.0
12 Fruits 0.8 0.4 1.0
13 Others 10.3 10.0 7.5
Total 100.0 100.0 100.00
  • Little Scope for horizontal expansion
    of area under crops
  • Cropping Intensity increasing
  • Gross Cropped area 7.9 m.ha
  • Area under Wheat and Paddy increasing at
    the cost of other crops.

11
PRODUCTIVITY OF MAJOR CROPS
YEAR WHEAT (Kg./ha.) RICE (Kg./ha.) MAIZE (Kg./ha.) COTTON (Kg. Lint/ha.)
2005-06 4179 3858 2734 731
2006-07 4210 3868 3122 750
2007-08 4507 4019 3408 663
2008-09 4453 (E) 4020 3415 737
  • The productivity of major crops has started
    improving as a result of initiatives taken during
    last 3-4 years inspite of climatic
    aberrations.

12
IMPROVEMENT IN HORTICULTURAL PRODUCTION
Sr. No Crop 2006-07 2006-07 2007-08 2007-08 2008-09 2008-09
Sr. No Crop Area (000 ha) Prod. (MT) Area (000 ha) Prod. (MT) Area (000 ha) Prod. (MT)
1. Citrus 30.9 437.7 35.4 618.2 40.7 733.2
Guava 8.13 142.19 8.18 155.52 9.02 172.83
Mango 6.45 64.50 6.49 80.95 6.48 87.48
Others 11.76 186.18 11.50 200.73 10.34 177.24
Total Fruits 57.31 830.58 61.62 1055.41 66.58 1170.97
2. Potatoes 77.12 1313.42 79.01 1477.33 81.00 2005.97
Peas 18.13 108.97 18.45 110.98 19.00 114.45
Root Crops 15.60 285.13 15.53 283.15 15.05 274.75
Others 57.37 828.80 60.34 922.25 62.95 971.45
Total Vegetables 168.23 2536.32 173.34 2793.30 178.00 3366.62
3. Fresh Flowers 0.95 7.40 1.015 7.80 1.052 8.20
Flower Seed 0.55 0.035 0.61 0.039 0.645 0.05
Total Flowers 1.50 7.435 1.625 7.839 1.697 8.25
The area and production of fruits, vegetables and
flowers is increasing over the years.
13
NEW INITIATIVES IN FARM MECHANIZATION
AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE CENTRES
500 Planned 301 AMSC SET-UP
  • Each AMSC equipped with
  • Laser Land Leveler
  • Happy Seeder
  • Rotavator
  • Raised Bed Planter
  • Zero-till-drill and
  • Other implements

14
NEW INITIATIVES IN FARM MECHANIZATION
LASER ASSISTEDLAND LEVELERS
No. of Machines 650 Area Covered 10,000 ha
(2007-08)
  • Larger plot size and better water
  • use efficiency
  • Better crop stand and lesser weeds
  • Better nutrient use efficiency
  • Uniform water application

15
MINIMUM TILLAGE
NEW INITIATIVES IN FARM MECHANIZATION
  • Zero Till-Drills
  • Happy Seeder
  • Rotavator

ZERO TILL DRILL
Year No. of ZTD No. of Rotavators
2006-07 7700 650
2007-08 9883 2243
2008-09 10141 6419
Area 2008-09 7.22 lac ha.
16
DYNAMICS OF ZT DIFFUSION FOR WHEAT
Year 2007-08 ( 4,23,521 ha)
Year 2006-07 ( 4,00,889 ha)
Year 2004-05 (3,02, 801 ha)
Year 2002-03 ( 41,855 ha )
Tehsil wise area Under Zero Tillage (ha)
17
NEW INITIATIVES IN FARM MECHANIZATION
MECHANISATION OF PADDY TRANSPLANTING
  • 700 MACHINES BEING DISTRIBUTED
  • SUBSIDY _at_ 50 SUBJECT TO MAXIMUM OF RS.1.5
    LACS
  • SEVEN SUPPLIERS APPROVED

