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ICT and school development -


To study the mechanisms of school development using ICT ... Deals with; How to organize your time. ICT both takes time and creates efficiency ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ICT and school development -

ICT and school development - the Norwegian PILOT
Ola Erstad, Research Director, Network for
IT-research and Competence in Education, (ITU),
University of Oslo, www.itu.no
Frame of reference
  • Major ICT-initiatives in many countries, but what
    are the consequences?
  • ICT creates new challenges for education and
  • The relationship between institutional and
  • pedagogical practices

I. Technology and Education
  • II. ICT in Norwegian education
  • III. The PILOT project
  • Implications
  • The ABCs of ICT
  • New program - new possibilities

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Conceptualizing ICT and Education
  • Jfr. Larry Cuban, Teachers and machines-the
    classroom use of technology since 1920 (1986)
  • New theoretical framework on learning
  • ICT as a cultural artifact (Säljö 2000)
  • Communities of practice (Wenger 1998)
  • Scaffolding (Bransford, Brown Cocking 2000)
  • Multiliteracies (Cope Kalantzis 2000)
  • Designing learning environments (Jonassen Land
  • In a society where knowledge is the most
    important resource, learning is the most
    important process!

Mechanisms that hinder
  • change to enter the school culture
  • Moral resistence. Sceptical of technology.
  • change to develop in schools
  • Confusing objectives of schooling. Change is not
    rewarded, no incentives. The control function of
    the teacher.
  • change to spread in schools
  • Communication channels not working. A
    hierarchical system. Not equal access to

Making learning meaningful and relevant
  • The things you learn in school are to do with
    education and to get jobs. Youre not really
    using them in actual real life. (18-year old,
    Bentley 1998)
  • I guess I could call myself smart. I mean I can
    usually get good grades. Sometimes I worry
    though, that Im not equipped to achieve what I
    want, that Im just a tape recorder repeating
    back what Ive heard. I worry that once Im out
    of school and people dont keep handling me
    information with questions Ill be lost.
    (15-year old, Bentley 1998)

Mixed signals creates uncertainty!
II. ICT in Norwegian education
I. Technology and Education
  • III. The PILOT project
  • Implications
  • The ABCs of ICT
  • New program - new possibilities

National Action Plans
  • Before 1996
  • First Plan, 1996 - 1999
  • Focusing on implementation
  • Innovation or tradition (Erstad 1999)
  • Second Plan, 2000 - 2003
  • From IT to ICT
  • Focusing on infrastructure, pedagogical use and
    teacher competence (LærerIKT)
  • Program for digital competence, 2004 - 2008

Access to computers and networks (ITU-monitor
  • Variation between levels. Access
  • 3 students per computer, upper secondary level
  • 6 students per computer, lower secondary level
  • 9 students per computer, primary level
  • Broadband access improving. Especially on upper
    secondary level. Still 65 of teachers think it
    is too slow.
  • A majority of computers are still in computer
    rooms, especially on upper secondary level.
  • But not used in learning activities. Teachers use
    ICT mainly for planning and follow-up work.

Status - ICT i Norwegian education 2000
  • A few enthusiastic teachers working with IT.
  • Many small-scale activities (one teacher - one
    class) Upscaling?
  • Teacher training without strategy.
  • Focus on technology, less on pedagogy.
  • Gender differences
  • More use of ICT outside the school than in school
    by students, and more advanced use.
  • The starting point for the PILOT project!

