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Food Safety

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Title: Food Safety


1
Food Safety Quality Day 16th. October
Images
Contents
2
Contents
  • Why do we need food safety?
  • What is food safety the issues in India
  • Consequences of Ignoring Food Safety
  • Food safety precautions
  • Food Safe Lunch Boxes
  • Water Bottle Food Safety
  • Food Safety during Picnic
  • Food Safety tips for home
  • Personal hygiene Health, cleanliness habits
  • Personal hygiene Hand washing

Image www.genevaglobal.com/.../page02.jpg
3
  • Why do we need food safety ?

Imagecache.daylife.com/.../06vW4QWflh1v2/610x.jpg

4
Why do we need Food Safety?
  • Because eating unsafe food leads to food borne
    illness.
  • Why food becomes unsafe?
  • A food becomes unsafe when it is attacked by
    bacteria or other microbiological hazards
  • Bacteria may be present on products when you
    purchase them.
  • Safely cooked, Ready to eat food can become cross
    contaminated in kitchen with bacteria transferred
    from raw products.

Image source www.postingantoasting.com
5
  • Food Safety Concepts
  • Challenges in India

Image sources www.spraguephoto.com/stock/images/9
500_9999/9...
www.veggiefriendly.com.au/.../
news.bbc.co.uk/.../jpg/_39610279_india220afp.jpg
6
Food Safety, Safe Food?
  • Food Safety
  • Concept that food will not cause harm to the
    consumer when it is prepared and/or eaten
    according to its intended use.
  • Safe Food
  • A product which is free of microbiological,
    chemical or physical hazards
  • OR
  • A product that does not cause illness or injury
    when consumed as intended

Image source www.akshayapatra.org/president/image
s/pres15.jpg
7
Food Safety Issues in India
  • Food borne Illness
  • Importance of Food Safety felt recently
  • Consumer awareness catching up
  • Government gearing up
  • Fragmented Industry
  • Majority food processing units in small and
    unorganised sector
  • Untrained Food Handlers
  • Diversity of Food Products / cuisines
  • Diverse Topography
  • Challenging International Standards
  • Inadequate Laboratory and Testing Infrastructure
  • Traceability
  • Incident capturing

8
Consequences of Ignoring Food Safety
Image source Royalty-Free/Corbis
9
Food borne illness what is it?
  • When certain bacteria enters the food supply,
    they cause food borne illness.
  • General symptoms are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea,
    fever.

Sources of Micro organisms
Image source www.ucce.ucdavis.edu/files/filelibra
ry
Image Source. Restaurant and Catering NSW Food
Management Plan July 2003 VI.I
10
In India lack of Hygiene Unsafe water kills
7.8 L people annuallyas perSafer Water,
better health- WHO report 2008
Hard facts
11
Hard facts
  • 1 in every 10 diseases and 6 of all deaths
    globally are caused by lack of Sanitation
  • In India 1.03 crore people die annually
  • 7.8 lakh (7.5) deaths are related to water,
    sanitation and hygiene
  • Diarrhoeal diseases cause 4.02 Lakh deaths
  • Malnutrition accounts for 2.17 Lakh deaths
  • Intestinal nematode infection and Water borne
    diseases like malaria, dengue and Japanese
    encephalitis cause ) 0.19 Lakh deaths

12
Food safety
  • Causes, symptoms hazards

Image Source University of Georgia
Image Source Hindustan Unilever LImited
13
Causes and Symptoms
  • Usual Symptoms
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Stomach cramps
  • Headache
  • Fever
  • Causes (Microbial Hazards)
  • Bacteria
  • Viruses
  • Toxins
  • Parasites
  • Contaminants

Image Source University of Georgia Hindustan
Unilever Limited
14
Ref. Kansas Department of Health and Environment
15
Ref. Kansas Department of Health and Environment
16
Ref. Kansas Department of Health and Environment
17
What are Food Hazards
  • biological, chemical or physical agent in food,
    or condition of food, with the potential to cause
    an adverse health effect.
  • Physical
  • Chemical
  • Microbiological
  • Allergens