18
NEW INITIATIVES IN FARM MECHANIZATION
Aero Blast Sprayer
Self Propelled Sprayer
Power Weeder
Happy Seeder
Maize De-husker Thresher
Raised Bed Planter
Nursery Planter
Multi Crop Planter
19
IMPROVEMENT IN AVAILABILITY OF INPUTS
  • Increased Production of Certified Seed of rice
    and wheat
  • Rice 1.15 lac quintals produced in
    2008-09 as compared to 0.6 lac quintals during
    2004-05
  • Wheat 9.18 lac quintals produced in 2008-09
    as compared to 3.38 lac quintals during 2004-05
  • Better liaison with Seed suppliers of maize and
    Bt. Cotton more than 90 area under hybrids.
  • Arrangement of quality planting material for
    horticulture crops.
  • Markfed and PAIC notified as State handling
    agencies for fertilizers which distributed 60
    requirement of DAP and Urea
  • Distribution of micro nutrients for balanced
    nutrition and use of fertilizers based on soil
    test.
  • Soil Testing 2.98 lac samples analyzed during
    2007-08 in comparison to 2.06 lac during 2005-06.
  • Availability of quality inputs Better quality
    control

Input 2007-08 2007-08 2008-09 2008-09
Input No. of samples Failure (age) No. of samples Failure (age)
Seeds 2326 193 (12.5) 4253 131 (3.1)
Fertilizers 3524 53 (1.5) 3142 15 (0.47)
Pesticides 3913 168 (4.3) 3874 90 (2.32)
20
ADVANCES IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
  • Establishment of an Integrated Farmers Training
    Centre at village Abul Khurana
  • Village Cluster Approach for dissemination of
    Cotton Production Technology.
  • Three 4 days Agriculture and Farmer Development
    Workshops organized.
  • ATMAs established in all the 20 districts and
    SREPs prepared.
  • Market Led Extension by Punjab Mandi Board and
    Reuters through Reuters Market Light Service
  • Four massages per day regarding
  • weather
  • crop advisory
  • mandi up-date
  • main agriculture news
  • Farmer to farmer extension through FFS
  • Awareness campaign to popularize KCC launched and
    the response is encouraging.
  • Crop Specific Farmers Training Camps

21
DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE INFRASTRUCTURE
  • Five STLs equipped with AAS
  • New Seed Farm of 113 acres established at Sheron
    Bagha district Amritsar.
  • One Pesticide Residue Testing Lab being set-up at
    Jalandhar
  • 19 Cotton markets with quality testing labs
    constructed under TMC
  • Establishment of Five Citrus Estates
  • Multi-purpose fruit juicing plants at Hoshiarpur
    and Abohar.
  • Watershed Treatment Structures for Soil and Water
    Conservation.
  • Development of infrastructure to strengthen
    agricultural research

22
PREPARATION OF DISTRICT AGRICULTURAL PLANS
  • DAPs and SAP has been prepared based on a
    concept paper for rejuvenation of State
    Agriculture comprising of following
    interventions
  • Strengthening of Soil Testing Laboratories
  • Green Manuring
  • Improvement of Soil Health
  • Farmer Training Centers (FTC)
  • New Technological Interventions
  • Improvement in Marketing infrastructure
  • Strengthening of Citrus Estates
  • Promotion of Net House Technology
  • Promotion of Micro Irrigation
  • On-farm storage and Rain Water harvesting
  • Strengthening of Strategic Agricultural Research
  • Improvement in productivity and promotion of
    livestock sector

