CHAPTER EIGHT - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – CHAPTER EIGHT PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 1be0f4-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

CHAPTER EIGHT

Description:

CHAPTER EIGHT – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:113
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 90
Provided by: web1
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: CHAPTER EIGHT


1
CHAPTER EIGHT
  • South Asia

2
South Asia
3
I. THE GEOGRAPHIC SETTING
  • Easy region to define
  • Indian Ocean to east, south, and west
  • Himalaya Mountains to the north
  • 1/5 the land area of Africa
  • 2x the population of Africa
  • Unified through village culture common
    experience with British colonialism

4
A. Physical Patterns
  • Landforms
  • 60 million years ago Indian-Australian Plate
    collides with Eurasian Plate
  • Himalayas formed from crumpling of both plates
  • Lots of earthquakes
  • South of Himalayas are Indus and Ganga river
    basins
  • South of river basins is the Deccan Plateau,
    flanked by Eastern and Western Ghats

5
A. Physical Patterns
  • Climate
  • Monsoons summertime winds bringing rain from the
    Indian Ocean
  • Amplified by ITCZ, orographic effect
  • Dry season caused by winds blowing out from
    Central Asia
  • Indus, Ganga, and Brahmaputra Rivers
  • Flow from meltwater in the Himalayas
  • Eroding the Himalayas and depositing silt
    throughout lowland areas

6
Monsoons
7
Climate Zones
8
B. Human Patterns Over Time
  • The Indus Valley Civilization
  • First settled agricultural communities in region
  • Indus River valley and Saraswati River
  • Traded with Mesopotamia and eastern Africa
  • Technologically advanced
  • Agricultural system save monsoon surplus for dry
    season
  • Culture and biological traits survive among
    Dravidians of South India

9
B. Human Patterns Over Time
  • A Series of Invasions
  • Aryans invaders from Central and SW Asia 3500
    years ago
  • Instituted caste system, developed Hinduism
  • Other influences Persians, Macedonians, Arab
    traders
  • Mughals Turkic Persians from Central Asia
  • Controlled northern and central South Asia
  • Introduced Islam
  • Replaced by British rule

10
Great Fortress at Agra
11
B. Human Patterns Over Time
  • The Legacies of Colonial Rule
  • British colonized South Asia from 1830s to 1947
  • Afghanistan never directly ruled
  • Nepal nominally independent
  • Bhutan protectorate of British India
  • Destruction of South Asian manufacturing
  • Land taxes led to consolidation under major
    landowners

12
British Indian Empire, 1860-1920
13
B. Human Patterns Over Time
  • Economic Influence
  • Cotton, jute, tea, sugar, and indigo exported to
    supply Britain and its colonies
  • Focus on agriculture led to increased family size
  • Trading cities boomed, growth of railroads
  • Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai
  • Many British institutions remain in place
  • Bureaucratic, but generally successful
  • Democracy in India

14
B. Human Patterns Over Time
  • Independence and Partition
  • Gandhi brought civil disobedience to undermine
    British authority
  • 1947 independence, partition of British India
    into India (Hindu) and Pakistan (Muslim)?
  • Done to appease Muslim leaders
  • Two parts to Pakistan, split by India
  • Result of divide-and-rule tactics used by British

15
Independence and Partition
16
B. Human Patterns Over Time
  • Since Independence
  • India worlds most populous democracy
  • Dismantling oppressive caste and gender barriers
  • Growth of industry and services
  • Still, poorest region after sub-Saharan Africa
  • Conflict
  • East Pakistan (Bangladesh) vs. West Pakistan
  • Civil wars in Sri Lanka, Afghanistan
  • Nuclear showdown between India and Pakistan

17
C. Population Patterns
  • One of most densely populated regions in the
    world
  • Only 30 urban
  • Several of worlds largest cities (Mumbai,
    Kolkata, Delhi, Dhaka)?
  • Urban migration enhanced by
  • Business opportunities
  • Fewer caste restrictions
  • Agricultural modernization

