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EDSGN 100 Fall 2008 Design Project

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Title: EDSGN 100 Fall 2008 Design Project


1
EDSGN 100 Fall 2008 Design Project Penn State
Solar Decathlon Borton-Lawson October 6, 2008
2
Borton-Lawson Overview
  • 130 Employees
  • 20 Years in Business Founded by 2 PSU grads
  • 3 Locations in Northeastern and Central PA
  • 4 Divisions Facility Engineering, Architecture,
    Civil and Transportation
  • Full Service Engineering/Architecture Firm

3
Civil/Transportation
  • Site land development plans and surveys
  • Stormwater management plans
  • Wastewater treatments plants
  • Site utility designs
  • Environmental assessments and remediation
  • Road, highway, parking lot design

4
Architecture
  • Space Planning/Process Workflow Evaluation
  • Building Permit/Life Safety Submissions
  • Support Facilities Maintenance Shops, Break
    Rooms, Locker Rooms, Cafeteria, ADA Compliant
    Rest Rooms, Shower Facilities
  • Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
    (LEED) Certification

5
Facilities Engineering
  • Provide solutions for manufacturers, developers,
    government, pharma
  • All disciplines for a complete project
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Electrical Engineering
  • Structural Engineering
  • Automation Controls
  • Various project delivery methods
  • Use Revit design software BIM (building
    information modeling) process of generating and
    managing building data during its life cycle

6
Borton-Lawsons Green Story
  • Strive to be energy conscious and look for most
    efficient ways to design projects.
  • Dedicated to minimizing energy consumption,
    reducing emissions, shrinking carbon footprint.
  • Sponsoring EDSGN 100 Project just another step in
    maintaining balance between economic growth and
    environmental stewardship.
  • Some example energy efficient projects completed
    by Borton-Lawson

7
Pine Street Revitalization
  • Pine Street Neighborhood Revitalization located
    in Hazleton, PA commercial/residential area
    became largely vacant over the last decade.
  • Used green technology to create highly
    efficient heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting
    and appliances can provide energy cost savings
    of about 30 over standard construction.
  • Used photovoltaic systems on the southern-sloped
    roofs.
  • Net metering allows residents the ability to
    transfer surplus energy to the local utility.
  • 2008 Governors Award Winner for Environmental
    Excellence

8
Pine Street Revitalization
9
Pine Street Revitalization
Pine Street can become a model for other
communities to re-use vacant downtown property in
a creative and energy-efficient way, promote
public education and responsibility, result in
positive economic impact, and leave a smaller
footprint on this earth by utilizing Green
building techniques.
10
Geisinger Buckhorn Office Building
  • Borton-Lawson was selected by Geisinger Health
    System to design their newest office building to
    house non-medical offices in Buckhorn, PA.
    Architect of record for the project.
  • Multi-million dollar building LEED certified
  • Borton-Lawson also completing land development
    for the site.

11
Steam System Audits
  • U.S. Department of Energy Steam System Assessment
    Tools (SSST SSAT)
  • Industry professionals recognized as Qualified
    Specialists by the DOE after training class and
    rigorous exam.
  • Qualified Specialists develop approximate models
    of real steam systems. Using these models,
    specialists apply SSST SSAT to quantify the
    magnitude energy, cost, and emissions-savings
    of key potential steam improvement opportunities.
  • Specialists apply this tool to help their plant
    or industrial customers identify ways to improve
    steam system efficiency.

12
Steam System Audits
  • Sample SSAT screenshot
  • In 2001, six DOE Industrial Assessment Centers
    used SSST at 18 small and mid-sized facilities
  • Successfully identified 89 steam system
    improvements
  • Average payback of 7 months and fuel bill
    savings of 12.5.
  • Improvements yielded a total savings of
    2,800,000 per year.
  • www.eere.energy.gov U.S. DOE Energy Efficiency
    and Renewable Energy Office

13
Energy Cost Increases on the Horizon
  • Electric Rate Caps Removal in Pennsylvania
  • Rate caps froze electric rates at 1990s levels
    and were imposed on utilities as part of a
    deregulation designed to deliver lower bills in a
    competitive marketplace. Competition, however,
    has not flourished.
  • In the last 10 years, environmental factors for
    electric generation and the prices of natural gas
    and coal have doubled both of those products
    are fuels used in the generation of electricity.
    While Pennsylvania consumers rates are capped,
    the market prices for electricity have risen
    just as the prices of other goods and services
    have risen, but electric rates were capped.
  • Pennsylvanians could see home electric bills rise
    40, 50 or even 60 percent by the time decade-old
    rate caps expire in the next few years.