23
PROJECTED ANNUAL GROWTH RATES OF AGRICULTURE
SECTOR FOR 11th FYP
Sub-Sector 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 Overall 2007-08
Agriculture 3.52 5.87 5.20 4.98 5.20 4.96 3.58
Livestock 2.73 2.38 2.51 2.51 2.49 2.52 5.37
Forestry and Logging 3.57 4.92 3.41 3.76 4.18 3.97 0.69
Fishing 20.56 20.71 19.98 20.19 20.43 20.38 9.02
Mining and Quarrying 3.31 3.31 3.32 3.31 3.31 3.31 5.48
Total 3.45 4.91 4.51 4.37 4.50 4.35 4.22
The quick estimates of growth rate for 2007-08
indicate that achievement is likely to be more
than projected.
24
STRATEGY FOR BALANCE 11th PLAN PERIOD
25
KEY ISSUES IN PUNJAB AGRICULTURE
Decreasing quantity and quality of water
Declining arable land area and Soil health
Decreasing Farm Size and Diminishing
margins
Punjab Agriculture
Climate Change
Technology fatigue
Mounting Pressure of Globalization
26
STRATEGY FOR AGRI DEVELOPMENT
TO ACHIEVE RAPID, DIVERSIFIED AND SUSTAINABLE
GROWTH
  • Improve productivity of crops by upgrading the
    production technology and its effective
    dissemination
  • Market led intensification of Agriculture
  • Diversification to Horticulture and Livestock
    sector
  • Investments to expand marketing infrastructure
  • Efficient management of Natural Resources i.e.
    soil and water

27
CROP DEVELOPMENT Area and Productivity
  • Expansion of area under cultivation very
    limited scope
  • Improvement in Productivity possible
    only with major breakthrough in
    agricultural research
  • Emphasis on sustaining the achieved
    levels of productivity and to minimize the
    regional variations

Crop Potential Yield (T/ha.) State Average (T/ha.) Potential Exploited ()
Paddy 7.50 6.06 80.8
Wheat 5.30 4.50 84.9
Cotton 2.7 1.85 68.5
Maize 5.0 3.41 68.2
Crop 2009-10 2009-10 2009-10 2010-11 2010-11 2010-11 2011-12 2011-12 2011-12
Crop A Y P A Y P A Y P
Rice 27.25 4000 109.00 27.00 4050 109.50 26.75 4100 109.75
Wheat 35.00 4450 155.75 35.00 4500 157.50 35.00 4550 159.25
Cotton 5.75 725 24.50 6.00 750 26.50 6.25 775 28.50
Maize 1.50 3500 5.25 1.50 3750 5.60 1.50 4000 6.00
A Area in lac ha., Y yield in kg./ha, P
production lac tonnes (Cotton Lac bales)
28
HORTICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
S. No Intervention 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
1. Fruit Plantation (ha) 70000 75000 80000
2. Vegetable Cultivation (ha) 180000 190000 200000
3. Flower Cultivation (ha) 1800 1900 2000
4. Organic Farming (ha) 5000 6000 7000
5. Community Water Tank (no) 100 115 125
6. Post Harvest Management (Cold storage Grading/Processing unit,) (no) 10 15 20
7. Protected Cultivation (Green House, Net house Low tunneling Mulching) (ha) 200 250 300
29
EXTENSION MANAGEMENT
  • Integrated Training Facilities for 2 centres
    to be set-up Farming Systems Approach
  • Use of ICT implementation of AGRISNET project
  • Development of KVKs for showcasing latest
    technologies
  • Monthly Magazine Changi Kheti for all village
    panchayats
  • Strengthening of PAMETI for capacity building and
    Market Intelligence
  • Use of PACS for dissemination of information

INTEGRATED FARMERS TRAINING CENTRE
FODDER AREA
Fish Pond
Residential Block
Admn. Block
Farm Machinery Training Centre
Hostel Block
Cattle Shed
Soil Testing Lab. and Bee Keeping Training Block
Pathology Lab
Main Road
SITE PLAN
30
AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
  • 200 New Agricultural Machinery Service Centres
    (AMSCs) to be set-up
  • Strengthening of better performing AMSCs
  • Mechanization of Paddy Transplanting to be
    continued
  • Promotion of Happy Seeder for residue
    management
  • Mechanization of fodder harvesting and storage
  • Milking machines for dairy and BMCs for milk
    handling
  • Introduction of newly developed machines for
    horticulture
  • Mobile workshops for efficient operation and
    maintenance of agricultural machinery