18
Population Distribution
19
C. Population Patterns
  • India expected to become most populous country in
    the world in 2020
  • 1 billion per year on population control
  • 1/3 of South Asias people are under age 15
  • Demographic momentum
  • High birth rate related to
  • Need for children to support parents in old age
  • Lack of gender equity
  • Preference for male children

20
Declining Fertility Rates
21
Population Pyramids
22
II.CURRENT GEOGRAPHIC ISSUES
  • Despite few countries, tremendous diversity
  • Can be overwhelming to outsiders seeking to
    understand
  • Many cultural characteristics touch all lives
  • Vary in practice throughout the region

23
A. Sociocultural Issues
  • Village Life
  • Public spaces often dominated by men
  • Purdah seclusion of women from non-family male
    gazes
  • Linked to status
  • 70 of South Asians live in villages
  • Traditional trips by urbanites back to ancestral
    villages

24
Material Culture of Purdah
25
A. Sociocultural Issues
  • Urban Life
  • Portrayed as chaotic, crowded, dilapidated
  • Beyond main streets, compact neighborhoods
    functioning as villages
  • Multicultural, educated populations

26
Village Within Mumbai
27
A. Sociocultural Issues
  • Language and Ethnicity
  • Everyone is a minority in South Asia
  • 18 official languages in India, hundreds of
    others
  • Invasions, migrations result in complex map of
    ethnicity
  • Austro-Asiatic languages from oldest settlers
  • Dravidian languages southern India, Indus River
    valley
  • Indo-European languages date from Aryan invasion
  • Urdu, Hindi major language, different scripts

28
Languages
29
A. Sociocultural Issues
  • Hinduism
  • 800 million of the worlds 900 million Hindus
    live in India
  • Complex set of beliefs, often contradictory local
    traditions
  • All gods are illusory manifestations of the
    ultimate divinity
  • Caste rooted in religion, dietary rules
  • Reincarnation everything that wishes will be
    reborn after death

30
A. Sociocultural Issues
  • Geographic Patterns in Religious Beliefs
  • Hindus most numerous, mostly in India
  • Ganga plain is hearth
  • Buddhism began in South Asia as a reform movement
  • 1 of South Asia is today Buddhist (Sri Lanka,
    Bhutan)?
  • Most Buddhists found east of the region now
  • Muslim majority in Afghanistan, Pakistan,
    Bangladesh, Maldives
  • Muslim minority in India (120 million people)?

31
A. Sociocultural Issues
  • Geographic Patterns in Religious Beliefs
  • Sikhism Draws from Hinduism and Islam
  • Found mostly in Punjab and in diaspora outside
    India
  • Jainism Another reform movement of Hinduism
  • Found in western India and urban areas
  • Parsi Modern form of Zoroastrianism
  • Found in western Indian cities
  • Also, Christian and Jewish populations

32
Religions
33
A. Sociocultural Issues
  • The Hindu-Muslim Relationship
  • Often closely linked within communities
  • However, Islam often linked to low-status castes
    within Hinduism
  • Run slaughterhouses, which is offensive to
    Hinduism
  • Some Hindus convert to try to escape caste system
  • Communal conflict name for inter-religious
    conflict

34
A. Sociocultural Issues
  • Caste Hindu system of dividing society into
    hereditary hierarchical categories
  • Incorporated to a degree by other religious
    groups in South Asia
  • 4 main varna (divisions)?
  • Brahmins priestly caste
  • Kshatriyas warriors and rulers
  • Vaishyas landowning farmers and merchants
  • Sudras laborers and artisans
  • 2 other groups Harijans (too low for a caste)
    and Adivasis (descendents of aboriginal Indians)?