III. The PILOT project
  1. Technology and Education
  2. ICT in Norwegian education
  1. Implications
  2. The ABCs of ICT
  3. New program - new possibilities

Project Innovation in Learning, Organization and
  • Initiated by the Ministry of Education together
    with the Learning centre.
  • 2000 - 2003
  • 120 schools
  • 9 regions in Norway
  • 6 research communitites (about 20 people),
    organized by ITU
  • Action research survey (before-after)

For whom is it innovative?
  • Hello! I am a student at a pretty normal school.
    We have a lot of computers and some other
    equipment We also have study time. We are part
    of the PILOT project Study time means that we
    have to sit with a bunch of assignments to work
    on. This is called innovative by the teachers. I
    call it old fashioned. It is just the same as it
    was in primary school, we almost never get time
    to work on the computer, it is just working with
    books and not directed towards the future. You
    have to do something about this! Best regards

  • To study the mechanisms of school development
    using ICT
  • To analyze productive interaction in learning
    activities using ICT
  • District perspective

Questionnaire before - after
  • Tracking change
  • Spring 2001 - spring 2003
  • 9. grade Secondary level (second year)
  • Students, n1993
  • Teachers, n516
  • Principals, n60
  • Control schools

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Compared PILOT and control students
  • PILOT-students use ICT significantly more often
    for educational purposes, at the end of the
    project than in the beginning, while control
    students significantly more often use ICT for
    entertainment purposes
  • PILOT students use ICT significantly more often
    in all subjects
  • PILOT students answer that they more often use
    advanced forms of ICT, while control students
    answer that they more often use ICT to send
  • Compared with the control students the PILOT
    students experience that their school day has
    changed more in the last couple of years, and in
    a more positive direction and more future oriented

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Using ICT correlated with what the students
report that the computers have had of
consequences concerning own learning
Using ICT often
Do not use ICT
  • Do not use ICT for educational work
  • Do not use ICT for e-mail
  • Use ICT a lot for e-mail
  • Use ICT a lot for entertainment
  • Do not use ICT for entertainment
  • Using ICT has to a large extent improved my
    performance in subjects
  • Using ICT has not improved my performance in
  • Do not use ICT for advanced purposes
  • Use ICT a lot for advanced purposes
  • Using ICT has to a large extent improved the
    social climate at my school
  • Using ICT has not improved the social climate at
    my school
  • Use ICT a lot for educational work
  • Experience that ICT is positive for students in
  • Experience that ICT is negative for students in
  • Using ICT has to some extent improved my
    performance in subjects
  • Using ICT has to a lesser extent improved my
    performance in subjects

Using ICT has to some extent improved the social
climate at my school
  • Using ICT has to a lesser extent improved the
    social climate at my school
  • Use ICT a bit for e-mail
  • Use ICT some for educational work
  • Use ICT a bit for advanced purposes
  • Use ICT some for entertainment
  • Use ICT a bit for entertainment
  • Use ICT some for advanced purposes
  • Use ICT a bit for educational work
  • Use ICT some for e-mail

Not using ICT very often
Using ICT some times
Expectations towards the PILOT project - teachers
- compared to organization of the school day
Not realized
Realized to a large extent
  • Expactations towards communication
  • Expactations towards communication
  • Expactations towards access and contact
  • More resources are given to teachers competence
  • Expactations towards the students learning
  • Steps are taken for more teacher collaboration
  • Expactations towards the students learning

There has been no changes in the organization of
the school day
  • Adjustments are made to work more problem and
    project based

The school has made reorganization of rooms
  • Expactations towards access and contact

More flexibility for school hours have been made
for students
The function of the school library has changed
Few changes in the organization of the school day
has been made
  • Expactations towards the students learning

Some changes in the organization of the school
day has been made
  • Expactations towards access and contact
  • Expactations towards communication
  • Expactations towards communication
  • Expactations towards access and contact
  • Expactations towards the students learning

Realized to some extent
Realized to a lesser extent
The qualitative part of the study
Qualitative research
  • Three levels, units of analysis
  • Level 1 School culture
  • Level 2 Relational processes
  • Level 3 Subject oriented learning activities
  • Regional differences
  • http//pilot.ls.no

Level 1 School culture
  • Change takes time. Some schools suceed better
    than others.
  • A gap between intentions and praxis. Strategies.
  • Why some succeed
  • They have a clear educational vision for using
  • They have state of readiness for change and
    implement new projects
  • They have a leadership that communicates its
  • They have teachers that feel more comfortable
    about how to handle change.
  • Technology that works.
  • Manages to focus on something they are good at!

