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Title: Dealing with Behavior on the Bus


1
Dealing with Behavior on the Bus
  • Laura A. Riffel, Ph.D.

New York City
2
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5
Sometimes- We provide the "frogs"
6
What Gives Bob? Ive been collecting the data
and youve been in the shower for three days man.
Help ME! Help ME!
Bob is stuck in the vicious loop of shampoo
bottle directions Lather, Rinse , Repeat.
Lather, Rinse, Repeat.
7
What is Positive Behavioral Support?
  • A new way of thinking about behavior
  • Broadens intervention from only one approach -
    reducing challenging behavior to..
  • Encompasses multiple approaches changing
    systems, altering environments, teaching skills,
    and appreciating positive behavior

Page 4
8
Overview
  • Adults in the school setting need to work
    together
  • Includes transportation personnel, educational
    staff, and administrators
  • Students should be taught
  • To be safe while riding the bus
  • Appropriate bus behavior
  • Positive interactions have tremendous power
  • When misbehavior occurs intervene
  • Calmly
  • Consistently
  • Immediately

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Shel Silverstein
  • One picture puzzle piece lyin' on the sidewalk,
    one picture puzzle piece soakin' in the rain.
  • It might be a button of blue on the coat of the
    woman who lived in a shoe.
  • It might be a magical bean, or a fold in the red
    velvet robe of a queen.
  • It might be the one little bite of the apple her
    stepmother gave to snow white.
  • It might be the veil of a bride or a bottle with
    some evil genie inside.
  • It might be a small tuft of hair on the big
    bouncy belly of bobo the bear.
  • It might be a bit of the cloak of the witch of
    the west as she melted to smoke.
  • It might be a shadowy trace of a tear that runs
    down an angel's face.
  • Nothing has more possibilities than one old wet
    picture puzzle piece.

11
Wish you had one of these ?
12
Other Myths.
  • Dont Smile Until Christmas
  • Let em know whos boss
  • Kids should just know how to be good
  • What them kids need is a good paddling...

13
What them kids need.(sic)
23 states still have no ban on corporal
punishment
US Dept of Education Office of Civil Rights
14
State Rank vs. Corporal Punishment
15
Corporal Punishment
  • Corporal Punishment Data gathered from
  • Office of Civil Rights
  • National Education Association

16
Morgan Quitnos Education State Rankings21
points of consideration for smartest state
  • Public Elementary and Secondary School Revenue
    per 1,000 Personal Income (Table 56)
  • Percent of Public Elementary and Secondary School
    Current Expenditures used for Instruction (Table
    134)
  • Percent of Population Graduated from High School
    (Table 171)
  • Averaged Freshman Graduation Rate for Public High
    Schools (Table 174)
  • Percent of Public School Fourth Graders
    Proficient or Better in Reading (Table 203)
  • Percent of Public School Eighth Graders
    Proficient or Better in Reading (Table 211)
  • Percent of Public School Fourth Graders
    Proficient or Better in Writing (Table 219)
  • Percent of Public School Eighth Graders
    Proficient or Better in Writing (Table 227)
  • Percent of Public School Fourth Graders
    Proficient or Better in Mathematics (Table 235)
  • Percent of Public School Eighth Graders
    Proficient or Better in Mathematics (Table 243)
  • Average Teacher Salary as a Percent of Average
    Annual Pay of All Workers (Table 364)
  • Average Daily Attendance as a Percent of Fall
    Enrollment in Public Elementary and Secondary
    Schools (Table 398)
  • Percent of School-Age Population in Public
    Schools (Table 389)
  • High School Drop Out Rate (Table 191) -
  • Special Education Pupil-Teacher Ratio (Table 339)
    -
  • Percent of Public Elementary and Secondary School
    Staff Who are School District Administrators
    (Table 380) -
  • Average Class Size in Public Elementary Schools
    (Table 425) -
  • Average Class Size in Public Secondary Schools
    (Table 426) -
  • Median Pupil-Teacher Ratio in Public Primary
    Schools (Table 429) -

17
Hard Facts
Page 9
  • Behavior is learned and serves a specific
    purpose.
  • Behavior is related to the context in which it
    occurs.
  • For every year a behavior is in place it takes at
    least one month for that behavior to have a
    significant change.
  • Children comply with the rules 80 of the time.
    However they are complimented for their behavior
    less than..

