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Plagiarism, Parenthetical Documentation

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Paraphrasing. Do not copy from the source word-for-word. ... The writer has paraphrased too closely by only changing a few words and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Plagiarism, Parenthetical Documentation


1
Plagiarism, Parenthetical Documentation
Literary Present Tense
2
Why Cite Sources?
  • Help others find sources
  • Avoid plagiarism
  • What is plagiarism?
  • intellectual theft

3
What needs to be cited?
  • Direct quotes
  • Paraphrases (rephrased or summarized material)
  • What doesnt need to be cited?
  • Proverbs, axioms, and sayings
  • Common knowledge

Universally recognized truths ExampleThe
whole is greater than the part.
4
Paraphrasing
  • Do not copy from the source word-for-word.
  • Enclose borrowed language in quotation marks.
  • Do not borrow sentence structure.
  • Do not plug in synonyms.
  • Simply changing a word or two and switching the
    order of phrases is not acceptable.
  • A paraphrase must be in the writers own words.

5
  • ORIGINAL SOURCE
  • Half the force holding Fort Pillow were Negroes,
    former slaves now enrolled in the Union Army.
    Toward them Forrests troops had the fierce,
    bitter animosity of men who had been educated to
    regard the colored race as inferior and who for
    the first time had encountered that race armed
    and fighting against white men.
  • From pgs. 46-47 of The Fort Pillow Massacre, a
    scholarly article by Albert Castel.

6
  • SAMPLE
  • Albert Castel notes that 50 percent of the Union
    troops holding Fort Pillow were former slaves.
    Toward them Forrests soldiers displayed the
    savage hatred of men who had been taught to view
    blacks as inferior and who for the first time had
    encountered them armed and fighting against white
    men (46-47).

Although the source is correctly documented with
an MLA in-text citation, the second sentence
paraphrases the original source far too closely.
7
  • ORIGINAL SOURCEApart from the fact that music
    accounts for much of the power of Hindi
    movies,creating a heightened mood , the film
    song spreads out from cinema to permeate many
    other areas of Indian society. From pg. 41 of
    Playback Time A Brief History of Bollywood
    Film Songs, an article in Film Comment by
    Nasreen Munni Kabir

8
SAMPLEIn India, film music creates a heightened
mood that accounts for a great deal of the power
of Hindi movies, says Nasreen Munni Kabir (41).
The writer has paraphrased too closely by only
changing a few words and switching order of
phrases. A paraphrase should be in the writers
own words.
9
  • ORIGINAL SOURCEApart from the fact that music
    accounts for much of the power of Hindi movies,
    the film song spreads out from cinema to permeate
    many other areas of Indian society. From pg. 41
    of Playback Time A Brief History of Bollywood
    Film Songs, an article in Film Comment by
    Nasreen Munni Kabir

10
SAMPLENasreen Munni Kabir argues that the film
songs disseminate from the movies to pervade
several other aspects of Indian life (41).
The writer has paraphrased the source too closely
by borrowing the sentence structure of the
original and then plugging in synonyms.
11
MLA Citations
12
  • Alice Stone Blackwell argues that every
    improvement in the condition of women thus far
    has been secured not by a general demand from the
    majority of women, but the argument of a
    persistent few (30).

Signal phrase names the author of the quotation
to follow Page number given in parentheses
Period placed after parentheses
13
  • Before he dies, Unoka warns Okonkwo, Do not
    despairIt is more difficult and more bitter when
    a man fails alone (Achebe 21).

Signal phrase names the speaker in dialogue
Author name and page number given in parentheses
14
  • Before he dies, Unoka warns Okonkwo, Do not
    despairIt is more difficult and more bitter when
    a man fails alone (Achebe 21).

Dialogue enclosed in single quotation marks
15
  • Before he dies, Unoka warns Okonkwo, Do not
    despairIt is more difficult and more bitter when
    a man fails alone (Achebe 21).

Ellipses used when unnecessary words are cut
16
  • Obierika points out the impossibility of the
    colonialists understanding anything about the
    Umuofians without speaking their language, How
    can he when he does not even speak our tongue?
    (151).

If a question mark or exclamation point is part
of the quotation, leave in the quoted text.
17
  • Chinua Achebe alludes to the poem The Second
    Coming in the title Things Fall Apart
  • Things fall apart the centre cannot
    hold Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world
  • The best lack all conviction, while the
    worst Are full of passionate intensity. (185)

Block citation is used for four or more lines and
set off from the text quotation marks are omitted
Period before parenthetical documentation
18
MLA Conventions
  • Double spaced
  • White 81/2- by 11-inch paper
  • 1 inch margins
  • Heading

Last Name page Name Teacher Class
Name Day Month Year Title Centered
19
  • Literary present
  • The idea that fiction exists in a timeless world
    properly described in the present tense

20
Literary Present Tense
  • Use the present tense when discussing fictional
    events.
  • Example
  • In Things Fall Apart, Achebe shows the dynamics
    between the individual and society.

21
Historical Events
  • Use past tense when writing about a certain
    historical events.
  • Example
  • Chinua Achebe wroteThings Fall Apart in 1959.

22
Present and Past
  • Sometimes you must use both present and past
    tense in a sentence.
  • Example
  • Things Fall Apart, which Achebe wrote in 1959,
    shows the dynamics between the individual and
    society.
  • USE CAREFULLY!

23
Works Cited
  • Last, First. Title of Book. Place of Publication
    Publisher, Date of Publication.
  • Example
  • Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. New
    York Bantam Classics, 1981.

24
Works Cited
  • Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart with
    Connections.Austin Harcourt School, 1999.
  • Blackwell, Alice Stone. Opposition of Women.
    Oppositions answered. New York National American
    woman suffrage association, 1913. Votes for
    Women Selections from the National American
    Woman Suffrage Association Collection, 1848-1921
    lthttp//memory.loc.gov/ammen/naw/nawshome.htmlgt
  • Hacker, Diana. "Research Exercises."
    Dianahacker.Com. 2 Nov. 2006 lthttp//www.dianahack
    er.com/writersref/gt.

25
  • Hunter, Judy. "Grinnell College Guide to Verb
    Tenses." Grinnell College Writing Lab. 15 June
    2000. Grinnell College. 7 Nov. 2006
    lthttp//web.grinnell.edu/WritingLab/WritingForum/
  • GrammarandSyntax/verbtenses296.htmlgt.
  • "Revelle Humanities--the Literary Present."
    University of California, San Diego. University
    of California, San Diego. 7 Nov. 2006
    lthttp//humanities.ucsd.edu/writing/workshop/
  • present.htmgt.
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