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Chocolate Food of the Gods


... attended school only through the fourth grade before his father, Henry Hershey, ... It's been that way since Milton Hershey developed the recipe in 1900. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chocolate Food of the Gods

Chocolate Food of the Gods
  • Ms. Hoffman
  • Mr. Ross-Ibarra
  • September 20, 2004

This presentation was modified from the Hersheys
website www.
History of Chocolate
  • Chocolate begins with a bean ... a cacao bean. It
    has been mashed and eaten for centuries. The
    history of chocolate spans from 200 B.C. to the
    present, encompassing many nations and peoples of
    our world.
  • The scientific name of the cacao tree's fruit is
    "Theobroma Cacao" which means "food of the gods."
    In fact, the cacao bean was worshipped as an idol
    by the Mayan Indians over 2,000 years ago. In
    1519, Hernando Cortez tasted "Cacahuatt," a drink
    enjoyed by Montezuma II, the last Aztec emperor.
    Cortez observed that the Aztecs treated cacao
    beans, used to make the drink, as priceless
    treasures. He subsequently brought the beans back
    to Spain where the chocolate drink was made and
    then heated with added sweeteners. Its formula
    was kept a secret to be enjoyed by nobility.
    Eventually, the secret was revealed and the
    drink's fame spread to other lands.

History of Chocolate
  • By the mid-1600s, the chocolate drink had gained
    widespread popularity in France. One enterprising
    Frenchman opened the first hot chocolate shop in
    London. By the 1700s, chocolate houses were as
    prominent as coffee houses in England.
  • The New World's first chocolate factory opened in
    1765 in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Sixty years
    later, Conrad Van Houten, a Dutch chemist,
    invented a cocoa press that enabled confectioners
    to make chocolate candy by mixing cocoa butter
    with finely ground sugar.
  • In 1876, Daniel Peter, a Swiss candymaker,
    developed milk chocolate by adding condensed milk
    to chocolate liquor - the nonalcoholic by-product
    of the cocoa bean's inner meat. The Swiss also
    gave the chocolate a smoother texture through a
    process called "conching." The name was derived
    from a Greek term meaning "sea shell" and refered
    to the shape of old mixing vats where particles
    in the chocolate mixture were reduced to a fine

(No Transcript)
Milton Hershey
Milton Hershey established the Hershey Chocolate
Company in 1894, manufacturing and selling
Hershey's cocoa, Hershey's baking chocolate and
Hershey's sweet chocolate (known today as dark or
semi-sweet chocolate). Hershey was called the
"Henry Ford" of chocolate because he mass
produced a quality chocolate bar at a price
everyone could afford.
Milton Hershey
  • The food products that bear Milton S. Hershey's
    name represent an ongoing dedication to quality
    and value -- a commitment established by Hershey
    Foods' unique founder.
  • In the early 1900s, Milton Hershey made one of
    the great American fortunes through dogged
    persistence and the courage to pursue a dream.
    Though he was modest and unassuming in
    appearance, Mr. Hershey was a shrewd and
    determined businessman. He had a genius for
    timing and an instinctive ability to choose loyal
    and able people to help him.
  • The early years of Milton Hershey instilled in
    him the value of hard work. He was born on
    September 13, 1857, in a farmhouse near the
    Central Pennsylvania village of Derry Church. He
    was a descendant of people who had come to
    Pennsylvania from Switzerland and Germany in the
    1700s. Raised as a Mennonite, he attended school
    only through the fourth grade before his father,
    Henry Hershey, put him to work as a printer's
    apprentice in Gap, PA.

Knowledge and Foresight
  • Mr. Hershey became fascinated with German
    chocolate-making machinery on exhibit at the
    Chicago International Exposition in 1893. He
    bought the equipment for his Lancaster plant and
    soon began producing his own chocolate coatings
    for caramels.
  • In early 1894, the Hershey Chocolate Company was
    born as a subsidiary of his Lancaster caramel
    business. In addition to chocolate coatings, Mr.
    Hershey made breakfast cocoa, sweet chocolate and
    baking chocolate.
  • In 1900, Mr. Hershey sold the Lancaster Caramel
    Company for 1 million. However, he retained the
    chocolate manufacturing equipment and the rights
    to manufacture chocolate, believing a large
    market existed for affordable confections that
    could be mass produced. He proceeded to prove his

