What%20Do%20I%20already%20know%20about%20Prehistoric%20Cultures? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

What%20Do%20I%20already%20know%20about%20Prehistoric%20Cultures?

Description:

What Do I already know about Prehistoric Cultures – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:24
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 122
Provided by: cla63
Learn more at: http://www.d.umn.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: What%20Do%20I%20already%20know%20about%20Prehistoric%20Cultures?


1
Class Slides Set 34 New World Civilizations
Olmec Figurine
2
Teotihuacános (Teotihuacán)
Aztec
Bulldogs
Zapotec / Mixtec (Monte Albán)
Maya
Olmec
Inka
Chimu
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 480.
3
Old World and New World Similarities
  • state economies based on agriculture and long
    distance trade
  • power leaders
  • social stratification
  • human labor invested in large-scale constructions

4
Old World and New World Similarities
  • public art styles
  • state religions
  • prominent role of warfare
  • record keeping

5
  • Maya Mathematics

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 487.
6
Old World and New World Differences
  • In the New World
  • domesticated animals had minor status in
    agriculture
  • technological role of metal was limited
  • wheel played no important function
  • but some toys had wheels, so people understood
    the principles involved

7
New World Civilizations Chapter 18
  • Lowland Mesoamerica
  • Highland Mexico
  • Peru
  • European Conquest of the New World

8
Lowland Mesoamerica
Highland Mexico
Peru
Time line of New World Civilizations.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 479.
9
Time line of New World Civilizations.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 479.
10
New World Civilizations
  • Lowland Mesoamerica
  • Olmec
  • Maya
  • Highland Mexico
  • Teotihuacán
  • Zapotec
  • Mixtec
  • Aztec
  • Peru
  • Inka and their predecessors
  • European Conquest of the New World

11
Mesoamerica
  • geographical and cultural region from central
    Mexico through Nicaragua

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 481.
12
Cultural Regions of Mesoamerica
Valley of Mexico
Maya
Olmec
Oaxaca
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 481.
13
  • Olmec Region
  • La Venta

Mesoamerican archaeological sites.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 481.
14
  • Maya Region
  • Uaxactún
  • Tikál
  • Copán
  • Palenque
  • Kaminaljuyú
  • Chichén Itzá Toltec-Maya

Mesoamerican archaeological sites.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 481.
15
  • Oaxaca Region
  • Monte Albán Zapotec / Mixtec
  • Mitla Mixtec

Mesoamerican archaeological sites.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 481.
16
  • Valley of Mexico Region
  • Teotihuacán Teotihuacános
  • Tula Toltec
  • Tenochtitlán Aztec Nahua

Mesoamerican archaeological sites.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 481.
17
New World Civilizations
  • Lowland Mesoamerica
  • Highland Mexico
  • Peru
  • European Conquest of the New World

18
New World Civilizations
  • Lowland Mesoamerica
  • The Olmec
  • The Classic Maya

19
New World Civilizations
  • Lowland Mesoamerica
  • The Olmec
  • The Mother Culture of Mesoamerica
  • culture in the gulf coast lowlands of Veracruz
    and Tabasco, Mexico
  • 3,200 - 2,400 y.a.

20
  • Olmec Region
  • La Venta

Mesoamerican archaeological sites.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 481.
21
The Olmec (3,200 - 2,400 y.a.)
  • culture in the gulf coast lowlands of Veracruz
    and Tabasco, Mexico

22
  • Olmec

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 481.
23
  • Olmec

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 479.
24
The Olmec (3,200 - 2,400 y.a.)
  • established the regions first ceremonial centers
    on a grand scale

25
The Olmec (3,200 - 2,400 y.a.)
  • distinctive art included anthropomorphic
    sculptures that combined features of humans and
    animals

26
  • anthropomorphic
  • having or being given humanlike characteristics

Mayan anthropomorphic bird of prey.
27
  • Olmec
  • culture in the Gulf coast lowlands of Veracruz
    and Tabasco, Mexico, with a highly developed art
    style and social complexity flourished from
    3,200 to 2,400 y.a.

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 482.
28
Monumental Olmec head excavated at San Lorenzo,
in Mexico.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 482.
29
  • Olmec

Olmec jade figurines, La Venta, Mexico.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 483.
30
Olmec figure, carved from Jade.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., pp. 480, 482.
31
The Olmec (3,200 - 2,400 y.a.)
  • used hieroglyphic notation

32
The Olmec (3,200 - 2,400 y.a.)
  • had a calendar that would be adopted by their
    successors
  • played sacred ball game

33
Ball court at Monte Albán, Mexico.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 483.
34
The Olmec (3,200 - 2,400 y.a.)
35
New World Civilizations
  • Lowland Mesoamerica
  • The Olmec
  • The Classic Maya

36
  • Maya
  • prehistoric Mesoamerican culture consisting of
    regional kingdoms and known for its art and
    architectural accomplishments from 1,800 to 1,100
    y.a.