18
Physical Hazards
19
Chemical Hazards
Image Source www.foodsafetyindia.nic.in/cadkitch
en.htm
20
Macro biological Hazards
21
Microbiological Hazards
22
Factors Affecting the Growth of Biological Hazards
Bacteria multiply by division
Image Source Ministry of Health Bakery Manual
23
What Bacteria Needs to Grow
Temperature Danger Zone (4.40 600 C)
3 Moisture and Protein-rich Food
2 Time to Grow
3 Moisture and Protein-rich Food
1 Proper temperature
Image Source Ministry of Health Bakery Manual
24
Foods Prone to risk
  • Foods Prone to risk are
  • Milk, Cream, artificial cream, Cheese, custards
    and dairy products
  • Starch-Heat treated vegetables and straches such
    as cooked rice, beans, potatoes and pasta
  • Sprouts and Melons- Raw Seed Sprouts, cut melons
    and Garlic in oil etc.
  • Cooked eggs and products made of eggs,
    i.e.mayonnaise
  • All cooked meat and poultry
  • Cooked meat products including gravy, stock and
    roll / sandwich fillings
  • Shellfish and other sea foods
  • Dont leave high risk foods sitting at room
    temperature

25
Food Safety Precautions
  • Food Safety Precautions include
  • Procure Safe
  • Keep clean
  • Keep Separate
  • Chill
  • Cook thoroughly
  • Pest Control

Image SourceUSDA
26
Procuring Food
  • Procure processed food items only after checking
    the manufacturing / expiry date and also the
    product certification marks e.g. ISI, AGMARK etc.
  • Ensure that all materials for food preparation
    are obtained from reliable reputable sources.
  • Use separate packages for raw food.
  • Choose only pasteurized dairy products. Buy
    intact cans that are not bulging or leaking.
  • Buy perishable foods last

Best Use before 16/11/2008
Image source www.zrox.net www.elephantgroup.in
27
Clean
  • You cant see, taste, or smell the Pathogenic
    Bacteria
  • They can spread throughout the kitchen and get
    onto cutting boards, utensils, sponges,
    countertops, and food
  • Theyre foodborne bacteria and if eaten they
    can cause foodborne illness.
  • So to protect yourself Keep Clean

Image SourceUSDA
28
Keep Clean
  • Keep Sparkling Clean
  • Wash hands, utensils, and surfaces, in hot, soapy
    water before and after food preparation and
    especially after preparing raw meat, poultry,
    eggs, or seafood.
  • Also remember to wash your hands after using
    bathroom, changing diapers, or handling pets
  • All cutting boards
  • Cutting boards (including plastic, non-porous,
    acrylic, and wooden boards) should be run through
    the dishwasher or washed in hot, soapy water
    after each use. Discard boards that are
    excessively worn.
  • Towel
  • Consider using paper towels to clean up kitchen
    surfaces. When done, throw away the towel.
  • If you use cloth towels, wash them often in the
    boiling water
  • For added protection against bacteria use
    disinfectant cleaner or a mixture of bleach and
    water on surfaces. Follow label instructions on
    Bleach / Disinfectant

29
Keep Clean
  • Washing Canteen / kitchen utensils
  • Always wash within two hours before bacteria can
    begin to grow.
  • Air dry the utensils as cleaning with towels may
    spread bacteria

Washing Canteen / kitchen dishcloths Sanitize
your kitchen dishcloths and sponges regularly as
moist damp dishcloths often harbour bacteria,
leading to contamination.
30
Keep Clean
  • Keeping Fruits vegetables Clean Safe
  • Prepare the kitchen
  • Before preparing fruits vegetables, wash your
    hands and clean your cutting board and utensils
  • Add Water
  • Thoroughly wash fresh produce under running water
    to remove any lingering dirt
  • Scrub thoroughly
  • Use vegetable brush to scrub fruits and
    vegetables having hard surface viz. Potato,
    Carrot
  • Cut away any damaged and bruised area. Bacteria
    thrive in such areas