2 of the time
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19
What is Needed to Address These Challenges?
20
A man walks up to an elevator with a lion
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Hes completely harmless unless something
startles him.
23
What Problems Do You Encounter?
K P T

24
What Problems Do You Encounter?
Kid Parent Teachers/staff
Out of seat Aggressive behavior Verbal outbursts Bullying Physical aggression Coming out late Not home Coming out late Giving candy/treats Not supervising line Vending machines
25
BEHAVIOR ON THE BUS
  • SURVEY OF 300 BUS DRIVERS
  • (Randall Sprick at the University of Oregon)
  • Problems in Order of Frequency
  • Moving/ out of seat 68
  • Noise/ rowdiness 64
  • Rude/ disrespectful 43
  • Fighting/ hitting 39

Page 9
26
Atlanta (Fulton County) Bus Survey Results
  • Fulton County Staff
  • Experience Driving
  • From Spring 2003 Spring 2005
  • Fulton County Bus Drivers were surveyed
  • RESULTS
  • Experience
  • 24 had been driving for 10 or more years
  • 19 had been driving for 6-10 years
  • 39 had been driving for 2-5 years
  • 18 had been driving 1 year or less

Page 10
27
Fulton County Bus Survey Results
  • Frequency of Behavior Problems
  • 39 of the drivers indicated behavior occurred 2
    times or less per week
  • 61 of the drivers indicated that behaviors
    occurred 3 times or more per week

28
Fulton County Bus Survey Results
  • Behavior Problems
  • 70 of the drivers indicated that out of seat
    behavior was their number one problem
  • 30 of the drivers drivers indicated loud talk
    was their number one behavior problem

29
Fulton County Bus Survey Results
  • Frequency of Problem Behaviors Office Discipline
    Referrals
  • 33 Out of Seat/ Head and arms out the window
  • 24 Loud talk, cursing, name calling, talking
    back, teasing
  • 14 Fighting, horse playing, pushing, biting
  • 10 Disrespectful
  • 10 Eating, chewing gum, throwing trash on the
    bus floor
  • 06 Spitting, throwing things out the window,
    single digit sign language
  • 02 Issues with parents, being late to the bus
    stop
  • lt1 Weapons
  • lt1 Smoking/ drinking at the bus stop
  • lt1 Undressing/ sexual misconduct

30
Behavior
  • May be the result of problems from home
  • Issues with peers at the bus stop
  • Demands or problems at school
  • Anxiety of the upcoming situation
  • Boredom during the bus ride

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32
Conceptual Principles of SW-PBS.
  • Behavior is learned and can be taught.

33
Possible Functions
Page 4
  • Positive Reinforcement
  • Social attention
  • Adults
  • Peers
  • Access to materials
  • Sensory Stimulation
  • Control ?????
  • Negative Reinforcement
  • Work
  • People
  • Sensory
  • Pain

To Get
To Get Out of
34
From Dr. Rob Horner- Summary of Swis Data
2003-2004
35
Behavior
Consequence
Antecedent/Setting Event
Bus driver/matron attention diverted
Terry eats candy
Gets attention from peers Access to materials
New Behavior (Replacement Behavior)
Consequence Modifications
Antecedent modifications Setting Event Changes
Ask Terry to help you choose people to give
gotchas to Terry passes out gotchas to others
Give Terry his candy bar when he gets off the bus.
Put backpack with candy bar in it at the front of
bus
36
BUS POLICIES/PROCEDURES
  • Transportation is part of the school day
  • Behavioral expectations for the bus are defined
    as they are for any other school setting
  • Goals are safety first
  • Direct relationship between good behavior and bus
    safety
  • Structure is essential
  • Load and unload in an orderly fashion
  • Avoid congestion
  • Active supervision when possible (visual
    scanning)
  • Greet and chat with students

Page 42
37
Question for you.
  • If a child has a problem with reading would you
  • spank
  • badger
  • ridicule
  • Use time-out
  • yell

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39
POLICIES/ PROCEDURES
  • Expected Behavior
  • Express in positive and observable terms
  • State in language easy for parents to explain to
    their children
  • Consequences for Inappropriate Behavior
  • Clear consequences for the rule violations
  • Hierarchy of responses to behavior
  • Consequences for Appropriate Behavior
  • Recognize good behavior
  • Procedures for acknowledging expected behavior

40
Brandon the Shoes
41
Choose 3-5 Behavioral Expectations for your bus
  • These need to be stated positively
  • Easy to remember
  • Have a symbol to remind them

42
Miss Mutner Liked to Go Over a Few of her rules...
  • No talking
  • No running
  • No sneezing
  • No betting
  • No looking out the window
  • No dorky hairstyles
  • No coughing
  • No laughing
  • No fighting
  • No swearing
  • No sleeping
  • No being a dork
  • No making fun of teacher
  • No flipping of fingers
  • No drugs
  • No weapons
  • No bringing animals to school
  • No looking at the clock
  • No looking out the window

43
If a child is pushing your buttons
  • You are delivering goods.

44
If you say
  • Quit
  • Stop
  • Dont
  • No

45
Rome, Italy (from Dr. Mark Shinn)
46
Brother Dear
47
3-5 BEHAVIORAL EXPECTATIONS
RESPECT
SELF OTHERS PROPERTY
48
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49
Reviewing Strive for Five
  • Be respectful.
  • Be safe.
  • Work peacefully.
  • Strive for excellence.
  • Follow directions.