35
A. Sociocultural Issues
  • Jatis subcastes associated with specific
    occupations (less true in todays economy)?
  • Still, common culture and spatiality to a jati
  • Hierarchy of jatis often a source of conflict
  • Caste and class no longer strictly connected
  • Effort to end discrimination
  • Successful in urban areas, less so in rural
  • Only 5 of marriages cross jati lines

36
Protest Against Quotas for Lower-Status Castes
37
A. Sociocultural Issues
  • Geographic Patterns in the Status of Women
  • Gender inequity worst in belt from Afghanistan to
    Bangladesh
  • Gender equity best in eastern, central, southern
    India and Sri Lanka
  • Upper caste women more restricted
  • Urban women less restricted
  • Muslim women have lower standard of living than
    other women
  • Oppression in Afghanistan under Taliban

38
A. Sociocultural Issues
  • Purdah seclusion of women during reproductive
    years
  • Strongest in northwest and Indo-Gangetic Plain
  • Veiling of women even in Hindu communities
  • Arranged marriage brides family pays dowry to
    grooms family
  • Bride becomes labor for mother-in-law
  • Childbirth path to autonomy

39
A. Sociocultural Issues
  • Bride Burning and Female Infanticide
  • History of killing wives in accidents to enable
    male remarriage, new dowry
  • 7026 murders in 2005
  • Because of future dowry, many newborn girls
    killed
  • Until recently, grooms family would pay bride
    price to marry
  • Dowry technically illegal
  • Still, prestige and money skewed toward males

40
A. Sociocultural Issues
  • End of purdah, other oppressions might lower
    birth rate and encourage economic growth
  • End of Taliban rule has led to some progress in
    Afghanistan
  • Womens bazaar in Mazar-e-Sharif
  • Poor representation by women in Indian
    legislature (9)?
  • Quotas in place for Pakistan, Nepal, and
    Bangladesh legislatures

41
Female Literacy in India, 2005
42
B. Economic and Political Issues
  • Economic Issues
  • Startling economic contrasts
  • India 100s of millions of poor as well as a
    high-tech sector and space program
  • Most wealth disparity results from
    post-independence governance
  • Agriculture basis for most regional economies
  • Growth of industry and services
  • IT in India

43
B. Economic and Political Issues
  • Agriculture and the Green Revolution
  • 60 of regions labor, but only 25 of GDP
  • Dramatic increases in productivity, still least
    efficient sector of the economy
  • Double-cropping common (dry season/wet season)?
  • Green Revolution new agricultural tools and
    techniques (beginning in late 1960s)?
  • New seeds, fertilizers, etc.
  • New dams created water for irrigation, as well as
    hydroelectric power for industry

44
Agriculture in South Asia
45
B. Economic and Political Issues
  • Agriculture and the Green Revolution
  • India still not self-sufficient in food
  • Climate change, declining soil fertility
  • Led to consolidation of land holdings, many poor
    farmers forced into wage labor
  • Increased food productivity leads to more
    exports, not more food in South Asia
  • Agroecology traditional methods of fertilizing
    crops and using natural predators to control pests

46
B. Economic and Political Issues
  • Industry over Agriculture A Vision of
    Self-Sufficiency
  • Early nationalization of industry had poor
    results
  • Inefficient, ignored market incentives
  • Focused on big-ticket items most South Asians
    could not afford
  • Only impacted a small percentage of industrial
    workers (still only 12 of Indian labor)?

47
B. Economic and Political Issues
  • Economic Reform Achieving Global Competitiveness
  • 1990s India institutes market reforms
  • Not result of SAPs, but similar disparity
  • Indian growth not predicated on cheap labor, but
    on skilled labor
  • Pakistan and Bangladesh also growing, but less
    industrial
  • Services over 50 of regional GDP
  • Trade, transport, storage, communication

48
Per Capita Income and Industrial/IT Centers
49
B. Economic and Political Issues
  • Differing Views of Globalization
  • Rise of service sector and IT foretells
    increasing globalization of South Asia
  • Pros New high-paying jobs, higher standards of
    living, increasing demand for local goods and
    services
  • Cons Increasing economic degradation, cultural
    contamination, disruption of traditional economies