Knowledge and Foresight
  • He returned to his birthplace, Derry Church, and
    located his chocolate manufacturing operation in
    the heart of Pennsylvania's dairy country, where
    he could obtain the large supplies of fresh milk
    needed to make fine milk chocolate. In 1903, with
    the money he received for his caramel business,
    he began to build what is now the world's largest
    chocolate manufacturing plant. It opened in 1905,
    and Mr. Hershey's great contribution to the
    American food industry had begun -- the mass
    production of milk chocolate. Milton Hershey's
    employees were manufacturing and selling products
    which would become American traditions.
  • The chocolate business continued to thrive under
    Mr. Hershey's guidance, as did the community he
    established around it. A bank, department store,
    school, park, churches, golf courses, zoo, and
    even a trolley system (to bring in workers from
    nearby towns) were all built in rapid succession.
    Although the town was well established by its
    10th anniversary in 1913, Mr. Hershey started a
    second building boom in the 1930s. During the
    Depression, he kept men at work constructing a
    grand hotel, a community building, a sports
    arena, and a new office building for the
    chocolate factory.

Hershey's Virtual Tour
  • Welcome to Hershey, Pennsylvania, home of the
    world's largest chocolate factory. This is where
    Hershey makes its famous chocolate, but it really
    starts in the tropics.

Born in the Jungle
  • All around the world, from Brazil to Indonesia to
    the Ivory Coast and Ghana, deep in the tropical
    jungle there grows a very special tree…the cacao
  • Cacao trees grow melon-like fruit, which is
    harvested by hand. Inside each pod are about
    20-40 seeds, or cocoa beans. It's these beans
    that give chocolate its special flavor.
  • After the beans are removed from the pods, they
    are placed in large heaps or piles. This is
    called fermentation, and takes about a week.
    During this time, the shells harden, the beans
    darken, and the rich cocoa flavor develops. After
    drying, the beans are ready for transport to the
    chocolate factory.

Liquid Chocolate
  • Railroad cars carry the cocoa beans from the
    docks to the chocolate factory where they are
    cleaned and stored.
  • Cocoa beans from different countries each have a
    distinct flavor. After arriving at the factory,
    the beans are stored by country of origin until
    they are blended to give them that special
    Hershey taste.
  • Cocoa beans are roasted in large, revolving
    roasters at very high temperatures.
  • A special hulling machine then takes the dry,
    roasted cocoa beans and separates the shell from
    the inside of the bean - called the "nib." This
    is the part of the bean actually used to make
  • The nibs now are ready for milling. Milling is a
    grinding process which turns the nibs into a
    liquid called chocolate liquor - a smooth, dark
    stream of pure chocolate flavor which, by the
    way, contains no alcohol. Now it is ready for the
    rest of the ingredients!

Mixing it Up
  • The main ingredients in chocolate are the
    chocolate liquor, cocoa butter, sugar and milk.
  • Hershey uses fresh, whole milk to make its milk
    chocolate. It's been that way since Milton
    Hershey developed the recipe in 1900. Tanker
    trucks bring the fresh milk to the factory every
    day where it is tested, pasteurized, and then
    mixed with sugar. The whole milk-sugar mixture is
    slowly dried until it turns into a thick,
    taffy-like material.
  • At the heart of the chocolate factory is the
    central blending operation where the chocolate
    liquor is combined with the milk and sugar. This
    new mixture is dried into a coarse, brown powder
    called chocolate crumb.

Perfecting the Product
  • The chocolate crumb powder is used to make milk
    chocolate. Hershey adds cocoa butter to the crumb
    which brings out the rich taste and creamy
    texture of the chocolate. The crumb travels
    through special steel rollers which grind and
    refine the mixture, making it smoother.
  • The crumb becomes a thick liquid called chocolate
    paste. The paste is poured into huge vats called
    conches. Once inside the conche, large granite
    rollers smooth out the gritty particles from the
    crumb. This process can take anywhere from 24 to
    72 hours to complete.
  • Now the chocolate paste has the smooth, familiar
    look of milk chocolate and it's ready to be made
    into our favorite Hershey's products. The paste
    is tempered, or cooled in a controlled manner to
    the right texture and consistency. Other
    ingredients, like almonds or peanuts, can be
    mixed into the paste during tempering or added
    directly to the moulds.