ICT as catalyst for change
  • My students learned much more before these new
    technologies were introduced. I had long
    experience with teaching and know what works. New
    teaching methods create chaos. (Teacher, 2000)
  • The PILOT-project is finished, but I feel we are
    not yet there. We have digged into our roots.
    What has become much clearer is the attitudes of
    different teachers towards the school and about
    learning. Here we have started
  • a debate. There have been some small
  • conflicts because of this. Using different
  • concepts creates confusion.
  • (Teacher, same school, 2003)

A culture for collaboration and change - teacher
  • The leadership at the school and the teachers
    are open and positive for using ICT, and we have
    had a democratic debate about this. In this way
    it has become an objective for the whole school
    and among the teachers there are none that are
    against focusing on ICT and we support each
    other. (principal, MøreRomsdal)
  • It is very important with colleagues who feel
    strongly for an idea. They have focused on
    organisation and they have put ICT in the centre.
    These teachers have initiated a blooming period
    due to their projects, the results they have
    reached and related to a positive learning
    outcome. We have to continue. (principal,

Information flow
  • It is only after we joined PILOT that I
    understand what they are working on in the
    subjects of English and German at this school.
    That is quite amazing. And think - I have been a
    teacher at this school for more than ten years!
    (Teacher, upper secondary level, 2001)

Level 2 Relational processes and learning
  • Changing teacher and student roles
  • Changing learning environments
  • Collaboration within classrooms, within school
    and between schools.
  • Communities of Learning - Project North

Division (split) among teachers
PILOT has created negative consequences
internally in the community of teachers because
some teachers have huge problems in managing
using ICT. We have sort of two parts of the
teacher community, those who can master the
machines in a resonable way and those who cannot
It is a soar feeling among some and I think they
feel more unsuccessful after the project than
before. (Teacher, Agder)
The students communicating with the teacher
We get a very good way of relating to the
teacher, because in biology the teacher put
assigments on the Net, which we go into and get,
and then we answer the assigments and receive
answer if it is right, which we receive back. It
is a huge asset with PC because we get better
communication with the teacher like this. It is
not all students who like to raise their hands in
the classroom and ask about something, then they
can just send him an e-mail. (Student, Agder)
Student participation
  • Student They say responsibility for own
    learning, but I am not sure if that is correct.
  • Interviewer What do they mean then?
  • Student I dont know, and I am not sure if they
    know themselves. In one instance it is
    responsibility for own learning, and in the
    next it is attendance register and follow up of
    home work. I dont know how much responsibility
    for own learning that is. It is just like
    before. You get a mark if you have not done your
    homework. The thing with responsibility for own
    learning is just nonsense. (Student, Agder)

Communities of learning
  • Dialogue conferences
  • To be able to look at yourself at a distance
    makes it clearer what you are actually doing.
    When you at the same time get comments, questions
    and ideas from others in the same situation, it
    forces you to reflect on your own everyday
    experiences in the classroom, and through that
    process you get more conscious about what, why
    and how. (Teacher, small school Troms)

Level 3 ICT in educational practice
  • Deals with
  • How to organize your time. ICT both takes time
    and creates efficiency
  • What teachers and students actually use ICT for
    in educational practice?
  • What with ICT are they using? Multimedia
  • Which consequences does it have?
  • The connection between methods, activities and
  • How understanding subject domains change.
  • Digital literacy.

