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An Australian Virtual Herbarium

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HISCOM. An Australian Virtual Herbarium. Jim Croft. Australian National Herbarium. HISCOM ... Why do we need an AVH? Increasing expectations and demands on herbaria ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: An Australian Virtual Herbarium


1
An Australian Virtual Herbarium
  • Jim Croft

Australian National Herbarium
2
Panel
  • HISCOM members
  • AD - Bill Barker
  • BRI - Peter Bostock
  • CANB - Greg Whitbread
  • DNA - Anne Fuchs
  • HO -
  • MEL - Marco Duretto, Paul Cholodniuk
  • NSW - Barry Conn
  • PERTH - Alex Chapman

3
This Presentation
  • Description of an AVH
  • Need for an AVH
  • Preparedness for a AVH
  • Options for an AVH

4
AVH - Keywords
  • Herbarium
  • Collections of botanical specimens
  • Sources of botanical knowledge and expertise
  • Sources of botanical information

5
AVH - Keywords
  • Virtual
  • Appearing as
  • Computer dependent
  • Graphic, visual
  • High Tech
  • On-line

6
AVH - Keywords
  • Australian
  • Implies national in coverage and view
  • States and territories
  • Government, educational
  • Distributed

7
Name Options
  • Australian Virtual Herbarium
  • Australian Herbarium Virtuality
  • Virtual Herbarium of Australia
  • Virtual Australian Herbarium

8
What is an AVH like?
  • Conceptual parallels in the
  • Australian National Rare and Endangered Plant
    Collection
  • Australian National Fungi Collection
  • Australian National Plant Collection

9
Foci of the AVH
  • Past (and current) foci
  • data
  • database design
  • technology
  • networks
  • Focus for an AVH
  • Information

10
Why do we need an AVH?
  • Increasing expectations and demands on herbaria
  • Increasing costs of using duplicated data
  • Decreasing staff resources for herbaria
  • Gaps in individual data coverage
  • Competition from other sources
  • Demonstrable relevance of herbaria

11
Cost of Specimen Data
  • Excluding computing herbarium support
  • 4 (- 5) per collection
  • c. 2 data entry
  • c. 2 geocode calculation/verification
  • Each duplicate redone by recipients
  • Maybe 4 - 6 duplicates per collection
  • 6 million herbarium specimens in Australia
  • Less than 50 databased

12
Costs of Other Data
  • Each herbarium maintains census
  • Each herbarium maintains taxonomy
  • Each taxonomist maintains a taxonomy
  • ? 5-6 x duplication of effort
  • (Total curation costs 25-50 / specimen)

13
Australian Herbarium Collections
  • Herbaria completely databased
  • BRI - 600 k
  • QRS - 100 k
  • DNA - 170 k
  • PERTH - 400 k

14
Australian Herbarium Collections
  • Herbaria partially databased
  • AD - 800 k (13 )
  • CANB - 900 k (45 )
  • HO - 350 k (20 )
  • MEL - 1 M (6 )
  • NSW - 900 k (25)

15
Australian Herbarium Collections
  • Summary estimates from State Herbaria
  • November 1996
  • c. 5.3 million collections
  • c. 2.2 million databased
  • c. 42 databased

16
Australian Herbarium Collections
  • c. 12 M to complete the job!
  • c. 1.5 M if we share the task!
  • Divided views in the past
  • High priority - do it now
  • Collect more - do it later

17
Benefits of an AVH
  • Shared and common data
  • Common standards
  • Common authority files
  • Shared data entry and curation
  • Access to a larger database
  • Access to larger body of expertise

18
Where have we come from?
  • Printed books, articles
  • Ledgers and cards (60s)
  • Simple databases (70s)
  • Complex databases (80s/90s)
  • Network connection (90s)
  • Exchange of and sharing data (90s)

19
Are we ready for an AVH?
  • Computerized collections data
  • Compatible database design
  • Common data standards
  • Agreed data interchange format (HISPID)
  • Increased technical understanding
  • Common purpose
  • Goodwill

20
Elements of an AVH
  • Plant name information
  • Specimen information
  • Observational information
  • Taxon information
  • Mapping and distributional information
  • Expanding botanical knowledge
  • Dissemination of knowledge
  • Linking with other programs

21
Elements of an AVH (cont.)
  • Plant name information
  • Nomenclatural
  • Taxonomic
  • Systematic
  • Typification
  • Bibliographic
  • Common names

22
Elements of an AVH (cont.)
  • Specimen information
  • Collections information
  • Transactions (accessions, loans)
  • Taxonomically authenticated point locality
    information
  • Images
  • live material, morphological, anatomical

23
Elements of an AVH (cont.)
  • Observational information
  • Surveys
  • Sightings
  • Anecdotal reports

24
Elements of an AVH (cont.)
  • Taxon information
  • Descriptive
  • Monographs, revisions, Floras, etc.
  • Images
  • live material, morphological, anatomical
  • Expert Identification systems
  • Intkey, Lucid, Meka, etc.

25
Elements of an AVH (cont.)
  • Mapping and distributional information
  • checklists, censuses
  • Electronic gazetteers
  • GIS output
  • Modeling
  • Predictive output

26
Elements of an AVH (cont.)
  • Expanding botanical knowledge
  • phylogenetic analysis
  • genetic studies
  • taxonomic research

27
Elements of an AVH (cont.)
  • Dissemination of knowledge
  • Basic data
  • Derived information
  • Published floras
  • Educational information
  • Biological information systems

28
Elements of an AVH (cont.)
  • Linking with other programs
  • Regional biodiversity, environmental, resource
    surveys
  • State and Territory surveys
  • Local Surveys

29
Elements of an AVH (cont.)
  • Linking with other programs (cont.)
  • National biodiversity, environmental, resource
    surveys
  • ABRS
  • TSCS (ESU)
  • NHT (Landcare, RFA, CRA, etc.)
  • ERIN
  • NRIC

30
Elements of an AVH (cont.)
  • Linking with other programs (cont.)
  • International projects
  • Plant Names Project
  • IOPI
  • Species 2000
  • NSF/ASC collections projects
  • World Bank / GEF
  • Data repatriation

31
Elements of an AVH (cont.)
  • Tools and Technology
  • Network Connectivity Internet, WWW
  • Database functionality
  • Applications

32
Can we build an AVH?
  • We have the technology
  • We have the ability
  • We have the data
  • We have the protocols and standards
  • Do we have the will?

33
Where to start?
  • We are exchanging data
  • Taxonomic and census data
  • Specimen data
  • Build a virtual type herbarium?
  • ?

34
Principles for an AVH
  • Shared
  • Collaborative
  • Distributed
  • Dynamic
  • Accessible
  • Authoritative
  • Strategic and proactive
  • Relevant

35
(No Transcript)
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