Perfecting the Product
Chocolate Bars and Hershey's Kisses
  • Most chocolate bars are made by pouring the
    liquid chocolate paste into moulds. The moulding
    machines can fill more than 1,000 moulds per
    minute with delicious Hershey's chocolate. The
    filled moulds then take a bumpy, vibrating ride
    to remove air bubbles and allow the chocolate to
    settle evenly. Finally, they wind their way
    through a long cooling tunnel where the liquid
    chocolate is gently chilled into a solid candy
  • Now it's ready to wrap… fresh, delicious,
    Hershey's chocolate.
  • While a lot of Hershey's chocolate products are
    poured into moulds, Hershey's Kisses are made a
    little differently. Special machines drop a
    precise amount of chocolate onto a moving steel
    belt and then quickly cool it to form the famous
    Hershey's Kiss shape. Hershey makes more than 80
    million Kiss-shaped products every day at its
    chocolate factories in Hershey and California.

Fresh From the Factory
  • As America's leading chocolate manufacturer,
    Hershey produces more than a billion pounds of
    chocolate products each year.
  • A sophisticated, computerized distribution system
    makes sure that fresh products arrive at retail
    outlets across the country.
  • Although the name Hershey means "chocolate" to
    most people, Hershey produces a lot of other
    famous products like Reese's peanut butter cups,
    York peppermint patties, Mounds and Almond Joy,
    Twizzlers, Payday, and Jolly Rancher. They are
    all part of the growing family of chocolate and
    candy products produced and distributed by
  • Thanks for visiting the world's largest chocolate
    factory. Come visit us if you can here in
    Chocolate Town USA. So long!

(No Transcript)
  • Profile of Hershey Foods Corporation Hershey
    Foods Corporation is the leading North American
    manufacturer of quality chocolate and
    non-chocolate confectionery and chocolate-related
    grocery products, and has a variety of
    international operations. Principal brands
    include Almond Joy and Mounds candy bars,
    Cadbury Creme Eggs candy, Hershey's Cookies 'n'
    Creme candy bar, Hershey's milk chocolate and
    milk chocolate with almonds bars, Hershey's
    Nuggets chocolates, Hershey's Kisses and
    Hershey's Hugs chocolates, Jolly Rancher candy,
    Kit Kat wafer bar, Milk Duds candy, PayDay peanut
    caramel bar, Reese's crunchy cookie cups, Reese's
    NutRageous candy bar, Reese's peanut butter cups,
    Sweet Escapes candy bars, TasteTations candy,
    Twizzlers candy, Whoppers malted milk balls, and
    York peppermint patties. Grocery products include
    Hershey's baking chocolate, Hershey's chocolate
    drink, Hershey's chocolate milk mix, Hershey's
    Chocolate Shoppe ice cream toppings, Hershey's
    cocoa, Hershey's syrup, Hershey's Hot Cocoa
    Collection hot cocoa mix, Reese's peanut butter,
    and Hershey's, Reese's and Heath baking pieces.
  • Internationally, the company exports Hershey's
    branded confectionery and grocery products to
    over 90 countries worldwide.
  • Operations of Hershey Foods Corporation are
    concentrated in two divisions
  • Hershey Chocolate North America is the nation's
    leading domestic producer of chocolate and
    non-chocolate confectionery products, as well as
    chocolate-related grocery products.
  • Hershey International oversees the corporation's
    international interests and exports to over 90
    countries worldwide

Myths and Truths about Candy
  • MYTHCandy contributes to a large percentage of
    the fat and sugar in the American diet.
  • TRUTHIn fact, less than two percent of the fat
    and ten percent of the sugar in our diets are
    supplied by candy. Most of the fat actually comes
    from the high-fat animal products we eat. The
    main sources of sugar in America's diets are
    sugary beverages, baked goods and frozen
  • MYTHFoods high in saturated fats raise
    cholesterol levels.
  • TRUTHContrary to popular belief, not all types
    of saturated fats raise blood cholesterol levels.
    Stearic acid, the primary saturated fatty acid
    found in chocolate, has been shown to have a
    neutral effect on blood cholesterol levels.