14
Solar Decathlon Overview
I PAT Impact Population x Affluence x
Technology
By 2050 ? 1.5x
? 3-5x
? ?4.5-7.5x
Right now, it is estimated that Impact exceeds
Earths sustainable capacity by 20, ?T ?5-9x
15
PSUs Morning Star Home
  • See http//solar.psu.edu for project info
  • Whats a Decathlon about it?
  • Architecture 200 points
  • Dwelling 100 points
  • Documentation 100 points
  • Communications 100 points
  • Comfort Zone 100 points
  • Appliances 100 points
  • Hot Water 100 points
  • Lighting 100 points
  • Energy Balance 100 points
  • Getting Around 100 points

Morningstar Penn States 4th place entry in 2007
16
Overall Objectives
  • Solar-powered All energy needs of the house
    provided by the sun.
  • Energy efficient Provides desired services with
    minimal energy input.
  • Energy harvesting Maximum use of energy
    scavenged from systems in the house.
  • Sustainable design All components and systems
    meet the homes needs without burdening future
    generations.
  • Cost Effective Use technologies and a design
    that minimizes initial and lifecycle costs of the
    projected average homeowner in the year 2015
    assuming a 0.10/kWh levelized energy cost.

17
Whats the Solar Resource?
18
Seasonal Averages
http//rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/redbook
/sum2/state.html
19
Estimating Photovoltaic (PV) Output
  • PVs rated in power output when illuminated with
    1,000 W/m2 of sunlight
  • Output varies in direct proportion to sunlight
    intensity
  • Therefore, power output is estimated using
    average solar radiation energy data and
    converting it into equivalent hours at a power of
    1,000 W/m2

20
Estimating PV Output
  • Long-term output is estimated by taking the
    average hours/day at peak output (e.g. 4.2 for
    Jan) and multiplying by the rated peak output
  • For example, suppose your PV array is rated at
    7.5 kWp
  • Then for a day in January, youd expect
  • 7.5 kWp(4.2 hr/day)31.5 kwh/day
  • For the month 31.5 kwh/day (31 day/mo)945
    kwh/mo
  • This reflects the DC output and does not include
    other losses in the system.

21
EDSGN 100 Projects
  • Nexus Technical Core
  • BIPV Building Integrated PV
  • Solar Clothes Drying
  • Daylighting

22
Project A Nexus Technical Core
  • What is the Technical Core?
  • A module that can be easily standardized, mass
    produced, transported and integrated into a
    custom configuration.
  • Includes the kitchen, bathroom and mechanical
    room and all its associated appliances, fixtures,
    plumbing, wiring and controls.
  • Allows equipment to be easily maintained, added,
    removed, or replaced in a "plug and play"
    fashion.
  • Reduces the need for energy by organizing the
    plumbing and ductwork to minimize line losses.
    Creates opportunities for synergies between
    systems such as the recapturing and re-use of
    heat.

23
Project A Nexus Technical Core
  • Why is the Technical Core important?
  • Much of a homes energy deals directly with items
    that make up a homes technical core kitchen,
    bathroom and mechanical room

Source 2005 Building Energy Data Book, Table
4.2.1
24
Project A Nexus Technical Core
  • Design a technical core that
  • Provides all of the amenities that a homeowner
    expects.
  • Meets all requirements of the Uniform Building
    Code.
  • Takes advantages of energy and materials
    synergies among appliances and fixtures.
  • Incorporates sustainable materials.

25
The Home Bathroom Focus on function / services
Fresh air / light
Light
Beauty?
Storage
Shower
Toilet
Sink
Bathtub
26
Energy and Materials Entering and Leaving the
Bathroom
Electricity
Warm, humid air
Hot water
Daylight
Heating/cooling
Water
Waste Water
Makeup air
27
Energy and Materials Leaving the Bathroom A
Closer Look
Warm, humid air
Greywater (GW)
GW
GW
BW
Blackwater (BW)
28
Energy Entering the Bathroom A Bigger Look
Photovoltaic Array
Water heater
Heat Pump
Electricity Supply
29
Energy Materials Leaving the Bathroom A Bigger
Look
Warm, humid air
GW
GW
GW
BW
Warm, black water
30
The Bathroom A Much Bigger Look
CO2 SOx NOx
Power Plant
Chemicals
Chemicals
Electricity
Reservoir
Water Plant
Sewage Plant
Fresh water
Black water
31
A Systematic Approach
  • Identify services/functions
  • Identify characterize subsystems
  • Consider how to minimize loads
  • Consider how to reclaim energy materials
  • Consider how to use natural principles and
    sustainable materials
  • Analyze performance of concepts
  • Consider the bigger pictures