31
SEED INFRASTRUCTURE AND AVAILABILITY
  • New Seed Farm of 1250 acres planned at village
    Rania and Bhadru in district Amritsar 410
    acres of land acquired
  • Seed Testing Laboratory for testing Bt seeds to
    be set-up at Faridkot
  • Sufficient seed for cotton and maize normally
    available as more than 85 of area is under
    private sector hybrids
  • Planning for SRR of major crops is as under

Crop Seed Replacement Rate Seed Replacement Rate Seed Replacement Rate Seed Replacement Rate
Crop 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
Paddy 22 25 27 30
Maize 99 99 99 99
Cotton 93 95 95 95
K. Pulses 26 28 30 30
Wheat 26 30 35 40
R. Oil Seed 27 28 30 32
Gram 9 12 15 15
Barley 26 28 30 33
32
VRR OF MAJOR CROPS
WHEAT WHEAT WHEAT WHEAT RICE RICE RICE RICE
Variety 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Variety 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09
PBW-343 92 87 79 PR-106 1.8 1.2 0.8
HD-2329 1 1 1 PR-108 2.5 2.8 1.6
HD-2687 1 1 - PR-111 11.9 8.9 11.5
PBW-373 1 1 1 PR-113 3.2 2.2 1.2
PBW-542 1 1 1 PR-114 6.2 4.7 4.6
PBW-502 2 7 14 PR-116 13.0 9.6 5.3
WL-711 1 1 1 PR-118 6.4 7.6 6.7
HD-2733 1 1 1 PUSA-44 37.8 37.5 26.1
HD-2851 - - 1 SARBATI 7.9 6.3 6.4
PBW-550 - - - HRK-47 1.2 6.9 9.2
DBW-17 - - - PAU-201 - 0.6 5.3
Others 1 1 1 PUSA-1121 - 1.7 6.6
BASMATI 4.6 5.5 5.8
Others 3.5 4.5 8.9
In case of wheat area under PBW-502, PBW-550 and
DBW-17 will increase and in case of rice area
under PAU-201 will increase in next two years.
33
INPUT AVAILABILITY
  • Normal consumption of fertilizers
  • 25 lac MT of Urea
  • 7.5 lac MT of DAP
  • 0.5 lac MT of NPK complexes
  • 0.6 lac MT of MOP
  • Constrained availability of Phosphatic
    fertilizers i.e. DAP and SSP during sowing of
    rabi crops.
  • Advance stocking of DAP with Markfed and PAIC
    to ensure smooth availability.
  • No shortage of pesticides experienced in the
    past

34
AGRICULTURE INFRASTRUCTURE
  • Up-gradation of 20 STLs under NPMSHF
  • Five lac Soil Health Cards to be issued annually
  • One new Pesticide Testing Lab planned at Ropar
  • Strengthening of Quality Control Labs 2
    Fertilizer and
    3 Pesticides Testing
    Labs

GLC
ICP
35
MARKETING AND PROCESSING INFRASTRUCTURE
  • Amendment of APMC Act to provide for Direct
    Marketing, Contract Farming and establishment of
    Private Markets.
  • MACP for strengthening of marketing
    infrastructure
  • Bulk Handling/ Storage of Wheat and Paddy
  • The facilities like Modern Pack Houses for
    Fruits, Vegetable Baby Corn and Ripening
    Chambers, Cold Rooms, Reconditioning Area at 12
    Markets
  • Infrastructure Centers for Collection, Sorting,
    Grading Packaging of High Value Crops i.e.
    Grading Lines Pack House for F V in 8 Markets
  • Maize Dryers for drying of Maize in three markets