50
Training for the Service Economy
51
B. Economic and Political Issues
  • Economic Development and Poverty Rates
  • Poverty still declining in South Asia as a
  • Not in overall numbers because of population
    growth
  • Innovative Help for the Poor
  • Microcredit small loans to help poor
    entrepreneurs (Grameen Bank)?
  • Collective collateral
  • 98 repayment rate

52
Microcredit in Action
53
B. Economic and Political Issues
  • Political Issues
  • India beacon of democracy to the developing
    world
  • However
  • Growth of corruption, demagoguery, violence
  • Increased tension between castes
  • Heightened religious nationalism

54
B. Economic and Political Issues
  • Caste and Democracy in India
  • Locally, political parties appeal to jati
    loyalties
  • Infrastructure for community
  • Nationally, major parties deny caste loyalties
  • Increasingly overt appeals
  • Indian government works to undercut caste
    discrimination

55
B. Economic and Political Issues
  • Religious Nationalism
  • Linkage of a religion to a particular territory
  • Both India and Pakistan officially secular
  • But created for particular religious groups
  • Hindu nationalism supported by middle and
    upper-caste urban men afraid of the loss of caste
    privilege

56
Religious Nationalism
57
B. Economic and Political Issues
  • Conflict in Punjab
  • Punjab home Sikhs, divided between Pakistan and
    India during Partition
  • Sikhs feel alienated from national government of
    India
  • 1980s independence movement radicalized the Sikh
    population
  • 30,000 deaths since 1980s

58
B. Economic and Political Issues
  • Conflict in Kashmir
  • Muslim-dominated part of India
  • Waiting on UN decision on border, divided between
    India, Pakistan, China
  • 500,000 Indian troops in area
  • Since 1947 60,000-100,000 deaths
  • Role of mujahedeen Islamists inflaming conflict
  • Many Kashmiris support independence
  • India and Pakistan nuclear powers

59
Regional Conflicts in South Asia
60
B. Economic and Political Issues
  • War and Reconstruction in Afghanistan
  • Urban elites allied with Soviets to prevent
    export of Islamism to Central Asia
  • Mujahedeen allied w/USA, Pakistan against USSR
  • After USSR left, mujahedeen splintered and
    Taliban came to power
  • Taliban conservative rural Islamists
  • Following 9/11/01 USA intervenes against Taliban
  • Difficulty ensuring security, meeting human needs

61
Reconstruction in Afghanistan
62
B. Economic and Political Issues
  • The Future of Democracy
  • Status of democracy varies
  • Indian democracy new focus on reducing
    corruption and providing opportunities for women
  • Sri Lanka solid democracy but civil war between
    Sinhalese and Tamils
  • Pakistan quasi-democratic, but functioning as a
    dictatorship
  • Bangladesh recent democracy, with corruption
  • Bhutan constitutional monarchy
  • Nepal just concluded civil war

63
C. Environmental Issues
  • Deforestation
  • Clearing of western forests 3000 years ago
    contributed to desertification
  • Forests still being cleared for commercial
    logging and village needs
  • Leads to erosion, landslides
  • Social forestry (Chipko) movement encouraging
    local control of tree resources
  • Substantial environmental movement in the region

64
Human Impact on South Asia
65
C. Environmental Issues
  • 20 of world pop. but 4 of fresh water
  • Conflict over Ganga River water
  • India controls flow of river has diverted to its
    purposes in past
  • Bangladesh deprived of water coastline
    modification
  • Water purity in decline
  • Disposal of bodies in Ganga
  • Industrial waste and sewage

66
Pollution of the Ganga
67
C. Environmental Issues
  • Industrial Pollution
  • Vehicles and coal-burning power plants
  • Delhis air equivalent to 20 cigarettes a day
  • Acid rain destroys good farmland
  • Pesticide plant explosion in Bhopal (1984)?
  • U.S.-owned Union Carbide
  • Killed 3000 people, hurt 30,000 more

