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Medieval Europe

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180 death of Marcus Aurelius. 284 accession of Diocletian. 325 foundation of Constantinople. 395 death of Theodosius the Great. 476 abdication of Romulus Augustulus ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Medieval Europe


1
Medieval Europe
  • a thousand years without a bath ?
  • collapse of classical civilization
  • descent into dirt and superstition ?

2
The Middle Ages
  • beginning?
  • 180 death of Marcus Aurelius
  • 284 accession of Diocletian
  • 325 foundation of Constantinople
  • 395 death of Theodosius the Great
  • 476 abdication of Romulus Augustulus
  • 800 coronation of Charlemange

3
Three Elements
  • Graeco-Roman civilization and culture
  • the oldest and most important
  • Christianity
  • the newest
  • Germanic culture
  • the plastic element of the Middle Ages

4
Contest Between
  • Universality
  • formerly represented by the empire
  • claimed by the church
  • particularism
  • kingdoms and feudal society

5
The Crisis of the Third Century
  • End of the practice of adoption
  • The Severian Emperors
  • the army as a social class
  • abandonment of the Augustan constitution
  • collapse of the senate and other organs of state
  • collapse of the civil adminstration

6
Crisis, cont
  • collapse of society
  • breakdown of social classes
  • collapse of the economy
  • collapse of trade and coinage
  • barbarian invasions
  • civil wars
  • Thirty emperors
  • The Danubian emperors (soldiers)

7
Crisis, cont
  • Aurelian - restituor orbis
  • Decius - persecutions of those who corrupt
    traditional family values
  • Diocletian

8
Diocletian
9
Diocletian and Reform
  • The Tetrarchy
  • The Annona
  • The Edict of Maximum Prices
  • The new provinces
  • The eastern frontiers
  • The new capitals
  • The persecutions
  • Edict of Toleration, 311

10
Tetrarchy
11
Constantine
  • The divided empire, united
  • The Battle of the Milvian Bridge
  • The conversion of Constantine
  • The Edict of Milan - 314
  • The First Ecumenical Council
  • The New Capital
  • Constantinople

12
  • Constantine the Great

13
Collapse in the West, 476
  • Germanic invasions
  • foundation of Germanic kingdoms
  • breakdown of infastructure and the economy
  • simplification of society

14
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15
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16
Competing Kingdoms
  • Visigoths Spain
  • destroyed by Islam, 720 A.D.
  • Ostrogoths Italy
  • reconquered by Romans, early 500s
  • Franks France
  • various minor players
  • conquered by Franks, mostly

17
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18
Feudal System
  • the political system of medieval Europe
  • the military system of medieval Europe
  • the method of government and the military power
    to enforce it

19
Feudal System Characteristics
  • restraints on royal power
  • possession of public power by private persons
  • public power in private hands
  • particular rules about the use and transfer of
    real property

20
Definition of Feudalism
  • fragmentation of political power
  • the county is the largest viable political unit
  • fragmented power treated as a private possession
  • managed by private contracts
  • military force knights
  • secured by private contracts between individuals
  • no national armies

21
Origins
  • Roman empire private retainers and soldiers
  • Germanic society the comitatus
  • a warrior band
  • gifts of land for service or surrendering control
    of your land or talents to a superior for his
    protection

22
Feudalism Organization
  • ascending and descending relationships
  • secured by contracts
  • like buying a used car, each is different
  • fiefs
  • vassals
  • subinfuedation

23
Obligations of the Vassal
  • Concilium and auxilium
  • military service
  • 40 days a year
  • Aids and incidents
  • hospitality

24
Obligations of the Lord
  • treat vassals as social equals
  • leave them undisturbed on their fiefs
  • protect them
  • judgment by their peers

25
Feudal Warfare
  • not as bloody as imagined or as dangerous
  • private warfare
  • relatively restricted until the late Middle Ages
  • The Peace of God 900s
  • The Truce of God 1000s

26
Manorialism
  • the economic system of medieval Europe
  • the social system of medieval Europe
  • develops prior to feudalism
  • collapses prior to feudalism

27
The Manor
  • based on the fief
  • one or more manors to a fief
  • each manor had a village
  • freemen and serfs
  • provided the economic support for the lord

28
The Manor
  • non-capitalistic
  • self-sufficient
  • as much a social as an economic institution
  • will decline when towns reappear
  • after 1000 A.D.

