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Floral Design

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American floral design is now the worldwide pacesetter for stylized arrangements. ... all containers is that they not detract from the overall arrangement and the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Floral Design


1
Chapter 7
  • Floral Design

2
  • The use of flowers in gardens and homes is
    well-documented through most of all recorded
    history.
  • American floral design is now the worldwide
    pacesetter for stylized arrangements.
  • We use flowers to express our joys and our
    sympathies.

3
Things or events flowers highlight
  • Birth of a child
  • Holidays
  • The first dance
  • Weddings
  • Anniversaries
  • Deaths

4
Difference between art and craft?
  • Art is the creation of new and harmonious
    relationships among lines and forms artists use
    living materials instead of paint or stone.
  • Craft can be taught. Yet as with any skill,
    practitioners will help develop a greater
    proficiency than others.

5
5 cutting tools in Floral Design
  • Knife short blade that will hold an edge helps
    prevent cut fingers.
  • Florist shears short blade with serrated edges
    cuts both herbaceous and woody plant material.

6
  • Pruning shears have two cutting blades and are
    used for cutting woody material.
  • Ribbon shears similar to ordinary scissors in
    appearance.
  • Styrofoam cutter a widely serrated cutting edge
    makes it suitable for cutting styrofoam.

7
Wiring Materials
  • Florist wire wire is used to support weak
    flower and stems and to hold curved lines in
    arrangements.
  • Chenille stems used for decorative purposes and
    to provide water to corsage.

8
  • Spool wire used to wire arrangements such as
    wreaths and door swags.
  • Twistems fill a number of roles where support
    or repair is needed.

9
  • Wooden picks can be fastened to stems or other
    materials and inserted into a holding substance.
  • Metal picks similar to wooden picks
  • and are dispersed from a machine.

10
Adhesive Materials
  • Floral tape used to wrap flower stems when wire
    is needed for their support.
  • Waterproof tape most common use is to hold stem
    support material.
  • Florist clay waterproof material, used to hold
    pinpoint stem holders in place within a container.

11
  • Styrofoam glue this material is a strong
    adhesive without dissolving styrofoam.
  • Hot glue gun glue is inserted as a solid stick
    into the gun, heated electrically and dispensed
    in a liquid state which quickly cools and
    hardens.

12
Stem support Materials
  • Block styrofoam Used as a dry base for dried and
    permanent arrangements it cannot be used with
    fresh flowers. The styrofoam can be cut into
    particular shapes with a styrofoam cutter or it
    can be purchased already formed in different
    shapes.
  • Shredded styrofoam It is sometimes used to hold
    dried, silk, and plastic flowers and foliage,
    especially in tall containers. Water can be added
    to the styrofoam if fresh flowers are used, i.e.,
    for long-stemmed roses in a tall vase.

13
  • Chicken wire - This type of wire has up to a
    one-inch mesh and can be rolled into a ball and
    placed into a container. Stems are then inserted
    into the folded mesh. This is usually utilized
    only with larger containers.
  • Pinpoint holders - Also known as "frogs" or "pin
    holders," these are constructed out of metal or
    heavy plastic and held in a container with
    florist clay, with stems being pressed onto the
    pins. These are used more often by consumers than
    by professional florists, and they are reusable.

14
  • Water-holding foams most common material used.
    Lightweight, soft, and porous material that holds
    flower stems in a fixed position while letting
    them absorb water.
  • Glass pebbles and marbles made of clear glass
    or opaque black, the marbles are used to support
    long stems in tall vase arrangements.
  • Plastic grids snap on the top of vases and some
    novelty containers and hold flower stems in
    position.

15
  • Among the changes that have elevated public
    appreciation of floral arrangements has been the
    imaginative use of containers.
  • A container holding fresh flowers needs to be
    able to hold water, but if it cannot it must
    contain water-filled foam wrapped in waterproof
    foil and be set in a fixed place.

16
  • Am important quality of all containers is that
    they not detract from the overall arrangement and
    the beauty of its plant materials.
  • Flowers must be attended to immediately on
    arrival or the perishable product may be lost,
    and with it the florists investment.

17
Upon arrival most cut flowers receive
  • Nutrition for continued good health
  • Water to prevent wilting
  • Cool temperatures to slow their metabolic
    activity and prolong their lives.

18
  • Warm water is preferable to cold because the
    flowers can absorb it more quickly.
  • Most of the materials that are visible in an
    arrangement are flowers and foliage.
  • Because floral design, like all design, is
    personal, it is difficult to evaluate.

19
  • Reasons floral design is difficult to evaluate.
  • Every customer wants something has different
    desires.
  • Different florists have different opinions.
  • Lack of common ground

20
  • The kinds of flowers and foliage used should be
    limited too many shapes and textures can
    over-complicate the design.
  • Focal point is the point of greatest visual
    attraction in a floral design. It is usually the
    point where the major lines of design coverage
    are, generally the center of an arrangement.