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 481.
37
  • Maya

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 479.
38
Classic Maya (1,800 - 1,100 y.a.)
  • used complex hieroglyphs

39
Stela I from La Moharra
40
Maya hieroglyphs on a stela at Copán,
Honduras, record the date and purpose of its
dedication.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 486.
41
Classic Maya (1,800 - 1,100 y.a.)
  • priestly caste
  • observed the sun, moon and Venus
  • predicted rain
  • prescribed rituals
  • performed sacrifices

42
New World Civilizations
  • Lowland Mesoamerica
  • The Olmec
  • The Classic Maya Major Sites
  • Uaxactún
  • Tikál
  • Copán
  • Palenque
  • Kaminaljuyú
  • Chichén Itzá

43
  • Maya Region
  • Uaxactún
  • Tikál
  • Copán
  • Palenque
  • Kaminaljuyú
  • Chichén Itzá Toltec-Maya

Mesoamerican archaeological sites.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 481.
44
  • Uaxactún

45
  • Uaxactún
  • Maya ceremonial center in Guatemala

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 481.
46
  • Tikál

47
  • Tikál
  • principal Maya city and ceremonial center in
    Guatemala

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 481.
48
  • ceremonial centersPublic spaces reserved for
    ritual activities, often dominated by special
    architecture and artwork.

Classic Maya Cylindrical jar
Maya Center, Tikál, Guatemala
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., pp. 486, 485.
49
Temple pyramid at the Maya ceremonial center of
Tikál, Guatemala.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., pp. 480, 485.
50
This classic Maya cylindrical jar with bird motif
and glyphs was used in ceremonies.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 486.
51
  • Copán

52
  • Copán
  • principal Maya city and ceremonial center in
    Honduras, associated with the Early Classic

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 481.
53
  • stelae
  • upright posts or stones, often bearing
    inscriptions

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 486.
54
Maya stela at Copán, Honduras, depicts King 18
Rabbit in ceremonial regalia.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 486.
55
Maya hieroglyphs on a stela at Copán,
Honduras, record the date and purpose of its
dedication.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 486.
56
  • Palenque

57
  • site located in the lowlands and associated with
    Classic Maya
  • Palenque

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 481.
58
  • Temple of the Inscriptions, Palenque, Mexico

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 485.
59
  • Maya noble, limestone relief carving, Palenque.

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 484.
60
  • Kaminaljuyú

61
  • Kaminaljuyú
  • site located at Guatemala City, contemporary with
    Olmec and also associated with classic Maya

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 481.
62
Seated Figure, Kaminaljuyú, Guatemala.
63
Stelae 11, Kaminaljuyú, Guatemala.
64
  • Chichén Itzá

65
  • Chichén Itzá
  • principal Postclassic Maya city and ceremonial
    center in Yucatán

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 481.
66
Toltec-style serpentine columns and votive
figure, Temple of the Warriors, Chichén Itzá,
Yucatán, Mexico.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 491.
67
  • Maya

68
  • Oaxaca Region
  • Monte Albán Zapotec / Mixtec
  • Mitla Mixtec

Mesoamerican archaeological sites.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 481.
69
New World Civilizations
  • Lowland Mesoamerica
  • Highland Mexico
  • Teotihuacán
  • The Toltecs and the Postclassic Maya
  • The Aztec

70
  • Valley of Mexico Region
  • Teotihuacán Teotihuacános
  • Tula Toltec
  • Tenochtitlán Aztec Nahua

Mesoamerican archaeological sites.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 481.
71
New World Civilizations
  • Lowland Mesoamerica
  • Highland Mexico
  • Teotihuacán

72
  • Teotihuacán

73
  • Teotihuacán
  • the first city in the Western Hemisphere, located
    in central Mexico from 2,200 to 1,350 y.a.

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 481.
74
  • Teotihuacán

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 479.
75
Teotihuacán (2,200 - 1,350 y.a.)
  • first city in the Western Hemisphere, located in
    central Mexico
  • residents lived in 2,000 residential compounds
    based on occupation or social class
  • about 1,350 y.a., the ceremonial precinct was
    destroyed, nobility were seized and dismembered

76
  • Quetzalcoatl
  • also known as the Feathered Serpent a deity
    representing good, worshiped by Aztecs and
    possibly earlier at Teotihuacán

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 489.
77
  • Toltecs

78
New World Civilizations
  • Lowland Mesoamerica
  • Highland Mexico
  • Teotihuacán
  • The Toltecs and the Postclassic Maya

79
  • Toltecs
  • Central Mexican highlands people who created a
    pre-Aztec empire with its capital at Tula in the
    Valley of Mexico

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 481.
80
  • Toltecs

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 479.
81
Toltecs and Postclassic Maya
  • emerged as the most powerful peoples after demise
    of Teotihuacán
  • archaeologists still debate reasons for their
    shared elements of art, style and culture with
    Chichén Itzá, 800 miles away