McCormick Elem. MD 2003
50
Example Loading and Unloading When the bus is moving
Respect Self Stay where the bus driver can see you. Stay on the sidewalk until it is safe to load. Stay in your seat until the bus comes to a complete stop. Keep body parts inside the bus. Keep two cheeks on the seat. Keep feet out of aisle. Watch for your stop.
Respect Others Stand at arms length behind the person in front of you. Load the bus by holding on to the handrail so you dont trip on others. Talk softly so others may hear directions from bus driver. Keep all belongings tucked in the seat with you.
Respect Property Keep bus stop clear of litter. Keep your belongings near you when waiting for the bus to load or unload. Keep all belongings inside your backpack. Keep feet on floor. Keep hands in lap.
51
Special Education Loading and Unloading When the bus is moving
Be Helpful Stay in your seat Help each other to get on and off Make sure bus driver can see you Give book bag to aid Stay seated Talk in a low voice Keep hands to your self
Be Kind Talk in a low voice Be nice to others Keep hands and feet to self Be on time Talk in a low voice Keep bumper on seat Keep hands and feet to self
Be Safe Be visible Be on time Look both ways Watch the driver Keep your seat Use inside voice Raise hand for help Keep seat belt fastened Face forward
52
Elementary Education/Middle Loading and Unloading When the bus is moving
Be Respectful of Self Listen to the bus driver and follow directions Be safe Stay seated Keep body parts in bus Keep aisle clear
Respectful of Others Share space with others Be helpful to each other Be nice and kind to others Be on time Talk softly so others can hear directions Keep belongings to self
Respectful Property Clean your feet Keep hands and feet to yourself and off seats Keep trash off floor Keep belongings in backpack
Be Safe Keep distance in line Be visible Use handrail Follow directions Watch driver for hand signals Look both ways when crossing in front of bus Load from a single file line Stay seated Keep backpack closed Sit on bottom with back against seat Keep body parts inside bus Talk softly to friends in your seat
53
High School Loading and Unloading When the bus is moving
Manners Wait your turn Be willing to share your seat Load in an orderly manner Keep aisles clear Be courteous Use positive words and actions
Punctuality Be at your stop on time Exit bus safely and promptly Follow rules the first time Know when to be silent Watch for your stop Keeps hands to self Follow rules the first time
Helpful Wake up neighbor if they fell asleep Boys help girls up the steps Help with book bags Show respect Pick up trash on way out of bus Help substitute driver with proper directions Use inside voice Use appropriate language Help other students Keep aisles clear Help put windows up
Safety Keep aisle clear Go directly to assigned seat and stay seated Face forward Remain in seat until bus stops Keep all food and drink in book bag Keep all personal items in book bag Keep all body parts inside the bus
54
Time to Work
Page 15
55
RULES FOR THE BUS
  • Have a clear understanding of the rules
  • Essential for new drivers
  • Major rules should be the same from bus to bus
  • Clear up the various interpretations of the bus
    rules
  • Make sure students know the consequences
  • Use a hierarchy of consequences consistently
  • Examples might include
  • Change of seat
  • Last off the bus in the morning or last on the
    bus in the afternoon and discuss behavior with
    the student in private
  • Complete a behavior improvement plan

56
TEACHING THE RULES
  • State the rules positively
  • Limit the number of rules to less than 5
    (2 or 3 are recommended)
  • Do not assume that students know or understand
    the rules
  • Teach the rules at the beginning of school
  • Work with teachers and principals to ensure the
    rules are taught
  • Students should actively participate
  • (role play, demonstrate, explain the importance
    of the rule, etc.)

Page 42-55 Lesson plans by grade levels
57
Bus Line Up Procedure
Page 46
58
Keep your bumper in the seat
59
Use a 6 inch voice
60
Respect Relationships
  • Dr. Ann Corvin says these 3 things are essential
    to building a relationship
  • Eye contact
  • Touching
  • Talking
  • Bhaerman, R.D. Kopp, K.A. (1988) says
  • A student is less likely to drop out of school
    if one adult other than their teacher knows and
    uses their name.

61
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63
TEACH-MODEL-PRACTICE-REWARD
64
Discuss a Plan
  • Weve got a situation where kids are having
    behaviors on the bus that cause bus referrals.
  • We know this isnt a good way for anyone to start
    the day.
  • This year, I dont want this to be a problem for
    us.
  • Heres how we can work together..

65
Discuss a Plan
  • Heres what Id like to do
  • Bring a bus out to the school
  • Have the teachers bring the students out to the
    bus one group at a time
  • Teach, Model, Practice and Praise appropriate
    behavior while the students are practicing.
  • Discuss how students will be recognized at
    school.