31
HOW TO CLEAN WASHROOMS
Since large number of students use washrooms,
Toilets and frequent hand contact surface areas
in Schools should be cleaned as frequently as is
practical and especially when visibly dirty.
These sites are likely to be contaminated with
germs and have a high risk of transferring
infection. It is therefore essential to clean and
disinfect these sites regularly.
  • The standard operating procedure to clean a
    washroom
  • Flush the WC, push the water level down.
  • Step 1Apply the toilet bowl cleaner on to the
    WC and Urinals along the inner edge with the help
    of bowl cleaner bottle and let it stand
  • for 10 min.
  • Step 2 Clean the other fixtures like, taps,
    sinks, soap dispensers, mirrors etc in the toilet
  • Step 3 Scrub clean the WC and Urinals with a
    commode brush and thoroughly rinse of the
    chemical
  • Step 4 Empty waste receptacles replace with
    Clean garbage bags.
  • Step 5 Ensure washrooms have appropriate
    supplies.
  • Step 6 Make sure everything is working
    properly.
  • Step 7 Set up Caution Floor wet sign.
  • Step 8 Use Floor cleaning methods to clean the
    washroom floor. Keep separate bucket and mop for
    washrooms.
  • Step 8 Wash hands with anti microbial hand
    wash.
  • Note All toilet material required are used only
    for toilet cleaning only and are color coded for
    identification including dusters if used during
    cleaning process to avoid any contamination.

Slide Courtesy JohnsonDiversey
32
Separate
  • Its always safe to Separate
  • Improper handling of milk, dairy products,
    salads, raw meat, poultry, and seafood can create
    an inviting environment for Cross-contamination.
  • As a result, bacteria can spread to food and
    throughout kitchen
  • To prevent cross-contamination

33
Separate
  • Clean up
  • Washhands, cutting boards, dishes, and utensils
    with hot, soapy water, every time they come in
    contact with raw foods, meat, poultry and
    seafood.
  • Take two separate
  • Use one cutting board, Knife etc. for fresh
    produce and use a separate one for raw meat,
    poultry, and seafood.
  • Clean Your Plate.
  • Never place cooked food back on the same plate or
    cutting board without cleaning, which previously
    held raw food.
  • Always use food handling devices like spoon,
    spatula etc.

Image Source USDA
www.chicken.org.au
Image source www.csuperstock.com
34
Separate
  • Safely Separate
  • Raw food, meat, poultry, and seafood from other
    foods in your shopping bag and refrigerator
  • Seal it
  • To prevent juices from raw food, meat, poultry,
    or seafood from dripping onto other foods in the
    refrigerator, place these raw foods in sealed
    containers or plastic bags below other foods
  • Marinating Mandate
  • Sauce that is used to marinate raw food, meat,
    poultry, or seafood should not be used on cooked
    food.

35
Chill
  • Refrigerate Promptly and Properly
  • Microorganisms grow more rapidly at warmer
    temperatures
  • Research shows that keeping a constant
    refrigerator temperature of 4.40C or below helps
    slow growth of these harmful microbes

36
Chill
  • The Cool Rules
  • Keep it Cool
  • Maintain refrigerator at 4.40C temperature
  • The Chill Factor
  • Refrigerate or freeze perishables, prepared foods
    and leftovers within two hours of purchase or
    use.
  • The Thaw law
  • Never defrost food at room temperature. Thaw food
    in the refrigerator. For a quick thaw, submerge
    in cold water in an airtight package or thaw in
    the microwave if cooking immediately.
  • Divide to cool
  • Separate large amounts of leftovers into small,
    shallow containers for quicker cooling in the
    refrigerator.
  • Avoid the Pack Attack
  • Do not over-stuff the refrigerator. Cold air must
    circulate to keep the food safe.
  • Rotate before it is too late
  • Consume food stuff within shelf life If in doubt
    throw it out
  • Dont Go too Low
  • As you approach 00C ice crystals can begin to
    form and lower the quality of some foods such as
    fruits, vegetables and eggs.