Difficult to break traditions
  • Student 1 And many teachers are not so good in
    using PC, so the teaching does not relate to
  • Student 2 They continue with the traditional
    methods even though
  • Interviewer What do you mean with traditional
  • Student 2 Using the blackboard and
  • Interviewer Can you describe a typical
    traditional teaching?
  • Student 2 When the teacher enters he says close
    all the computers and get your note-books. Writes
    everything on the blackboard. Write assigments
    with pen and pencil.
  • Student 1 Our teacher in religion is about 70
    years old. She does not know much about using the
  • (Students, Agder)

Changing knowledge and knowledge domains
  • I am very sceptical to that kind of experiments
    in xxx where the students ask the computer to
    solve equation of the second degree. They do not
    do the operations themselves We are standing in
    front of one of the major choices in the history
    of schooling. If we should teach the students to
    calculate roots and everything, or we should use
    the computer. The last option I imagine for
    students who will not study mathematics later on.
    It is a revolution in mathematics. All equations
    can be solved, so what we spend most time on now
    is gone. That is a revolution. (Teacher, Agder)

Digital portfolios
  • I experienced that this created a whole new
    situation for the traditional parents-conference,
    where the teacher is the active part and student
    and parents often become passive listeners. Now
    it was the student who started the whole
    situation by presenting his work and start a
    conversation based on this presentation. I
    experienced that it became a much more natural
    communication between equal partners. The parents
    became very impressed of what they were shown.
    The conversation flowed much easier and we could
    really sit much longer than the 45 minutes.
    (Teacher, Hedmark)

  1. Technology and Education
  2. ICT in Norwegian education
  3. The PILOT project

IV. Implications
  1. The ABCs of ICT
  2. New program - new possibilities

School level
  • Schools that work systematically on different
    areas, with organizational framework, flexible
    methods and focus on learning, succeed best with
    educational use of ICT. To implement ICT without
    a holistic organisation framework can easily
    create internal problems. ICT becomes an add on.
    Expansive learning (Engeström).
  • Not only the good that get better
  • School networks and teambuilding is important
    using ICT, especially for small schools in rural
  • We need to study the complexity of school
    development with ICT
  • We have to plan for transitions and change over

Typology of schools
  • Need to know more about the link between how
    schools work as institutions and developments in
    pedagogical practices using ICT
  • School leaders are important
  • Still a challenge that teachers can decide not to
    use ICT! The school is the only institution in
    society where you are allowed to do that. A
    challenge for school leaders!
  • Huge differences between schools, in many
    respects. New digital divides.
  • Lack of good digital learning resources

  1. Technology and Education
  2. ICT in Norwegian education
  3. The PILOT project
  4. Implications

VI. New program - new possibilities
What is it?
  • The ABCs of ICT is a national school
    development project intended to help schools in
    Norway to develop an approved ICT strategic plan
    and is aimed at school administrators who want
    their schools to develop positively with the aid
    of ICT.
  • The ABCs of ICT provides a practical
    introduction to how ICT can be used pedagogically
    and in the organisation. It consists of a
    guidance pack based on ITUs results and
    experience from five years RD work. The pack
    also includes a number of meetings and seminars,
    as well as ongoing follow-up and evaluations.
    Through an informative process, experienced
    advisers help participants to develop their own
    ICT strategic plans. Participants enhance their
    leadership skills dealing with ICT in their own

Five strategic areas
Educational use of ICT
Teachers competence development
Students use of ICT
Organizing and arranging
Infrastructure and software
IV. New program - new possibilities
  1. Technology and Education
  2. ICT in Norwegian education
  3. The PILOT project
  4. Implications
  5. The ABCs of ICT

Program for Digital competence
  • The status of ICT in Norwegian education. Where
    are we now?
  • New program, from 2004 to 2008.
  • Working on four main areas
  • Infrastructure.
  • Competence.
  • Digital learning resources.
  • Research and developments.

Digital competence/literacy
  • Young people gain their digital
    competence/literacy from outside the school.
  • Four dimensions
  • ICT skills
  • Changing subject domains. What kind of knowledge?
  • Meta-cognitive abilities. Learning strategies.
  • Cultural competence. Digital Bildung.

Mission impossible?
  • From the traditional to the innovative, what does
    it mean?
  • The education system is hard to change. There are
    no easy ways.
  • Need to combine organizational development with
    developments in educational practice, where ICT
    is one of several mechanisms.
  • The digital divide?
  • Cyberspace is not far away, and something the
    young generation actively interact with
  • --------------------------------------- gt

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