66
Catching Children Being Good
  • Improves behavior by 80.

Shores, R.E., Gunter, P.L., Jack, S.L. (1993).
Classroom management strategies Are they setting
events for coercion? Behavioral Disorders, 18,
92-102.
67
I dont have time to do all this
Which fits your busy schedule better, exercising
one hour a day or being dead 24 hours a day?
68
Bus Interventions
  • Compliments

IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII
69
Bus Interventions
  • Links

70
Love Notes
71
High Fives
  • Eye contact
  • Touch
  • Talking
  • Name

72
Trade-in tokens
Pot Holder Loops
73
Group Activity
74
The mm Story
75
The bowl full of MM where the teacher said,
These are horrible. was empty. The bowl full
of MM where the teacher said, These are
wonderful. was full.
Wonderful
Horrible
76
Children model what we do... Not what we say.
77
Question for you?????
78
POSITIVE FEEDBACK
  • Positive feedback reinforces appropriate behavior
  • Too much negative feedback (correction,
    criticism, etc.) creates discord
  • Resentment
  • Anger
  • Feeling of failure
  • Correction is appropriate and should be balanced
    with positive feedback
  • Most effective when positive feedback is heavily
    weighted
  • Ratio from 3 positive comments to 1 negative
    comment (minimum)
  • Directives are considered neutral

79
Giving Positive Feedback
  • Focus on the students strengths
  • Avoid general praise
  • (such as great job)
  • Be specific
  • Use positive feedback to reinforce expected
    behavior
  • For example
  • Jason, I noticed that you talked quietly to
    Joe today. Thanks!

80
Positive Feedback Ratio
  • 4 1
  • Minimum ratio of positive feedback statements to
    negative statements or corrections
  • Directives are neutral

81
Gotcha Bracelet
Shiny clear nail polish
Dot of nail polish
82
Make Your Own
Goal Get to the red bead
Start bead
83
Paper clips
  • Put 30 paper clips in your left pocket or a cup
    on the bus.
  • Every time you compliment a child, move a paper
    clip into the other pocket or cup.
  • Every time you get after a child, move 4 paper
    clips back to where they started.

84
3x5 index card
Tears for positives
11 to 5
Tears for negatives
85
Give kids attention for
  • Being good..

86
TIME TO WORK
Pages 58-62 ways to reward students
87
How do we reward the people who participate?
  • We need participation from the school and the
    transportation department
  • The following slides are ways to reward adults

88
Transportation
  • Adult transportation winners
  • Special parking in front of the school
  • Valet parking
  • Coupon for one of the following
  • Free snack from vending machine
  • Goody bag with pens, pencils, sticky notes etc.
  • Get out of a meeting day

89
Special Parking Privileges
90
Rewards for all the staff
Just Batty about the way you handle working
with students!
91
Thanks for doing your part to help kids to Be
Good
92
Awards for Adults
  • Take the Golden Plunger Award in which a toilet
    plunger was spray painted gold and given
    ceremoniously to a staff member. The reason? To
    reward the risk-taking staff member for plunging
    into the assignment of giving out gotchas.

93
Juan Valdez Award
  • Have a special cup of coffee ready for the
    transportation employee who gave out the most
    gotchas the day before.

94
Heroes in Transportation Award
                         
Seattle Seahawks surprised teachers and gave out
awards for excellence in the classroom at an
assembly- do the same for the transportation
department-
95
Super Hero Awards
96
Beach Party
Beach Party for all the transportation personnel
families who participated
97
Day without.earns reward
98
A Tree Bends to its Surroundings
99
You will see what you focus on
See the baby?
Did you see it before?
100
Group Activity
101
Energy Flows Where Attention Goes
102
TIME TO WORK
Page 63 1-26 part of the page is missing for
some reason http//caughtyoubeinggood.googlepages.
com http//caughtyoubeinggood.googlepages.co
m/rewards
103
Be prepared for anything.
104
  • Andy
  • Barney
  • Or
  • Gomer?????

105
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106
POLICIES/ PROCEDURES
  • Managing crises and serious situations
  • Clearly identify the behaviors in this situation
  • Identify the recommended response
  • Review periodically so you can respond
    automatically
  • Know when you should call for assistance and get
    the legal authorities involved
  • Monitoring Record Keeping
  • Accurate
  • Note any behavior that is of concern
  • Document what happened just before the behavior
    and your response
  • Procedures for reporting
  • Parents
  • School personnel
  • Supervisor

107
What is discipline?
  • From same Latin root as disciple
  • discipere
  • to teach or comprehend

108
Misconceptions about Discipline
  • Discipline is the same as punishment
  • Consequences alone are effective
  • Results in frustration
  • Consequences are not enough for some students
  • Need various approaches

109
From the Students Point of View
  • Students day
  • more than the time spent at school
  • day begins when they get on the bus
  • day ends when they get off the bus

110
Preparing Students for the Ride
  • Leave time so loading/ unloading can occur
    without hurrying
  • Give positive feedback to students
  • Provide reminders about expected behavior
  • Review the rules periodically
  • Actively supervise the loading and unloading
  • Work with the staff on duty to insure adequate
    supervision
  • Work with teachers and administrators to solve
    problems collaboratively

111
RAPPORT
  • Building rapport with students is
  • one element that will increase a students
    willingness to follow rules and directives
  • Avoiding interaction with students can create
    management problems

112
COMMUNICATION
  • BUILD RAPPORT WITH BRIEF COMMUNICATION
  • Verbal and nonverbal interactions
  • Allows you to gather information
  • Lets the students know that you care
  • Initiating the interaction tells the student that
    you are in control

113
GREETINGS
  • Make eye contact
  • Greet student(s)
  • Ask an open ended question
  • Greet groups of students if it is too difficult
    to greet individuals
  • Responses both positive and negative give you
    information about the student

114
One- Sentence Intervention
Page 17-18
115
Best Information of the Day!!!
  • Would you like to know what to say when kids try
    to push your buttons?