29
Origins of Serfdom
  • Slaves, free peasants in both Roman and Germanic
    societies
  • Heavy intermarriage
  • Appeals to lords, special relationships
  • Mid-7th century recognition of serf class
  • Midway between slave and free peasant

30
Serfs Rights and Obligations
  • Right to pass on land to heirs
  • Obligation to provide labor, payments in kind to
    lord
  • Unable to move from land
  • Fees charged for marrying serfs of another lord

31
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32
The Economy of Early Medieval Europe
  • Agricultural center moves north from
    Mediterranean
  • 8th century iron-tipped plow introduced in Europe
  • Draft animals bred
  • Water mill technology
  • Agricultural output insufficient to support
    growth of cities
  • Strong Mediterranean trade despite Muslim
    domination of sea

33
Population Growth of Europe, 200-1000 CE
34
Merovingian Franks
  • control much of France
  • 480s to mid-700s
  • collapse of trade and industry
  • growth of the power of the nobility

35
Clovis (ruled 481-511)
  • Major Frankish leader
  • Destroyed last vestiges of Roman rule in Gaul
  • Dominated other Germanic peoples
  • Franks establish themselves as preeminent
    Germanic people

36
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37
The Mayors of the Palace
  • powerful royal officials
  • de facto rulers of the kingdoms
  • military leaders
  • ex. Charles Martel
  • supervised the nobility and royal officials

38
The Carolingian dynasty
  • Pepin III king in 752
  • with papal support
  • expansion of the Frankish kingdom
  • the Donation of Pepin
  • the Donation of Constantine

39
Charlemagne
  • Charles the Great
  • king of the Franks and Lombards
  • destruction of the Avars
  • forced conversions of non-Christians
  • the Saxons
  • coexistence with non-Christians not possible

40
Charlemagne
41
Charlemagne, cont
  • doubled the size of the kingdom
  • buffer between Eastern Europe and the Slavs
  • buffer state against the Vikings
  • destruction of the Lombards
  • end of Germanic paganism
  • beginning of the Reconquista in Spain

42
The Carolingian Empire
43
Charlemagne, cont
  • reversal of Slavic westward movement
  • beginnings of the ideas which will become
  • lebensraum, ost front, and Drang nach Osten
  • beginning of continued attempts at Germanic
    expansion to the East

44
Charlemagne as Emperor
  • 800 A.D. Christmas
  • crowned Emperor of the Romans by the Pope
  • did he know ?
  • Popes motives ?

45
Charlemagne and Government
  • personal government
  • responsibilities
  • advancement of the Church
  • defense of the Empire
  • establishment of law and order
  • failure to create a civil service
  • finances personal

46
The Carolingian Renaissance
  • did not emphasize creativity
  • devoted to recovering the past
  • looked to the past for standards and ideas
  • looked to the past for art and knowledge
  • preservation of manuscripts
  • Carolingian minuscule

47
Carolingian Renaissance, cont
  • revival of learning
  • Alcuin of York
  • University as Aachen
  • Church did not control learning
  • schools in communities

48
The Seven Liberal Arts
  • Trivium
  • grammar, rhetoric, dialectic (logic)
  • Quadrivium
  • arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music
  • the foundations of learning in the West

49
Disintegration of the Empire
  • Louis the Pious
  • the Salic principle of inheritance
  • Lothiar, Pepin, Louis, Charles
  • the Treaty of Verdun 843
  • arranged by the Church
  • future impact on Europe

50
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51
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52
The Formation of Christian Europe
  • Clovis conversion forms strong alliance with
    Roman Christianity
  • Church supplies Clovis with class of literate
    information workers
  • Scribes
  • secretaries

53
The Franks and the Church
  • Protectors of the Papacy
  • Charlemagne destroys Lombards, who threatened
    Pope, Rome
  • Spreads Christianity in northern areas
  • Support of scholarship, scribal activity

54
The Spread of Christianity
  • Charlemagne fights pagan Saxons (772-804)
  • Saxons later adopt Christianity
  • Scandinavia, other pockets of paganism until c.
    1000 CE

55
Pope Gregory I (590-604 CE)
  • Gregory the Great
  • Asserted papal primacy
  • Prominent theologian
  • Sacrament of penance
  • Major missionary activity, especially in England

56
Monasticism
  • Egyptian origins, 2nd-3rd centuries
  • Monastic lifestyle expands 4th century
  • Large variety of monastic rules
  • Range from extremely ascetic to very lax

57
St. Benedict (480-547)
  • Established consistent rule for monasteries
  • Poverty
  • Chastity
  • Obedience
  • St. Scholastica (482-543)
  • Sister of St. Benedict
  • Adapts Benedictine Rule for convents

58
Monasticism and Society
  • Accumulation of large landholdings, serfs
  • Social welfare projects
  • Esp. labor contributions
  • Expansion of literacy
  • Inns, orphanages, hospitals
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