32
Project A Technical Core
  • Deliverables
  • Physical scale model (11)
  • 3D CAD Model
  • Thorough analysis of the operation and material
    and energy balances
  • A complete description of the design and its
    development

33
Project B Building Integrated PV
  • BIPV means combining PV electricity production
    with other functions and components of the
    building
  • Deliverables
  • Thorough review of the literature and
    characterization of the kinds of BIPV systems
    that have already been developed,
  • Creation of a new combination or radically new
    idea
  • Physical models and CAD drawings,
  • Wiring details and performance analysis
  • A complete description of the design and its
    development

BP Solars PowerView PV Laminate
34
PV comes in 3 basic types
  • a-Si amorphous silicon, or thin-film (shown in
    photos at right)
  • Can be applied to glass and allow light to pass
    through
  • Can be put on flexible films
  • Least efficient, 5-7
  • p-Si polycrystalline silicon
  • Not flexible rigid brittle cells
  • Mid-efficiency, 10-12
  • c-Si crystalline silicon
  • Inflexible, like p-Si
  • Highest efficiency, 13-18

35
BIPV on Roofs
  • Considerations for mounting rooftop PV system
  • Module physical and electrical characteristics
  • 2. Array thermal and electrical performance
  • 3. Array orientation, location and site
    conditions
  • 4. Roofing and structural-related issues
  • 5. Building thermal performance
  • 6. Weather sealing
  • 7. Electrical integration
  • 8. Installation, labor, and maintenance
  • 9. Materials and environmental compatibility
  • 10. Aesthetics and architectural integration
  • 11. Economic factors and costs

Solar Integrated Technologys Solar Roofing
Source Barkaszi and Dunlop, Discussion Of
Strategies For Mounting Photovoltaic Arrays On
Rooftops, Solar Forum 2001.
36
Steps in designing a BIPV system
  • Reduce energy requirements of the building.
  • Provide adequate ventilation
  • Evaluate using hybrid PV-solar thermal systems
  • Consider integrating daylighting and photovoltaic
    collection
  • Incorporate PV modules into shading devices
  • Design for the local climate and environment
  • Address site planning and orientation issues
  • Consider array orientation
  • Adapted from http//www.wbdg.org/design/bipv.php

Uni-Solars solar shingles
Uni-Solars thin film PV integrated into metal
roofing
37
BIPV Challenges
  • Solar D house needs lots of power, ?c-Si or p-Si
    is needed
  • c-Si p-Si panels work better when cooler
  • Individual cells or modules can be integrated
    with windows (wires?)
  • Shadows are bad

Lose 0.5 per oC
c-Si cells laminated in window or skylight
38
Grid-tied PV System
  • For the 2009 Decathlon, the home will be
    grid-tied
  • If excess PV power is available it is put into
    the grid
  • When PV power is less than loads, electricity is
    taken from the grid

39
Project C Solar Clothes Dryer
  • Electric clothes dryers use 900-1500 kwh/year
  • At 0.10/kwh, costs 90-150/year (cost will be
    even higher after electric rate caps are removed)
  • The dryer is typically the second-biggest
    electricity-using appliance after the
    refrigerator
  • Solution

40
Project C Solar Clothes Dryer
A solar clothes dryerbetter known as a
clothesline
Challenge is to accomplish this in an
aesthetically acceptable or even pleasing way
(may need to change some public perception).
41
Project C Solar Clothes Dryer
  • Deliverables
  • Physical scale model (11)
  • 3D CAD model
  • Thorough analysis of the operation and material
    and energy balances, and
  • A complete description of the design and its
    development.

42
Project D Daylighting
  • Leads to health and productivity
  • Offsets electric lighting
  • Challenging due to variability in intensity and
    direction of sunlight

43
Daylighting Tradeoffs
  • Natural light is let in with windows and
    skylights, using less electricity for light

But windows let out more heat in winter, using
more heat energy
Sunlight and electric lights also add heat to the
building more energy to cool building might be
required if daylighting techniques arent thought
out and tested
44
Project D Daylighting
  • Deliverables
  • Research into effective techniques for
    daylighting,
  • Experimentation with scale models,
  • Analysis with spreadsheets and other software,
  • 3D CAD model,
  • Comprehensive final report.

45
Questions ?
Good Luck on Your Projects!
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