37
Chill
  • Thaw Food
  • Keep at safe temperature while thawing food
  • Know Dos Don'ts for Defrosting

Image source www.kalbould.wa.gov.au
38
Chill
Defrosting
  • Dos
  • Defrosting in refrigerator is the safest method
    for all food.
  • Defrost food in microwave only if its to be
    cooked immediately
  • Can thaw food as part of cooking. Make sure food
    reaches its safe internal temperature
  • If short of time, thaw in airtight packaging in
    cold water
  • Donts
  • Avoid keeping food in danger zone the unsafe
    temperature between 50C and 600C
  • Dont defrost in hot water
  • Dont thaw on counter. Kept for more than 2 hours
    at room temperature, food becomes unsafe

39
Cook
  • Pre-preparation tips
  • Wash hands with soap water thoroughly (20
    seconds approx) .
  • Wash hands, kitchen slabs, equipments, utensils
    with soap water immediately after use.
  • Marinate foods in refrigerator but never on the
    kitchen slab.

Image Source USDA
Discard foods immediately when they look
suspicious (change in colour, texture) foods with
malodorous smell. Never taste a food to determine
if it is safe. If in doubt, throw it out.
40
Cook
  • Cooking
  • Make sure to cook foods thoroughly, particularly
    the meat products. Internal temperature must
    reach 750C
  • Avoid interrupted cooking. Never refrigerate
    partially cooked products to later finish cooking
    on the grill or in the oven.
  • When microwaving foods, carefully follow
    manufacturers instructions. Use microwave safe
    containers.
  • Reheat food thoroughly. Never reheat food once
    reheated.
  • Dont use chipped crockery during preparation of
    food.
  • Always use water from a safe source.
  • Keeping the water in boiling temperature for 3-4
    minutes will kill most of the micro organisms
    present in it.

Image Source USDA
41
Pest Control
  • Pest control in kitchens
  • Store food in tightly closed containers to keep
    out pests.
  • Do not overstock shelves with products, which
    will not be used frequently or within a short
    period of time.
  • Clean all food spills inside the kitchen.

Image source rvtravel.com
  • Dishes and utensils should not be left unwashed
    overnight
  • All equipment should be kept above ground level
    where possible to avoid waste build up.

Image source www.cucinadirect.com
42
Pest Control
Methods for Controlling different pests
  • Flies
  • Control flies by making sure windows and doors
    are properly closed or screened.
  • Use fly proof mesh if possible.
  • After applying pesticide spray, always maintain a
    time gap before reusing kitchen utensils.
  • Ants
  • Clean food scraps spills immediately.
  • Always keep kitchen countertops clean

Poison
Image source www.tradeindia.com
  • Rodents
  • Use food traps.
  • If using rat poisons, dont keep it for extended
    period.

43
Common Food Contaminant Insect Pests
Slide courtesy Pest Control India (PCI)
44
Food Safe Lunch Boxes
  • Wash your hands before and after preparing lunch
    box
  • Wash lunch box daily with warm soapy water
  • Wash fruits and vegetables including peel-and-eat
    fruits like bananas and oranges to prevent
    bacteria getting in while peeling.
  • Keep kitchen slab / counter, cutting boards
    utensils clean and dry while preparing lunch
  • If preparing lunch box a night before, keep
    perishables like yoghurt, salad, sandwiches in
    refrigerator
  • Pack lunch in insulated lunch box or double paper
    bag
  • Keep raw and cooked food in separate compartments
  • Keep shelf stable food like fresh fruits, toast /
    chapati, cooked vegetables, canned fruit juices
  • After preparing lunch, immediately return unused
    portions of perishable food in refrigerator

www.angelinhome.com/index.php?productID34
45
Food Safe Lunch Boxes
  • Educate children to keep lunch boxes in cool area
    away from sunlight, if possible in school fridge
    with identification.
  • Teach children on hand wash by singing two
    choruses of Happy Birthday ( about 20
    seconds), while washing hands
  • Encourage children to consume all perishable with
    no leftover
  • Educate children to wash hand before and after
    lunch and gargle / clean teeth after lunch

flickr.com/photos/pilgrimmils/366048936
46
Water Bottle-Food Safety
  • Use dedicated water bottle
  • Do not reuse empty soft drink PET bottles.
  • Clean water bottle daily with warm soapy water.
    Rinse thoroughly with potable water to remove
    traces of soap.
  • After cleaning keep inverted to drain the remnant
    water
  • Do not wipe from inside with kitchen cloth /
    duster
  • Sundry in inverted position
  • Do not exchange water bottles with others
  • Close the cover after drinking water
  • Always take potable / filtered water for drinking