Myths and Truths about Candy
  • MYTHAn ounce of milk chocolate contains about as
    much caffeine as a cup of coffee.
  • TRUTHActually, a one-ounce piece of milk
    chocolate contains about the same amount of
    caffeine as a cup of decaffeinated coffee. There
    is an average of 6 mg. of caffeine in both an
    ounce of milk chocolate and a cup of decaf, while
    a cup of regular coffee contains between 150 and
    655 mg. of caffeine._
  • MYTHThe sugar in candy causes hyperactivity in
  • TRUTHSugar does not cause hyperactivity in
    children, despite wide-spread belief to the
    contrary. Recent studies conducted at Vanderbilt
    University and the University of Iowa College of
    Medicine found no evidence that sugar has an
    adverse effect on children's behavior._
  • MYTHCandies like jelly beans, gum drops or hard
    candies are high in calories.
  • TRUTHNot at all. One butterscotch disc has only
    20 calories. Eight gum drops or eight jelly beans
    (the equivalent of one ounce) contain 115
    calories. Even better, most of these candies are
    fat- and cholesterol-free, making them a
    healthier treat than many people realize.

Myths and Truths about Candy
  • MYTHChocolate is addictive.
  • TRUTHAlthough it's true that many people love
    the taste of chocolate, it is not an addictive
    food. An addiction is a serious medical condition
    with specific physical and psychological
    symptoms. However, the desire for sweet tasting
    food is a strong biological drive, and it can be
    satisfied by eating any naturally sweet food or
    product made with sugar._
  • MYTHCandy is responsible for most tooth decay.
  • TRUTHNot so. Any food containing fermentable
    carbohydrates, such as starches or sugars, can
    contribute to tooth decay. It all depends on how
    often we eat and drink these foods and how long
    they remain in our mouths. Good dental hygiene
    and regular fluoride treatments are the best ways
    to prevent cavities.

  • Theobromine is a methylxanthine, in the same
    class of compounds as caffeine and theophylline.
    Theobromine and the other methylxanthines occur
    naturally in many plants found throughout the
    world. Examples include cocoa, tea and coffee
    plants. Theobromine is the predominant
    methylxanthine found in cocoa beans. Theophylline
    is the predominant methylxanthine in tea.
    Caffeine is the predominant methylxanthine in
  • Hershey does not add theobromine to its chocolate
    products. Rather, theobromine occurs naturally in
    cocoa beans and is present in all chocolate
    products. The amount of theobromine in the
    finished product depends on the type of chocolate
    used and the serving size. Milk chocolate
    contains less theobromine than semi-sweet or dark
    chocolate. Theobromine has a mild diuretic action
    (increases urine production) similar to caffeine,
    but does not stimulate the central nervous system
    like caffeine.
  • Currently there are no theobromine-free chocolate
    products available to consumers.

Effect on domestic animals
  • In domestic animals, especially dogs, chocolate
    may harm the heart, kidneys and central nervous
    system. This is because dogs metabolize
    theobromine, a naturally occurring substance in
    chocolate, very slowly. The effect of theobromine
    on dogs and some other pets is serious. It
    carries the same risk as does a dog's consumption
    of other common household items such as coffee,
    tea, cola beverages and certain houseplants.

Standards of Identity
  • In the United States, the Food and Drug
    Administration (FDA) has established Standards of
    Identity for all chocolate and cocoa products.
    These standards designate the percentage of key
    ingredients that must be present.
  • Following are the definitions for some well-known
    chocolate and cocoa products

Standards of Identity
  • Milk Chocolate A combination of chocolate liquor,
    cocoa butter, sugar and milk or cream. Milk
    chocolate must contain at least 10 chocolate
    liquor and at least 12 total milk ingredients.
  • Sweet Chocolate A combination of chocolate
    liquor, cocoa butter and sugar, but contains at
    least 15 chocolate liquor.
  • Semisweet Or Bittersweet Chocolate A combination
    of chocolate liquor, cocoa butter and sugar, but
    contains at least 35 chocolate liquor. Sweet
    chocolate and semisweet chocolate are often
    called dark chocolate.
  • Chocolate, Unsweetened Chocolate, Or Baking
    Chocolate Chocolate or chocolate liquor is
    produced by grinding cocoa beans smooth, liquid
    state. This chocolate can be sold as unsweetened
    chocolate or baking chocolate or used to make
    other chocolate types such as milk chocolate,
    sweet chocolate, or semisweet chocolate.
  • White Chocolate Made from the same ingredients as
    milk chocolate (cocoa butter, milk, sugar) but
    without the nonfat cocoa solids. In 2002, FDA
    established a standard of identity for white
    chocolate. White chocolate must contain at least
    20 cocoa butter and 14 total milk ingredients.
  • Cocoa Cocoa is the product prepared by removing
    part of the fat (cocoa butter) from the cocoa
    beans and grinding the remaining material.