21
Types of arrangement materials
  • 1. Line
  • Thin
  • Vertical
  • Tapered
  • Used to create the basic shape of the arrangement
  • Most effective at outer edges of the arrangement

22
  • 2. Mass
  • Rounded
  • Used at the center of arrangement
  • 3. Form
  • Uncommon shapes
  • Unusual silhouettes
  • Seldom mixed with other form materials

23
  • 4. Filler
  • Used to fill in between line and mass materials
  • Often has many blossoms or small leaves on a
    single stem

24
Three size relationships to consider
  • Relationship among flowers and other materials
    Must use appropriate flower sizes in order to
    create good transition.
  • Relationship between flowers and their containers
    Neither should overpower or dwarf the other.
  • Relationship between the finished arrangement and
    the situation in which it will be used make
    sure the size of the arrangement is appropriate
    ex. A table arrangement should not encroach on
    the plates youre eating from.

25
  • Balance describes what the viewer needs to see on
    each side of center.
  • Two common types of balance
  • Symmetrical
  • Asymmetrical

26
  • Symmetrical arrangements, if bisected by a line
    (axis) running from the vertical tip through the
    base of the container, has flowers and foliage in
    almost exactly the same places on opposite sides

27
  • Asymmetrical arrangements have an axis, but it
    may or may not bisect the container equally.

28
Standard patterns of floral arrangements
Round
Oval
Rectangle
29
Cont.d
Asymmetrical Triangle
Symmetrical Triangle
30
Basic lines in floral arrangements
Vertical
Horizontal
L-line
31
Cont.d
Inverted
S-Curve
Crescent
32
Rhythm and Line
  • The placement and repetition of selected
    elements, such as seed-pods in dried autumn
    arrangements, can create a sense of rhythm. The
    use of transistion described under scale and
    proportion is also important to the development
    of rhythm and line.

33
  • There are five standards which form the
    foundation of American floral design.
  • Colors chosen for arrangements are based on
  • The room where they will be placed
  • The background against which they will be placed
  • The light under which they will be viewed
  • The season of the year
  • The preferences of the person for whom the
    flowers are intended
  • The preferences of the purchaser
  • The preferences of the floral manager.

34
  • Coloring families the six major groupings of
    colors visible when white light is passed through
    a prism or when a rainbow is seen after a shower
    (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet).
  • Hue the quality from which the family name is
    derived the color in its most brilliant and
    unaltered state.
  • Tint the hue lightened by the addition of
    white.
  • Shade the hue darkened by the addition of black.

35
  • Tone the hue grayed by the addition of both
    white and black.
  • Intensity the quality of visual strength or
    weakness that characterizes a color.
  • Luminosity the quality of certain colors that
    allows them to be seen under dim light.
  • Warmth and coolness reds and oranges are
    considered warm colors while blues and greens are
    considered cool.
  • Movement ability of colors to appear closer or
    further away.

36
  • Color scheme is the groupings of colors a color
    scheme may be related or contrasting depending on
    the location of the colors on the color wheel.
  • Related color schemes
  • Monochromatic utilizes one color in its many
    related values.
  • Adjacent use one of the primary colors with
    other colors derived from that primary.

37
  • Contrasting color schemes
  • Complementary use colors that are opposites or
    near opposites on the color wheel.
  • Tradic use three colors that are spaced
    equidistantly on the color wheel.
  • Polychromatic use all of the hues together.

38
Why are flowers wired?
  • To support stems weakened by age or poor
    production
  • To straighten crooked stems
  • To hold stems in a n intentional curve for design
  • To extend stem length for large arrangements
  • To replace a bulky stem, permitting use of the
    flower in a corsage
  • To combine single blossoms for a mass effect

39
  • The techniques of wiring depends on the flower
    being wired and the stem and flower head
    involved.
  • Two of the mainstays of floral designs are bows
    and puffs.
  • Puffs are small clusters of netted fabric
    sometimes called tulle, that are used as
    background and lightweight filler for corsages
    and bouquets.
  • Bows are usually constructed from fabric ribbon,
    although plastic ribbons are sometimes used for
    outdoor pieces.

40
Various ways of wiring flowers
  • Wiring inside a hollow stem
  • Wiring in the calyx and around the stem
  • Wiring looped through the neck of a blossom and
    around a wad of moistened cotton
  • Wiring through the calyx and the ends bent to
    form a replacement stem
  • Wiring through the calyx, formed into a hood, and
    pulled back to center

41
  • Flower tape is applied after the flower has been
    wired.
  • Corsages are most commonly pinned to clothing at
    the shoulder or banded to the wrist.

42
Question to ask prior to designing table
arrangements
  • What is the purpose of the arrangement?
  • Will it be visible from all sides?
  • What colors predominate on the table or in the
    room?
  • Is there a theme to the occasion?
  • How long is the arrangement to last?
  • Does the client have a preference for colors,
    flowers, or styles?

43
Wreaths in floral design
  • For centuries, the Christmas holiday season has
    been celebrated with festive wreaths, but in
    recent years, wreaths have been used to
    commemorate many addition occasions and seasons.
    Therefore, wreaths have become a big part of the
    floral design industry and the understanding of
    them is very important for every floral designer.
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