116
The answer is Probably so
You caught me walking around and told me to have
my bumper meet the seat.
  • The statement from me is
  • Other bus drivers dont make them
  • Youre mean
  • Im telling my Dad
  • Im telling my Mom
  • Im telling my Grandma
  • I hate this
  • This is stupid
  • This sucks

117
Lets Practice Im your kid and you just told
me throwing airplanes out the window will get me
an office discipline referral
  • Thats stupid
  • Youre mean
  • Other kids just get to throw paper airplanes out
    of the bus because their bus drivers are nice
  • I hate you
  • This sucks
  • Im telling my Mom
  • You dont love me

118
That was a trick..
  • Would you like to hear how to handle them on that
    one?

119
Hold out your finger..
not that one
smile
TRY
NICE
120
Lets practice again. For fun heres a home
example I didnt eat my dinner and you told me
not to worry youd be fixing me a big breakfast.
  • This is mean
  • Other parents let their kids have what they want
    for dinner
  • Susies mom fixes two pots of chili one with
    beans and one without
  • I hate you
  • Im calling social services

121
Hold out your finger..
smile
NICE
TRY
They open at 900 a.m. is that before breakfast
or after breakfast?
122
Now that you have your expectations- How will you
get their attention?
  • I will be happy (key word) to take you (has to be
    somewhere they want to go) when you (do the chore
    I need done).
  • Example I will be happy to take you to recess
    when the room is respectfully quiet.

123
Time to Work
  • Think of some things you say all the time that
    are directives and figure out how to make them
    enforceable statements
  • Use page 19 to think and plan

124
Brain Drain
125
Consider the source.
126
Young Man
  • Was apprehended at school swallowing a baggie
    full of marijuana.
  • He was given a lecture about what drugs were
    doing to him and where he could end up.
  • Question, What will your mother think of this?

127
His answer.
  • My mother died a year ago.
  • I use drugs to help with the pain of losing her.
  • No one had bothered to help this child
  • No grief counseling
  • No peer pairing
  • No family meetings

128
Investigating a problem
  • Why should I investigate?
  • Student may need to tell you something
  • Helps you gather more information
  • May allow you to intervene effectively before a
    crisis erupts
  • When should I investigate?
  • When red flags are observed
  • When you see unusual behavior that needs
    explanations

129
Steps for Investigating a Problem
  • Identify the observed behavior
  • Describe what you saw
  • I noticed that (Observed Behavior).
  • Ask open ended questions
  • What is the problem or difficulty?
  • Who, what , when, where, how much, or how often
  • Be direct and brief
  • Not judgmental

130
  • Listen and observe
  • Attentive silence
  • Look for
  • Body language
  • Behavior
  • Feelings
  • Empathy statements
  • If needed, give a short response
  • Be careful
  • Not to over extend yourself or commit yourself
  • Consider
  • Reminding students of the rules and expected
    behavior
  • Directing students to other adults
  • Directing students to think about possible
    solutions and discuss with other adults/
    appropriate peers

131
When Intervening
  • Remember to
  • Treat all students politely
  • Be fair
  • Communicate (wordsnot emotions)
  • Use incentives
  • Use the students name
  • Give directives
  • Choices- only if real ones are available

132
Dealing with Groups
  • As a group
  • Individual students may give up their personal
    autonomy
  • Students may reflect the collective personality
    of the group
  • May be ineffective to rely on your relationship
    with an individual to try and direct or manage
    the group
  • May be more effective to talk with the group
    leader
  • If possible, isolate the student that is the
    source of the problem, before confronting them
  • (reduces peer pressure and will more likely
    resolve the problem)

133
SOLVING PERSISTENT PROBLEMS
  • Gather information
  • Establish a quick and timely response
  • Involve others early in the process
  • Im going to have to do something. Im not sure
    what just yet. Try not to worry about it. Ill
    let you know when I decide how Im going to
    respond.
  • Problem behaviors should not be the occasion to
    blame
  • Intervene early with low level problems
  • Types of problems
  • Noise, arguing, delay in getting to seat
  • Tips for managing problems
  • Increase positives, increase supervision/
    structure

134
Solving Chronic Problems
  • Work with others to develop a plan
  • Multi-dimensional plans
  • Conference planning form
  • Parent and student input
  • Examine procedures
  • Address other contributing factors if possible
    such as
  • Seating, peers, age groupings
  • Other contributing factors might be overcrowding,
    route too long, etc.
  • View students as needy or troubled
  • Use a problem solving strategy

135
If Problems Continue
  • Is the plan being implemented?
  • Is everyone consistent with the plan?
  • Increase positives as a first response
  • Try to determine the cause of the problem
  • Remember- students with problem behavior need
    more help, not more punishment

136
Token Economies
  • Catching kids being good will change behavior by
    80
  • This can be verbal or tangible- depending on the
    age and emotional level of the child. Tangibles
    need to be faded.

