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Warm Water System Design

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Step 3: Calculate TAN production by fish (PTAN) (Note: Feed is 35% protein) ... Fan requirement: 1770 scfm. Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Warm Water System Design


1
Warm Water System Design
  • James M. Ebeling, Ph.D.
  • Research Engineer
  • Aquaculture Systems Technologies, LLC
  • New Orleans, LA

M.B. Timmons, Ph.D. Biological Environmental
Engineering Cornell University Ithaca, NY
2
Overview of System Design
Aeration Air/Oxygen
Carbon Dioxide Removal
Fish Culture Tank
Monitoring System Control
Disinfection
Fine Dissolved Solids Removal
Biofiltration Nitrification
95
5
Suspended Solids
Settable Solids
Sludge
Biosecurity Program
Sludge
Sludge
3
Design Requirements
  • The Following Unit Process are required in any
    design
  • Culture Tank Design
  • Circulation
  • Solids Removal
  • Biofiltration / Nitrification
  • Gas Transfer (Aeration / Oxygenation / CO2
    Removal)

4
Design Assumptions
For any design, some assumptions need to be made,
hopefully based either on actual experience or
reputable research.
5
Design Assumptions
  • Assuming 454,000 kg/yr production (1 million
    pounds/year)
  • Mean feeding rate rfeed 1.2 BW/day
  • Feed conversion rate FCR 1.3 kg feed/kg fish
    produced
  • Culture Density 80 kg fish/m3
  • Oxygen Demand 0.75 kg O2/ kg feed

(these rates are an average over entire year)
6
System Biomass Estimation
  • Estimate of systems average feeding biomass

7
Total Oxygen Requirements
  • Estimate the oxygen demand of systems feeding
    fish
  • where
  • RDO average DO consumption Rate
  • kg DO consumed by fish per day)
  • aDO average DO consumption proportionality
    constant
  • kg DO consumed per 1 kg feed
  • Ranges from 0.4 to 1.0 kg O2/kg feed cold
    water to warm water

8
Total Flow Requirement Oxygen Load
  • Estimate water flow (Q) required for fishs O2
    demand
  • Assuming oxygen
  • DOinlet 18 mg/L
  • DOeffluent 4 mg/L (_at_ steady state)

9
Total Tank Volume Requirements
  • Assume an average fish density across all culture
    tanks in the system
  • culture density 80 kg fish/m3

10
Check Culture Tank Exchange Rate
  • Rule of Thumb

a culture tank exchange every 30-60 minutes
provides good flushing of waste metabolites while
maintaining hydraulics within circular culture
tanks
11
Number of Tanks Required
  • Assuming 9 m (30 ft) dia tanks
  • water depth
  • 2.3 m
  • 7.5 ft
  • culture volume per tank
  • 150 m3
  • 40,000 gal
  • 10-11 culture tanks required
  • Assuming 15 m (50 ft) dia tanks
  • water depth
  • 3.7 m
  • 12 ft
  • culture volume per tank
  • 670 m3
  • 177,000 gal
  • 2-3 culture tanks required

12
Tanks Design Summary
  • Ten Production Tanks
  • Diameter
  • 9.14 m ( 30 ft )
  • Water depth
  • 2.3 m (7.5 ft)
  • Culture volume per tank
  • 150 m3 (40,000 gal)
  • Oxygen Demand
  • 117 kg O2/day (257 lbs/day)
  • Flow Rate (30 min exchange)
  • 5,000 Lpm (1,320gpm)
  • Biomass Density
  • 86 kg/m3 (0.72 lbs/gal)

13
Options for Solids Capture
Solids Capture
  • Dual-drain System
  • Settling Basin
  • Swirl Separator
  • Microscreen Filter
  • Propeller Washed Bead Filter


14
One Options for Solids Capture
Solids Capture
Dual-drain System (15 bottom Drain) Bottom Drain
??To a Swirl Separator Combine Flow (Swirl
Separator Side-wall Drain) ?? To Microscreen
Filter

15
Terms Used To Describe Biofilters
Biofiltration/Nitrification
  • Void Space / porosity
  • Cross-sectional Area
  • Hydraulic Loading Rate
  • Specific Surface Area


16
Biofilter Design Step 1
Step 1 Calculate the dissolved oxygen
requirement (RDO).
Assume a DO consumption of 1.0 kg/kg feed Both
the MBB and Trickling Tower provide O2 for
Nitrification or approximately 0.25 kg. Thus
0.75 kg O2 /kg feed.

17
Biofilter Design Step 2
Step 2 Calculate water flow requirement (Qtank)
required for fish DO demand. Assume DOinlet
18 mg/L (pure oxygen aeration system) DOtank
4 mg/L (warm water 24 Deg. C, Tilapia!!)  