68
D. Measures of Human Well-Being
  • Low GDP per capita
  • Almost as low as sub-Saharan Africa
  • Thriftiness leads to higher standard of living
    than statistics indicate
  • Medium HDI rankings
  • Instability in Afghanistan
  • Low GDI rankings
  • Lack of health care, education, and earning power
    for women

69
Human Well-being Rankings
70
III. Subregions of South Asia
71
A. Afghanistan and Pakistan
  • Mountainous, arid countries
  • Influenced by invaders
  • Muslim and rural
  • Home to conservative Islamist movements
  • Afghanistan poorer than Pakistan
  • 30 years of conflict

72
Pamir Mountains
73
A. Afghanistan and Pakistan
  • Afghanistan
  • Wheat, fruit, nuts, and opium production in
    semi-arid areas
  • 30 million people, 45 younger than age 15
  • Life expectancy 42 years (down from 47 in 2003)?
  • Population growing by 2.6 per year
  • Low literacy rates
  • Ethnic groups Turkmen, Uzbek, Tajik, Hazara,
    Pashtun, Baluch
  • Kabul 3 million people, degraded infrastructure

74
Language and Ethnicity in Afghanistan
75
A. Afghanistan and Pakistan
  • Pakistan
  • 5x population of Afghanistan
  • Indus River critical to agriculture
  • GDP growth rate of 6 per year
  • 2/3 of population lives on under 2 per day
  • Substantial military commitment

76
Cottage Industries in Pakistan
77
B. Himalayan Country
  • Descend in altitude from north to south
  • Very rural
  • Muslim in west, Hindu and Buddhist in center and
    east
  • Economies based on trade
  • Quite poor
  • Tourism adding to limited agriculture

78
Arunachal Pradesh
79
C. Northwestern India
  • Dry, yet fertile and wealthy
  • Irrigated from Ganga
  • Rajastan arid, poor
  • Punjab provides 2/3 of Indias food reserves
  • Corn, potatoes, sugarcane, peas, beans, onions,
    mustard
  • Delhi region industrial, home of capital
  • 15 million people, 4th most polluted city in the
    world

80
Camel Grazing
81
D. Northeastern South Asia
  • Wet tropical climate, fertile land
  • Dense populations
  • Ganga-Brahmaputra delta largest on earth
  • Shifting and eroding landscapes
  • West Bengal population swelling with refugees
  • 75 agricultural labor force, only 35 of GDP
  • Kolkata first British capital, now full of
    poverty

82
D. Northeastern South Asia
  • Assam Large indigenous populations
  • Assamese, Tibeto-Burmese
  • Agriculture, tea production, forestry, oil
  • Bangladesh One of regions poorest countries
    most densely populated in world
  • 144 million people in space of Alabama
  • Dropping poverty rates, increasing literacy
  • Growth of textiles industry

83
Living Root Bridge, NE India
84
E. Central India
  • Gujarat and Maharashtra strong service and
    industrial sectors
  • Mumbai 20 million people, Indias most
    prosperous city
  • Stock exchange, central bank
  • 40 of Indias trade revenue
  • Bollywood Center of Hindi cinema production

85
Two Sides of Mumbai
86
F. Southern South Asia
  • More educated than rest of India
  • Advanced technology sector
  • Bangalore, Chennai
  • Election of communists, religious pluralism
  • Kerala
  • Environmentalism
  • Gender equality
  • Dravidian culture and languages

87
Microsoft Technology Center in Bangalore
88
F. Southern South Asia
  • Sri Lanka island off SE coast
  • Rice, nuts, spices, tea, coconuts
  • Rainfall Lush forests, hydroelectric power
  • Ethnic groups 74 Singhalese (Buddhism) and 18
    Tamils (Hindu)?
  • Civil war results from conflict between
    ethnicities (government dominated by Singhalese)?
  • 1 million refugees, economic decline

89
Colombo, Sri Lanka
About PowerShow.com