Page 39-40
137
Priceless
138
I shouldnt have to do anything. Kids know what
they are supposed to do, why should I have to
compliment them, give them rewards, or offer
incentives of any sort?
139
Hows that working for you?
140
The quickest way to change behavior.in anyone.
Research indicates that you can improve behavior
by 80 just by pointing out what someone is
doing correctly.
Point out what they are doing right..........
141
Thoughts on the use of Choices for children
  • Choices create situations in which children are
    forced to think.
  • Choices provide opportunities for children to
    make mistakes and learn from the consequences.
  • Choices help us avoid getting into control
    battles with youngsters.
  • Choices provide opportunities for children to
    hear that we trust their thinking abilities
  • Builds self-confidence
  • Build relationships between adults and children

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Examples
  • Would you rather listen without interrupting or
    choose another place to be right now?
  • Youre welcome to wear your coat or carry it with
    you.
  • Do you want to sit in the front row or the second
    row?
  • I see you want to argue I argue at 1200 or 445
    which would you prefer?
  • Which would be best for you? Would you like to
    talk in a six inch voice to your neighbor or
    move up front in the seat behind me?

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CAUTION
  • It is very easy to turn your choices into
    threats
  • Choose my way or the highway.
  • Knock that off or Im going to send you to the
    principals office.
  • Consider if your boss said
  • Would you rather do your report today or get
    fired? Okay- dont answer

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This is what can happen
Click here
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Rules for Giving Choices
  • Always be sure to select choices that you like.
    Never provide one you like and one you dont,
    because the child will usually select the one you
    dont like.
  • Never give a choice unless you are willing to
    allow the child to experience the consequence of
    that choice.
  • Never give choices when the child is in danger.
  • Never give choices unless you are willing to make
    the choice for the child in the event he/she does
    not choose.
  • Your delivery is important. Try to start your
    sentence with

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  • A. Youre welcome to ___________ or
    _________________.
  • B. Feel free to ______________ or
    ____________________.
  • C. Would you rather ______________ or
    ________________?
  • What would be best for you _______________ or
    ___________?

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This is not a choice
  • Do your Math lesson .
  • or lose your recess.

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Heres an example of choices
  • Personal example My car is leaving in 5
    minutes. You can go hungry or not hungry. Cant
    wait to see what you decide.
  • (5 minutes laterMy car is leaving. You can go
    with your feet touching the ground or not
    touching the ground. Cant wait to see what you
    decide.
  • Be ready to decide for them

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Rules for Choices
  • Be ready to make a decision for them in ten
    seconds
  • They will learn its better to make the choice
    quickly.
  • Be ready to stand your ground.
  • Use a firm, low tone voice and repeat
  • Say, I see you didnt make a choice so Ill
    choose for you.

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Bedtime
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Page 20
  • Planning page for using choices.

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5 ways to give problems back to kids so they
arent yours
  • 1. Show Empathy for the problem
  • 2. Lay the problem back on them
  • 3. Ask them if theyd like to hear how other
    kids would handle that problem.
  • 4. Give the worst case scenario firstbecause
    they will always say I cant do that.
  • Always ask How would that work out?
  • 5. Wish them luck and get away.

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Page 22
  • Planning page for giving problems back to
    children so they arent yours.

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Hierarchy of Responsive Options
Page 27-29
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Level One
  • Signal Control
  • Proximity
  • Ignoring
  • Conferencing
  • Be Quick
  • Be Quiet
  • Be Gone

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Be Columbo
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Level Two
  • Contracts
  • Differential Reinforcement
  • Ignoring target behavior
  • Giving praise for appropriate behavior

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Level Three
  • EXT
  • No longer reinforcing a previously reinforced
    response (using either positive or negative
    reinforcement) results in the weakening of the
    frequency of the response.
  • RC
  • Response Cost--if positive reinforcement
    strengthens a response by adding a positive
    stimulus, then response cost has to weaken a
    behavior by subtracting a positive stimulus.
    After the response the positive reinforcer is
    removed which weakens the frequency of the
    response.
  • OC
  • Operant conditioning forms an association between
    a behavior and a consequence. (It is also called
    response-stimulus or RS conditioning because it
    forms an association between the animal's
    response behavior and the stimulus that follows
    consequence)
  • TO
  • serve as a punishment by denying a student, for a
    fixed period of time, the opportunity to receive
    reinforcement

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Extinction
  • Extinction procedures work well with children who
    whine, complain, cling, throw tantrums, or call
    out. Often adults fail to recognize that they
    encourage these behaviors by giving children
    attention when they do them. The attention can be
    as simple as eye contact, sighing, or scolding
    the student.
  • Extinction is NOT effective when children want to
    be ignored. For instance, children who fail to
    follow your directions would like you to overlook
    their inappropriate behavior.