18
Biofilter Design Step 2 (cont)
Step 2 Check the Exchange rate (2-4
exchanges/hr)

A tank exchange rate of 2 exchanges per hour is
OK!
19
Biofilter Design Step 3
Step 3 Calculate TAN production by fish
(PTAN) (Note Feed is 35 protein)
PTAN F PC 0.092 F 0.35 0.092
0.032 where PTAN Production rate of total
ammonia nitrogen, (kg/day) F Feed
rate (kg/day) PC protein concentration in
feed (decimal value)

20
Ammonia Assimilation Rates

 
21
Biofilter Design Step 4 (MBB)
Step 4 Calculate volume of media, Vmedia based
on the Volumetric nitrification rate (VTR)
Consider a Moving Bed BioReactor (MBB) Curler
Advance X-1 has a 605 g TAN/m3 (17.14 g TAN/ft3).

22
Biofilter Design Step 4 (MBB)
Step 4 Calculate volume of biofilter, Vbiofiler
based on a fill ratio of 65.

This would require a tank (3200 gal) 7 ft in
diameter and 11 ft tall.
23
Biofilter Design Step 4 (Trickling Tower)
Step 4 Calculate the surface area (Amedia)
required to remove PTAN from the Areal TAN
removal rate (ATR) (0.45 g TAN/m2 day) 

24
Biofilter Design Step 5 (Trickling Tower)
Step 5 Calculate volume of media based on the
specific surface area (SSA), example BioBlock
200 m2/m3 (61 ft2/ft3)  

25
Biofilter Design Step 6 (Trickling Tower)
Step 6 Calculate the biofilter cross-sectional
area from required flow for the fish oxygen
demand (Qtank) and the hydraulic loading rate,
HLR of 250 m3/m2 day (4.4 gpm/ft2).

26
Biofilter Design Step 7 (Trickling Tower)
From high school math class area ? (Dia)2
/ 4 diameter 4 area / ?1/2
The diameter of a two trickling towers,
Dbiofilter, with this cross sectional area is

27
Biofilter Design Step 8 (Trickling Tower)
Step 8 Calculate the biofilter depth
(Depthmedia) from the biofilter cross-sectional
area (Amedia) and volume (Vmedia).

The final Trickling Tower is 15 ft in diameter
and 12 ft tall plus distribution plate, etc.
28
Aeration / Oxygenation Options
  • Multi-staged low head oxygenators (LHO)
  • Packed or spray columns
  • Pressurized columns
  • Enclosed mechanical surface mixers


29
Tank Oxygen Requirements
  • Estimate the oxygen demand of system
  • where
  • RDO average DO consumption Rate
  • kg DO consumed by fish per day)
  • aDO average DO consumption proportionality
    constant
  • kg DO consumed per 1 kg feed
  • Ranges from 0.4 to 1.0 kg O2/kg feed cold
    water to warm water

30
Tank Oxygen - Speece Cones
(Design Requirement 117 kg O2 / day or 4.88 kg
/ hr)
From Aquatic Eco-Systems, Inc. Catalog A
single Speece Cone OY140F is rated at 4.5 kg O2
/hr _at_ 10 psi, 600 gpm, 40 mg/L Or two Speece
Cones OY60F is rated at 2.3 kg O2 /hr _at_ 15 psi,
260 gpm, 46 mg/L
31
CO2 PRODUCTION
  • Molar basis
  • 1 mole of CO2 is produced for every1 mole O2
    consumed
  • Mass basis
  • 1.38 g of CO2 is produced for every1 g O2
    consumed

32
CO2 Control Options
  • Packed Tower Stripping
  • Sodium Hydroxide Addition
  • Water Exchange
  • In-tank Surface Aeration
  • Side-stream Surface Aeration
  • In-tank Diffused Aeration
  • Side-stream Diffused Aeration

33
Stripping Column Design
  • Design criteria used for the forced-ventilation
    cascade column
  • hydraulic fall of about 1.0-1.5 m
  • hydraulic loading of 1.0-1.4 m3/min per m2

one stripping columns with diameter 2.0 m 6.6
ft
34
Stripping Column Design
  • Design criteria used for the forced-ventilation
    cascade column
  • volumetric GL of 51 to 101

Fan requirement 1770 scfm
35
Ozone Requirements
  • Estimate the ozone requirement of systems
    feeding fish
  • where
  • aozone kg ozone added per 100 kg feed

36
Putting It All Together
Aeration Air/Oxygen
Carbon Dioxide Removal
Fish Culture Tank
Disinfection
Fine Dissolved Solids Removal
Biofiltration Nitrification
Sludge
Waste Solids Removal
Monitoring System Control
Sludge
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