47
Food Safety during Picnic
  • Carry moist tissue papers or soap and water to
    clean your hands and surfaces
  • Carry extra plates to keep raw food and cooked
    food separately
  • Cook thoroughly.
  • Keep food covered to protect from dust
  • Carry frozen /perishable food well insulated in
    ice boxes and keep the ice boxes.
  • Do not leave food in hot weather (320C or above)
    for more than one hour
  • Throw garbage in garbage bins only

48
Keep Your School Food Safe
  • Procure safe food
  • Keep Clean Kitchen Utensils
  • Keep Separate raw cooked food
  • Chill at required temperature
  • Cook thoroughly
  • Maintain Cleanliness in class room
  • Manage Pest
  • Observe Personal Hygiene
  • Keep lunch boxes safe
  • Keep water bottle safe
  • Remember Food Safety during Picnic

49
Food Safety Tips for Home
  • Personal Hygiene
  • Cleaning Sanitation
  • Purchasing
  • Handling Storage of food
  • Refrigeration of food
  • Cooking
  • Drinking water
  • Pest control

www.jupiterimages.com
www.solargoods.com
Handling
Handling
food
food
before
before
Purchasing
Storing in
storage
Purchasing
Storing in
storage
refrigerator
food
refrigerator
food
Ensuring
Ensuring
Clean Hands
Pre
-
Clean Hands
Pre
-
Training
preparation
Training
preparation
www.yobserver.com
Children
Children
Ensure
Ensure
Safe Food
Safe Food
at Home
at Home
Discarding
Discarding
Cooking
Safe Water Cooking
spoiled food
spoiled food
www.tinyfarmblog.com
Storage
Storage
www.fotosearch.com
Reheating
Reheating
after
after
leftovers
leftovers
cooking
cooking
Cleaning
Safe
Cleaning
Safe
Utensils
Serving
Utensils
Serving
www.superstock.com
www.llinkmd.com
50
Personal Hygiene Keep hands clean before after
handling/eating food. Keep your finger nails,
hair short. Dont sneeze or cough in food
products Train children about personal hygiene
practices Cleaning Sanitation Clean
sanitize your house including bathroom regularly
using disinfectant like Phenyl for all non -
food contact surfaces. Store all the cleaning
tools away from children. Purchasing Procure
processed food items only after checking the
manufacturing / expiry date and also the product
certification marks e.g. ISI, AGMARK etc
www.yobserver.com
soapdetergentcosmetic.in
www.learnamericanenglishonline.com/images
www.elephantgroup.in
WWW.ZROX.IN
51
  • Handling Storage
  • Wash clean the raw fruits vegetables, meat,
    fish poultry before storing in fridge.
  • To ensure FIFO (First In / First out )plan always
    keep the new or recently bought food items,
    behind the stock you already have
  • Refrigeration of food
  • Refrigerated foods must be stored at 5C or below
    and frozen foods must be stored at -18C or
    below.
  • Never keep warm foods inside the freezer for
    faster cooling.