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Response Cost
  • Over-used in the classroom and at home.
  • Taking away a previously earned privilege or
    standing
  • Example Those red, yellow, green stop cards.
  • Research shows over time it does not work.
  • Eventually, the child has nothing to lose so they
    might as well misbehave.
  • Other Examples
  • Taking away Nintendo
  • Taking away something they had been told they
    could do

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Time out
  • Also, over used.
  • Needs to be dignified
  • Needs to be a place of not getting attention or
    being in a cool spot
  • Needs to not be isolation where the child is not
    safe
  • Try Australia

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Visit with or discussion with
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Super Nanny
One minute for every year old
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Level Four
x
  • Aversives
  • When learning about positive behavioral support
    and challenging behavior the word "aversive"
    (from the Latin meaning to "turn away") will
    probably turn up. Aversives might be understood
    as quick application of discomfort or pain in
    response to challenging behavior. Sharp
    criticisms, slaps, offensive sounds or sprays,
    social humiliation, removal or desired object,
    shock, and isolation are aversive applications.
    In practice, aversives often fail to work. When
    they do work, their effectiveness diminishes.
    Besides making the person avoid the punisher,
    potential harm, and other negative side effects,
    aversive actions do not teach desirable behavior.
    From www.pbis.org

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In your group, think of one example of each that
you have used or could use
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Specific Disabilities What to Expect
  • ADHD
  • Autism
  • Asperger
  • Communication Impairment
  • Developmental Delay
  • Emotional Impairment
  • Health Impairment
  • Intellectual Impairment
  • Neurological Impairment
  • Physical Impairment
  • Sensory Impairment
  • Specific Learning Disabilities

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Students with ADHD
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  • Sit N Fit Disk and Ikea Seat Cushions

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Two different seats on bus
Permission to move with parameters- When the bus
stops for a drop off or pick-up, this child has
permission to move.
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Giving them a job to do.
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5 Way too loud!
AHHH!!
7
4 Loud
I said
6
3 Talking
Today at school
3-6
2 Whispering
Today, I was walking down the hall and I saw..
1-3
1 No Talking
0
zzzzzzz
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Teacher chair earned f class time with tokens
earned from bus time.
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1-2500
1-1000
1-166
  • Autism
  • Asperger Syndrome

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Autism
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Good Books
The curious incident of the dog in the night-time
By mark haddon Insight into the mind of a young
man with asperger syndrome Written from the view
of a 15 year old.
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Good Books
  • Born on a Blue Day
  • by Daniel Tammet
  • Inside the Extraordinary Mind of an Autistic
    Savant

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Look me in the eye
John Elder Robison- brother of Augusten Burroughs
(Running with scissors)
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Asperger Syndrome
  • Flexibility of Thoughts
  • Difficulty with
  • Coping with changes in routine
  • Empathy
  • generalizing
  • Social Emotional
  • Difficulties with
  • Friendships
  • Managing unstructured time
  • Working cooperatively
  • Language and Communication
  • Difficulty understanding
  • Jokes sarcasm
  • Social use of language
  • Literal interpretation
  • Body language, facial expression gesture

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Sowe now have a good idea what it iswhat do we
do about it?
IDEA 2004
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Best Practices
  • Use relationship narratives for transitional
    times, try to keep transitions minimal.
  • Provide a predictable and consistent activity
    schedule.
  • Provide a quiet area and frequent relaxation
    time.
  • Use visual pictorial prompts.
  • Encourage choice making.
  • Provide immediate and consistent feedback.
  • Be patient and allow extended response time.
  • Provide alternate modes of communication
    (pictorial boards).
  • Avoid over stimulating activities.
  • Utilize technology and appropriate software.
  • Provide instruction in small sequential steps.
  • Maintain communication between school and home
    for consistent expectations.

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What you need to know
  • They may
  • Be wearing a depends
  • Make sure the parents school took them to the
    restroom right before they got on the bus
  • If they defecate or urinate, it is not their
    fault.
  • Need sensory integration strategies
  • Ask the school to talk to the Occupational
    Therapist
  • Being able to rock in a rocker for 15 minutes
    before the bus ride may make the bus ride
    fabulous for you
  • They may need a stim to make it through the bus
    ride.

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If having this meant the child was quietwouldnt
you want one?
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Over stimulation
  • Provide noise reduction headphones
  • Dollar Stores have headphones that work
  • Koosh Ball
  • Allows student to de-stress
  • School occupational therapist
  • What activities will help regulate childs
    sensory processing?

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PowerPoints
  • Using PowerPoint
  • Create a Relationship Narrative with
  • Pictures of the child
  • Sound effects
  • Graphics