82
  • Chichén Itzá
  • Postclassic Maya site in Yucatán, strongly linked
    with the Toltecs of Mexico

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 481.
83
  • Toltecs

Temple of the Warriors, Chichén Itzá, Yucatán,
Mexico.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 491.
84
New World Civilizations
  • Lowland Mesoamerica
  • Highland Mexico
  • Teotihuacán
  • The Toltecs and the Postclassic Maya
  • The Aztec

85
  • Aztec

86
  • Aztecs
  • militaristic people who dominated the Valley of
    Mexico and surrounding area at the time of the
    European conquest

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 481.
87
  • Aztecs

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 479.
88
  • Aztecs

Aztec rite of human sacrifice, depicted in a 16th
century chronicle.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 480.
89
  • chinampas
  • productive fields created in wet environments by
    dredging lake bottom muck to form raised ridges
    or platforms

90
  • Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin
  • last Aztec ruler, also know as Moctezuma II,
    whose death at the hands of the Spanish
    precipitated the destruction of the Aztec empire

91
New World Civilizations
  • Lowland Mesoamerica
  • Highland Mexico
  • Peru
  • Fishing, Farming and the Rise of Civilization
  • The Chavín Phenomenon
  • Early Cities
  • From Kingdoms to Empires
  • The Inka

92
Peruvian sites and locations.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 493.
93
New World Civilizations
  • Lowland Mesoamerica
  • Highland Mexico
  • Peru
  • Fishing, Farming and the Rise of Civilization

94
Peruvian sites and locations.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 493.
95
  • El Paraiso

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 479.
96
Olmec figure, carved from Jade.
97
New World Civilizations
  • Lowland Mesoamerica
  • Highland Mexico
  • Peru
  • Fishing, Farming and the Rise of Civilization
  • The Chavín Phenomenon

98
Chauvin Ceramics, 1200-200 B.C.
99
New World Civilizations
  • Lowland Mesoamerica
  • Highland Mexico
  • Peru
  • Fishing, Farming and the Rise of Civilization
  • The Chavín Phenomenon
  • Early Cities
  • Moche
  • Nazca

100
Peruvian sites and locations.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 493.
101
  • Early Cities Moche and Nazca

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 479.
102
Moche portrait jar from northern Peru.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 495.
103
Detail of Paracas Textile, Nazca region of
southern Peru.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 496.
104
Nazca ground drawings as seen from the air
included both zoomorphic and linear motifs. The
monkey is longer than a football field.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 496.
105
New World Civilizations
  • Lowland Mesoamerica
  • Highland Mexico
  • Peru
  • Fishing, Farming and the Rise of Civilization
  • The Chavín Phenomenon
  • Early Cities
  • From Kingdoms to Empires

106
Peruvian sites and locations.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 493.
107
  • Regional Kingdoms

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 479.
108
Staff god, Tiwanaku, Peru.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 497.
109
Peruvian sites and locations.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 493.
110
  • Regional Kingdoms

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 479.
111
Aerial view of one of the royal enclosures at
Chan Chan, the Chimor capital.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., pp. 480, 497.
112
New World Civilizations
  • Lowland Mesoamerica
  • Highland Mexico
  • Peru
  • Fishing, Farming and the Rise of Civilization
  • The Chavín Phenomenon
  • Early Cities
  • From Kingdoms to Empires
  • The Inka

113
Peruvian sites and locations.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 493.
114
  • Inka

Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 479.
115
The Inka
  • the last native empire builders of Peru, centered
    in the city of Cuzco
  • countered the development of urban centers,
    fearing that city dwellers might be a source of
    unrest
  • 2/3 of produce was claimed by the state, stored
    in warehouses and redistributed to citizens
  • lasted only 60 years

116
Machu Picchu.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., pp. 480, 499.
117
Inka stone walls of Sacsahuamán, near Cuzco, Peru.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 498.
118
New World Civilizations
  • Lowland Mesoamerica
  • Highland Mexico
  • Peru
  • European Conquest of the New World

119
Sixteenth-century woodblock print depicting an
early encounter between Europeans and Native
Americans.
Understanding Physical Anthropology and
Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 500.
120
Conquest of Aztec and Inka
  • in the 1500's Aztec and Inka empires had reached
    an apex of achievement in
  • art
  • social organization
  • commerce
  • technology
  • learning
  • government
  • religion

121
Conquest of Aztec and Inka
  • European invaders were attracted to their wealth
    and power

122
Conquest of Aztec and Inka
  • an uprising against European invaders was quelled
    due to the help of thousands of the Aztec's
    former subjects
  • by 1521, Aztec fell to the Spanish conquistadors
  • Spanish had control of Peru (Inka) by 1538

123
End of Class Slides Set 34 New World Civilizations
Olmec Figurine
About PowerShow.com