www.kroger.com
www.plasticsinfo.org
www.llinkmd.com
52
Pre-preparation tips Wash hands, kitchen
appliances with soap water immediately after
use. Wash raw ingredients thoroughly for removing
hazards as far as possible Cooking Ensure that
food is cooked thoroughly, particularly the meat
products. Avoid interrupted cooking. Never
refrigerate partially cooked products Always
cook or re-heat the food (especially meat
products) until the internal temperature reaches
75 degree centigrade at least for 2 minutes.
Never reheat food once reheated. Dont use
chipped crockery during preparation of
food. Never reuse left over fried oil. Eating
food items prepared with reused, fried oil leads
to health problems.
4hisglory.files.wordpress.com
www.fotosearch.com
www.foodauthority.nsw.gov.au
www.cookingnook.com
53
Drinking water Keeping the water at boiling
temperature for 3-4 minutes will kill most of the
micro organisms present in it Alternatively use a
water purifier system. Clean the overhead water
tanks at least once in 6 months since bacteria
resides in stored water spread water borne
disease Pest control Keep your building
premises structure clean free of garbage
pests. Clean all food spills inside the
kitchen. Use fly proof mesh if possible, Keep
kitchen doors windows close when not in
use. If you hire any outside persons for pest
control, ask them to find correct the source of
the problem before applying pesticides
www.clickindia.com
www.dkimages.com
www.tradeindia.com
54
  • Personnel Hygiene
  • Health, cleanliness habits

Image source Food Drink Federation web
www.foodlink.org.uk
55
Personnel Health and Hygiene
  • Injuries - Cut or Wound
  • Completely protected by
  • Water proof covering
  • Firmly secured
  • Conspicuous in colour
  • Medical Examination for Staff /Students
  • Prior to employment / admission
  • Annual Check up
  • Check up after prolonged absence/ sickness
  • Communicable Diseases
  • No person to work in food handling (Canteen /
    Cafeteria) if
  • Suffering from or carrier of infectious disease
  • Afflicted with infected wounds
  • Skin infections
  • Sores or diarrhoea
  • Immediately report to concerned authority

Open Cut
Open Cut being dressed
Image Courtesy Hindustan Unilever Limited
56
Personnel Habits
Personal Cleanliness
Slide Courtesy Hindustan Unilever Limited
57
Personal Habits
Slide Courtesy Hindustan Unilever Limited
58
Personal Habits
Slide Courtesy Hindustan Unilever Limited
59
Protective Clothing for Canteen / Kitchen Staff
Slide Courtesy Hindustan Unilever Limited
60
PERSONAL HYGIENE for students and teachers
Slide Courtesy JohnsonDiversey
61
Personal Hygiene
  • Hand washing
  • Hands must be washed
  • After Playing
  • After Gardening
  • Before preparing food
  • After going to toilets
  • After handling raw foods
  • After licking fingers,coughing,
  • sneezing, eating, drinking
  • or smoking
  • After touching ears, nose, hair,
  • mouth or other bare parts
  • After touching pimples or scars
  • After handling waste
  • After carrying out cleaning duties
  • After changing soiled cloths
  • After handling animals
  • After any other unhygienic practices

Hand washing steps
  • Wet hands with warm running water
  • Apply soap
  • Rub hands for 20 seconds (If necessary use a nail
    brush to clean nails. However the brush must be
    kept
  • clean and sanitary)
  • 4. Rinse hands thoroughly
  • 5. Dry hands with paper towel ( The paper towel
    can then be used to turn off the tap)
  • 6. Turn off the tap with paper towel

Image source WWW.kdhe.state.us/
62
Make everyday a Food Safe Day
Have a Great Day
Disclaimer
Disclaimer
63
Disclaimer
  • All information contained in this presentation
    has been obtained from sources believed to be
    accurate by Confederation of Indian (CII)
    Industry and Ministry of Food Processing
    Industries (MoFPI), while reasonable care has
    been taken in its preparation, CII or MoFPI makes
    no representation , express or implied, as to the
    accuracy of the information. All information
    should be considered solely as statements of
    opinion. For further information please refer /
    browse the references / sources mentioned.

64
Ref. top slide (From Left to Right)
  • Top Line
  • hungerhunger.blogspot.com/200
    8/06/kohinoor-no...
  • Middle Line

www.veggiefriendly.com.au/.../
www.mckv.edu.in/infrastructure.as
www.designfor21st.org/upload_images/india/par...
www.tribuneindia.com/2008/20080116/del4.jpg
mod.nic.in/Samachar/feb01-05/body.html
Bottom line
www.veggiefriendly.com.au/.../
www.indiaprwire.com/downloads/200805139486-6.jpg
www.jewellofindia.com/VeggiPlate.JPG
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