36
DRYING IN EXISTING MAIZE MARKET
37
Time trend of 20 years mean weekly water deficit
at Ludhiana
NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Transplant Paddy after 15th June, then net
recharge and net draft balance each other in case
rainfall is normal (648 mm)
DEPLETION IN WATER LEVEL (CM)
ALTERATION IN CROP CALENDER
38
NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
  • THE PUNJAB PRESERVATION OF SUB-SOIL WATER ACT,
    2009 provides for
  • No sowing of nursery before 10th May
  • Nursery not to be transplanted before a date to
    be notified by the State.
  • In case of violation, nursery or transplanted
    paddy to be destroyed at the expenses of the
    farmer.
  • Major Benefits
  • Conservation of irrigation water
  • Saving in electricity and diesel in case of
    ground water irrigation
  • Lower investment in installation of
    tubewells/change of pump-sets

39
NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
Retention of crop residues and green manuring
for soil health improvement
40
NATIONAL WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME FOR
RAINFED AREAS
jj
  • Enhancement of agricultural productivity in a
    sustainable manner.
  • Restoration of ecological balance in the degraded
    and fragile rainfed eco-systems by greening these
    areas.
  • Reduction in regional disparity between irrigated
    and rainfed areas.
  • Creation of sustained employment opportunities
    for the rural poor.
  • Rainwater management programme to check soil
    erosion, recharge groundwater and create
    irrigation potential to provide life saving
    irrigation in rainfed area.
  • Improvement of land capability and moisture
    regime in the watershed.

SUBWATERSHEDS OF KANDI BELT
Year
Area to be treated (ha.)
41
ADVANCEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL CREDIT
  • Commercial Banks with 2688 branches
  • 3 RRBs with 211 branches
  • One SCB with 18 DCCBs with 800 branches
  • 87 PADBs with PSCADB at apex level and 3996 PACS

SECTOR-WISE PLP PROJECTION 2008-09
ADVANCES TO AGRICULTURE SECTOR (Rs. in Crores) ADVANCES TO AGRICULTURE SECTOR (Rs. in Crores) ADVANCES TO AGRICULTURE SECTOR (Rs. in Crores) ADVANCES TO AGRICULTURE SECTOR (Rs. in Crores)
Year Co-op. Banks Comm. Banks and RRBs Total
2006-07 5002.05 14179.57 19181.62
2007-08 5980.38 14737.29 20717.67
2008-09 (Tentative) 6109.62 17103.38 23213.00
2009-10 7255.00 18745.00 26000.00
2010-11 8335.00 21665.00 30000.00
Projected Projected Projected Projected
Other Priority Sector
Agri-Crop Loan
Non-Form Sector
Term Loan
42
KISAN CREDIT CARD
S. N. Banks Sanctioned up to 31-12-2008 Sanctioned up to 31-12-2008 Disbursed Disbursed
S. N. Banks Number Amount Number Amount
1 Commercial Banks 1127183 1157027 1010896 1058260
2 Regional Rural Banks 120593 118453 120593 116530
3 Co-operative Banks 892622 546350 858765 471878
Total 2140398 1821830 1987254 1646668
  • For better customer service KCC should be ATM
    enabled.
  • Drawl and repayments are still seasonal,
    flexibility not being exploited.
  • Not accessible to oral lessees and tenants
    farmers.
  • Duplication and inoperativeness on the
    increase.

43
OUTCOME
  • The estimated growth rates as per SAP are likely
    to be
  • 3 in Crop sector (present 2.5)
  • 6-8 in Dairy Sector (present 4.14)
  • 15 in Fisheries (present gt 10)

CONSEQUENTLYAgriculture Sector is likely to grow
at 4.5 during the 11TH FYP against 2.51 during
10TH FYP
44
MAJOR ISSUES
  • Inclusion of State in NFSM-Rice.
  • Procurement of Rice Variety PAU-201.
  • Timely and Adequate availability of Phosphatic
    Fertilizers
  • Revision of Unit Cost for Micro-Irrigation and
    NHM.
  • Review of assistance for strengthening of STLs.
  • Powers to sanction of schemes/projects under NHM
    to the state.
  • Increase in incentive to promote Hybrids.
  • Uniform rates of subsidy under different schemes.

45
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