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Mickey McFadden Rides the Bus
Example of a PowerPoint Relationship Narrative to
Introduce to Student
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This will be my new school.
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I will ride a bus to school.
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I will ride the lift up into the bus. My Mom
will kiss me goodbye.
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This is Mr. Bob. He will drive my bus. This is
his truck.
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Mr. Bob will drive me to school.
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I will enter the school through these doors.
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Billy will push me in the building. Hes my
friend.
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I will look for the frog flag and turn down the
hallway.
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I will go to my classroom.
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Inside my classroom, I will hang up my coat and
backpack.
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I will find my seat.
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I will keep my supplies in a bin with my name on
it.
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My class will have center time.
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My class will go to the playground.
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There is a special playground area for me and my
friends.
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My class will go to the library.
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My class will go to the cafeteria for breakfast
and lunch.
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We will have calendar time.
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I will help with the calendar.
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We will write board stories.
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We will do math.
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We will learn new words and put them on the word
wall.
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My friends from McKinley Street Preschool will be
coming to Bethel Elementary.
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Here are some of the people I will see at Bethel
Elementary.
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Dr. Drew Barrymore is one of the assistant
principals.
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This is Mr. Fiddle. He helps us keep things
clean and tidy.
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This is Ms. Shay. She will be our counselor.
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Ms. Stithem is the principal.
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This is the Mrs. Humes. She sits at the front
window.
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These are the Second Grade teachers.
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This is Ms. Warford.
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This is Ms. Pennington.
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This is Ms. Aiken.
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Mr. Bob will drive me home.
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My mom will be waiting to give me a kiss.
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It will be fun to be a Bethel Elementary Bear.
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Communication Impairment
Give time to process verbal prompts Seat child
directly behind the bus driver so the driver can
hear the device and observe for bullying.
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Developmental Delay
  • Speak clearly
  • Give one verbal prompt at a time
  • Dont chain prompts
  • Count back 3 seats
  • Look for your picture
  • Sit next to window

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Emotional Behavior Disorders
Oppositional Defiant Disorder Emotional Behavior
Disorder Conduct Disorder Severe Emotional
Behavior Disorders
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Heart Rate
  • Normal resting heart rate is 60 beats per
    minute.
  • Research shows increase in heart beat up to 45
    seconds before the aggressive act
  • Gary Lambs music is 60 beats per minute- link in
    back of book

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Choices
  • Instead of saying Sit Down say
  • Which would be best for you? Sitting in the LEFT
    or the RIGHT side ?
  • Open ended questions force the student to stay in
    frontal cortex instead of going on a quick trip
    to brain stem.
  • What if they still refuse?
  • Keep repeating the choice- never engage in power
    struggle- you will lose.

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Handle all problems with empathy first
  • Empathy- Man I can understand how you felt like
    punching that kid.
  • Give Problem Back- So you know the procedure for
    fighting is?
  • So well be happy to see you back on the bus in 2
    days.
  • Be sure and stop by the bus the day before and
    let me know youre back.
  • I look forward to seeing you then.

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Use the one sentence intervention even if its
not low self-esteem
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5 Way too loud!
AHHH!!
7
4 Loud
I said
6
3 Talking
Today at school
3-6
2 Whispering
Today, I was walking down the hall and I saw..
1-3
1 No Talking
0
zzzzzzz
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Check the barometer at the door
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Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Social Autopsy
Lavoie (1994)
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Other Health Impaired
Work with the school to find out what you need to
know.this child is going to be on your bus and
therefore you are responsible for their safety.
This is Need to Know information
Asthma Diabetes Epilepsy Heart conditions Hemophil
ia HIV Lead Poisoning Leukemia Nephritis Rheumatic
Fever Severe Allergies Sickle Cell anemia
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Students with Intellectual Impairments
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What you need to know
  • May not understand simple directions
  • May need more time to process
  • PowerPoint relationship narrative
  • Picture cues
  • Talk softly

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They love to pleasetoken economy gotchas work
really well.
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Traumatic Brain InjuryNeurological Impairment
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Lightning..
  • Its like their hard drive gets erased every day
  • They have to go to their back-up files and reload
    everything
  • No short term memory and loss of some long term
    memory
  • May not remember where they sat on the bus
    yesterday.
  • Use
  • Visual schedule that they check off (if possible)

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http//www.ablelinktech.com/_handhelds/visualassis
tant.asp
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Physical Impairments
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Things to discuss with school personnel
  • The school may not know the child is on the bus
    for 1.5 hours after school
  • The last time the child got out of their
    wheelchair was an hour before school dismissed.
  • Children in wheelchairs need to stretch at least
    once per hour.
  • Now they have gone 2.5 hours without a stretch.
  • And we wonder why they are screaming all the way
    home.

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WRAP UP
  • How will you post your 3-5 behavioral
    expectations?
  • Poster
  • Coloring book
  • Notes home
  • How will you teach your 3-5 behavioral
    expectations?
  • Video
  • Songs
  • Taking bus to school and role playing
  • How will you do your gotchas?
  • Principal and teacher buy in?

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Sources of information
  • Alderman, Terry, c. 1997. Discipline on the
    Bus A Driving Concern, Resources for
    Professionals. (video and workbook)
  • McAllister, Bob, c.1995. Strategies Dealing
    with Young Riders, Strategies Training Systems.
  • (videos and training manual)
  • Sprick, Randall Colvin, Geoff. c. 1992. Bus
    Discipline A Positive Approach, Teaching
    Strategies, Inc. (videos and training manual
    also sold by Sopris West Educational Services)

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Websites
  • www.pbis.org
  • www.behaviordoctor.org
  • www.loveandlogic.com

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E-mail
  • Laura Riffel
  • caughtyoubeinggood_at_gmail.com
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